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Present.

apologize for the extent of the Author's remarks on these subjects, both here and elsewhere, and for his solicitude to simplify and explain them.--He thinks it has been proved, that the idiom of our tongue demands the arrangement he has given to the English verb; and that, though the learned languages, with respect to voices, moods, and tenses, are, in general, differently constructed from the English tongue, yet, in some respects, they are so similar to it, as to warrant the principle which he has adopted.

Section 10. Of Irregular Verbs. Irregular Verbs are those which do not form their imperfect tense, and their perfect participle, by the addition of d or ed to the verb : as, Imperfect,

Perfect Part.
I begin,
I began,

begun.
I know,
I knew,

known. Irregular Verbs are of various sorts. 1. Such as have the present and imperfect tenses, and perfect participle, the same: as,

Imperfect. Cost,

cost, Put,

put, 2. Such as have the imperfect tense, and perfect participle, the same : as, Present.

Imperfect, Abide, abode,

abode. sell,

sold. 3. Such as have the imperfect tense, and perfect participle, different: as,

Imperfect. Arise, arose,

arisen.
Blow,
blew,

blown. Many verbs become irregular by contraction ; as, “ feed, fed; leave, left:" others by the termination en; as, “fall, fell, fallen :” others by the termination ght; as,“ buy, bought ; teach, taught,” &c.

The following list of the irregular verbs will, it is presumed, be found both comprehensive and accurate. Present.

Imperfect. Abide, abode,

abode.

Present

Perfect Part.
cost.

put.

Perfect Part.

Sell,

Present.

Perfect Part.

Perf. or Pass. Part.

Am

NIS

hoon

Perf. or Pass. Part. born. borne. beaten, beat. begun. bent. bereft, R. besought. bidden, bid. bound. bitten, bit. bled. blown. broken. bred. brought. built burst. bought. cast. caught, R. chidden, chid. chosen.

cleft, cloven. clung. clad, r. come. cost. crowed. crept. cut. dared.

Blow,

Cast,

Present.

Imperfect.
Bear, to bring forth, bare,
Bear, to carry,

bore,
Beat,

beat, Begin,

began, Bend,

bent, Bereave,

bereft, r. Beseech,

besought, Bid,

bid, bade, Bind,

bound, Bite,

bit, Bleed,

bled,

blew, Break,

broke, Breed,

bred, Bring;

brought, Build,

built, Burst,

burst, Buy,

bought,

cast, Catch,

caught, R. Chide,

chid, Choose,

chose,
Cleave, to stick or

REGULAR.
adhere,
Cleave, to split, clove, or cleft,
Cling,

clung,
Clothe,

clothed, came, cost, crew, r.

crept,
Cut,

cut,
Dare, to renture, durst,
Dare,
to challenge.

dealt, r.
dug, 2.

did, Draw,

drew, drove,

drank,
Dwell,

dwelt, r.
eat, or ate,
fell,
fed,
felt,
fought,
found,
fled,
flung,

flew,
Forget,

forgon

Come, Cost, Crow, Creep,

Deal,
Dig,
Do,

Drive,
Drink,

Eat,
Fall,
Feed,
Feel,
Fight,
ind,
Slee,
Fling,
Fly,

dealt, ?. dug, r. done. drawn. driven. drunk. dwelt, r. eaten. fallen. fed. felt. fought. found. fied. flung. flown. forgotten, forgot.

11c

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Hit,

Hold, Hurt, Keep, Knit, Know, Lade, Lay, Lead, Leave, Lend, Let, Lie, to lie down. Load, Lose, Make, Meet, Mow, Pay, Put, Read, Rend, Rid, Ride, Ring. Rise, Rive, Run,

Saw, Say, Sec,

Seek, Selj.

Perf. or Pass. Part.
forsaken.
frozen.
got.*
gilt, r.
girt, r.
given.
gone.
graven, r.
ground.
grown.
had.
hung, r.
heard.
hewn, r.
hidden, hid.
hit.
held.
hurt.
kept.
knit, r.
known.
laden.
laid.
led.
left.
lent,
let,
lain.
laden, .

Imperfect.
forsook,
froze,
got,
gilt, r.
girt, r.
gave,
went,
graved,
ground,
grew,
had,
hung, ..
heard,
hewed,
hid,
hit,
held,
hurt,
kept,
knit, r.
knew,
laded,
laid,
led,
left,
lent,
let,
lay,
loaded,
lost,
made,
met,
mowed,
paid,
put,
read,
rent,
rid,
rode,
rung, rang
rose,
rived,
ran,
sawed,
said,
saw,
sought,

lost.

:

made. tnet. mown, ". paid. put. read. rent. rid, rode, ridden, rung. risen. riven. run, sawn, r. said. seen, sought. sold

sold,

[blocks in formation]

Imperfect.

Perf. or Pass. Part. sent,

sent. set,

set. shook,

shaken. shaped,

shaped, shapen. shaved,

shaven, r. sheared,

shorn. shed,

shed. shone, r.

shone, r. showed,

shown. shod,

shod. shot,

shot. shrunk,

shrunk. shred,

shred. shut,

shut. sung, sang,

sung sunk, sank,

sunk. sat,

sat. slew,

slain. slept,

slept. slid,

slidden. slung,

slung. slunk,

slunk. slit, r.

slit, or slitted. smote,

sinitten. sowed,

sown, r. spoke,

spoken. sped,

sped. spent,

spent, spilt, r.

spilt, r. spun,

spun. spit, spat,

spit, spitten.* split,

split. spread,

spread. sprung, sprang, sprung stood,

stood. stole,

stolen. stuck,

stuck. stung,

stung stupk,

stunk. strode or strid, stridden. struck,

struck or stricken strung,

strung strove,

striven. strowed orstrewed,

strown, strowed

strewed. swore,

sworn. swet, r.

swet, r. swelled,

swollen, T. swum, swam,

swum. * Spitten is nearly obsolete.

Speak, Speed, Spend, Spill, Spin, Spit, Split, Spread, pring, stand, teal,

Stick,
Sting,
Stink,
Stride,
Strike,
String,
Strive,
Strow or strew,
Swear,
Sweat,
Swell,
Swim,

Perf. or Pass. Part

torn.

wore,
wove,

worn.
Woven

won.

Present.

Imperfect. Swing, swung,

swung. Take, took,

taken. Teach, taught,

taught Tear,

tore, Tell, told,

told. Think, thought,

thought. Thrive, throve, r.

thriven. Throw, threw,

thrown. Thrust, thrust,

thrust. Tread, trod,

trodden. Wax, waxed,

waxen, r Wear, Weave, Weep, . wept,

wept. Win,

won, Wind, wound,

wound. Work, wrought,

wrought or worked. Wring, wrung,

wrung Write, wrote,

written, In the preceding list, some of the verbs will be found to be conjugated regularly, as well as irregularly; and those which admit of the regular form are marked with an r. There is a preference to be given to some of these, which custom and judgment must determine. Those preterits and participles which are first mentioned in the list, seem to be most eligible. The Compiler has not inserted such verbs as are irregular only in familiar writing or discourse, and which are improperly terminated by t, instead of ed : as, learnt, spelt, spilt, f*c. These should be avoided in every sort of composition. It is, however, proper to observe, that some contractions of ed into t, are unexceptionable : and others, the only established forms of expression : as crept, gilt, &c.; and lost, felt, slept, &c. These allowable and necessary contractions must therefore be carefully distinguished by the learner, from those that are exceptionable. The words which are obsolete have also been omitted, that the learner might not be induced to mistake them for words in present use. Such are, wreathen, drunken, holpen, molten, gotten, holden, bounden, &c.: and swang, wrang, slank, strawed, gat, brake, tare, ware, &c. Section 11. Of Defective Verbs ; and of the different ways in

which verbs are conjugated. DEFECTIVE VERBS are those which are used only in some of their moods and tenses.

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