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* benefit of men, because opinion has divided them, are also divided by the law into two kinds; one for the acquisition of good, named a peace offering; the ' other for an exemption from evil, called an offering ' for sin.' This language implies that they presented their sacrifices to God, as symbolical praises, thankgivings, and supplications.

II. Similar sentiments are expressed by Abarbinel:* The design of the peace offerings will be evident, as 'soon as you know that they were either eucharistic, or votive and voluntary. These two kinds may be thus described. Our ancestors sometimes sacrificed peace offerings in order to signify their thankful acknowledgments to God for his supreme clemency • and benevolence towards them, and for all his 'benefits, whether displayed in their inheritance and

possession of the land, or in other wonderful achieve. ments; and these which the law calls “sacrifices of

thanksgiving," belonged to the first kind. The 'other kind, which included the votive and voluntary, ' was intended as a species of supplications, in which they besought God, that he would be merciful to them for the time to come, that he would bless their crops and prosper all their affairs, and that he would supply them with all the necessaries of life. Hence it appears, that oblations of the one kind 'were a sort of thanksgivings for favours previously received; and those of the other, supplications for benefits • desired.' To the same purpose he says in another place :f ' After the eucharistic sacrifice the scripture 'speaks of votive and voluntary sacrifices, which were • always offered to God, as vows and prayers, in ' order to obtain prosperity.' These things relate to

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* In Præf. ad Levit.

* Ad Levit. ijs.

the peace offerings : but let us hear what account this rabbi gives of the design of the piacular sacrifices :* * The law has not commanded the blood of any * piacular victim to be sprinkled within the sanctuary,

except that atonement might be made and pardon obtained with God for some offence of more than

common enormity, such as every crime was believed * to be that was committed by the high priest or the

Sanhedrim.' This language implies that all piacular victims were sacrificed in order to obtain pardon of sins and favour with God; but that those whose blood was to be carried into the sanctuary, were offered for greater offences than others: for that the same criminal act involved greater criminality when committed by the high priest or Sanhedrim than when committed by any common individual. On the sin offering for the high priest the same author remarks :t • He shall sprinkle some of the blood of the victim * towards the vail of the inner sanctuary and on the altar of incense, in order that he may obtain * remission and expiation from before God in the

sanctuary. Of the daily burnt offerings the same writer says : I 'The daily burnt offerings were intended * as a species of solemn supplications presented to * God, that he would be pleased to remember his

mercy towards Israel morning and evening, that he • would increase their corn, and wine, and oil : as is evident from the meat offering and drink offering, ' which were to accompany them.' So Rabbi Moses Ben Nachmans describes the burnt offerings of individuals as“ supplicating' for the offerers. And Isaac Ben Arama || considers all sacrifices as so nearly allied to prayers, that he concludes the latter to be avail* la Præf. ad Levit. + Ibid. Ad Levit. xvi. $ Ad Levit. i. N Ad Lerit. vi.



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able now for the same purposes which in ancient times were obtained by the former : Prayers are ' like sacrifices, and indeed are superior to them. 'Nor is it necessary to say that they supply the place of sacrifices since sacrifices have ceased to be

offered.' The same author represents sacrifices as having been offered for supplication, deprecation, and propitiation.* --After the Jews were deprived of the opportunity of sacrificing, the Sanhedrim decreed, that instead of the stated sacrifices they should offer stated prayers ; evidently considering the design of sacrifices and prayers as one and the same. They * decreed,' says Maimonides, that the number of

prayers should be equal to the number of sacrifices; ' namely, two daily prayers, corresponding to the

two daily sacrifices: and as there was an additional ' sacrifice every day, they decreed that there should 'be a third prayer, corresponding to that additional * sacrifice. The prayer which answers to the morning sacrifice, is called the morning prayer ; that which answers to the evening sacrifice, the evening prayer; ' and that which answers to the additional sacrifice, the additional prayer.

In like manner they ap‘pointed, that one prayer should be said in the night, ' because the members of the evening holocaust used ' to remain burning all night.' The opinion of the Jews, on the great resemblance between prayers and sacrifices, will further appear from other passages of this writer. The congregation uses no prayer that ' is not commanded, because the congregation offered

no sacrifice that was not commanded ;' that is, no voluntary sacrifice. There are some of the doctors, ' who think it unlawful for any person, on the sabbath

+ In Teplilla Ubircath Coban. col.


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# Ad Levit. i.

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or festival days, to use any prayer that is not com' manded; because on those days, only the sacrifices " that were commanded used to be offered, but no

voluntary ones.' The obvious inference from all these statements is, that the Jews had the same opinion of sacrifices as of prayers, and that, in consequence of this opinion, after the discontinuance of sacrifice, they supplied the place of the stated sacrifices by certain forms of prayer corresponding to those sacrifices.

III. And it may be proper to mention, in passing, that as the immolation of animal victims, so likewise all oblations of things inanimate, were designed as acts of divine worship. For they were presented to God as the giver of all the good things, wine, oil, and corn, produced by the earth or the trees for the support of human life: and every meat offering denoted the supplication of the offerer for plentiful crops, or his thanksgivings for having enjoyed them. This is the representation of Abarbinel in a passage lately quoted. The same explanation is given by Rabbi Levi Ben Gerson :* As they offered to God,

to whom be praise, a sheaf at the passover, in order 'to obtain a prosperous harvest; and two loaves at

pentecost, in order to obtain an abundance of ' fruits :t so at the feast of tabernacles, when the

seed time was at hand, they also presented to God 'drink offerings of water, in order to obtain plentiful

showers.' But these libations were not commanded in the law. It is sufficiently evident, however, that sacrifices were considered by the Jews as having respect to God equally as inuch as prayers and thanksgivings.

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* Ad II Sam. xxiji. 15.

+ Levit. xxiji. 10. 17.

IV. The opinion of the Heathens respecting their sacrifices was just the same as that of the Jews respecting theirs. This appears from the language of Porphyry:* 'Sacrifices are to be offered to the gods ' for three reasons; as tributes of honour, expressions of gratitude, or supplications of good.' The two former of these reasons the Jews properly reduce to one; because in the honours which persons rendered to God by offering sacrifices, their praises of his infinite wisdom and power were always united with commemorations of his goodness, either as conspicuous in the universe at large, or as displayed in some particular favour towards themselves, or their families, or their country: and these praises and honours have the same object, and belong to the same species of worship, as thanksgivings. Though what precise objects the Heathens contemplated in sacrificing to their gods, is of little importance to our argument; which only maintains that they considered every kind of sacrifices as having the nature and efficacy of divine worship. Let us cite another passage from Porphyry :t 'We worship the gods, either that we may solicit them to avert evils from us and to supply us with good things, or because we have ' received benefits already, or that we may obtain some advantage, or that we may render the honour due to the mere goodness of their nature : so that if any

animals are iminolated, they must be sacri'ficed to the gods for one of these purposes; for we have one of these objects in view as the end of every sacrifice. Hence we may learn that the Heathens offered sacrifices to their deities, either to supplicate or commemorate their favour, or to honour

# De Abstinen. L. ii. s. 24.

+ Ibid.

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