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It is allowed that the remedy is commensurate, as to sufficiency : but, if all, who partake of * Adam's corrupt nature, were to partake also of ' the appointed remedy,' all must finally be saved ! Indeed the preceding words, that he would coun* teract and defeat the consequences of Adam's 'transgression upon all his posterity,' imply this. Yet it is evident that all are not recovered to holiness in this life ; and there is no intimation that any will be recovered to it in another life ; nay, much to the contrary: yet“ without holiness no
man shall see the Lord.”
'In this passage, (Isa. liii. 6.) the universal depravity of mankind is asserted, and the expiation of Christ is declared to be as universal as the depravity of man.
It may be questioned whether the prophet, in the passage referred to, be not speaking of the whole church, rather than of the whole human race : but, however that may be, it is the expiation itself, which is declared to be universal, and not the actual efficacy or event; which is every where limited to believers.
““ And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will. draw all men unto me." St. John in his gospel, says, that Christ " was the true Light, which ' lighteth every man that cometh into the
The effect and application are evidently meant in the first of these texts; and, if all men be actually drawn unto Christ, as an universal proposition, all will finally be saved, unless again drawn
Ref. 186. ? Ref. 187.
from him; for “ him that cometh unto him, he “ will in no wise cast out." Now it is certain fact that all are not thus drawn. But is it uncommon to use general language, where an interpretation of the word all or every, as meaning what admits of no exception, would be absurd? In the very chapter from which the second quotation is made, and just before it, the evangelist says of John the Baptist, “ The same came for a witness, “ to bear witness of the light, that all men through “ him might believe.” Did the sacred historian mean, that all men, or even all Jews, without exception, did actually believe in Christ through John's testimony? The testimony was intended for a general benefit to all, without exception, who would avail themselves of it: and in the same sense we must understand the subsequent clause, “ That was the true Light, which lighteth
every man that cometh into the world.” With this light he enlighteneth every man, namely, who doth receive him.'! Christ is the sole source of all true light in religion, by which any man in the world ever was, is, or shall be, enlightened : but all men are not actually enlightened.—“'Then “shall every man have praise of God.”2 Did the apostle mean, that every individual of the whole assembled world would, at the day of judgment, “receive praise of God?”—“ All seek their own, “not the things of Jesus Christ.” 3 Was this meant universally? In short this seems a common form of ellipsis : He lighteneth every man who is enlightened. Every man shall have praise of God —who has praise at all. It is undeniable, that Whitby.
21 Cor. iv. 5. ; Phil. ii. 21
those who hold the universal salvation of mankind, without exception, seize on a few of these general expressions, as the only support of their cause against the most direct declarations of the whole scripture ; and some circumspection is required in adducing and applying them.
"Tit. ii. 11. This passage is stronger in the original than in our translation, Επεφάνη η χάρις τα Θε8 ή σωτήριος πάσιν ανθρώποις : it should have been • translated, “ The grace of God, which bringeth ' (or offereth) salvation to all men, hath appeared." * Mr. Wakefield gives this construction.''
The scripture here referred to is full to the point, on the subject of the last remark. Had then the saving grace of God at that time actually appeared, or been made manifest, to all men universally? or had it actually brought, or offered, salvation to all men? or will it ever thus bring salvation to all men universally? or, is it only meant, that the salvation was made known to men, without distinction of nation or rank in life, as the benefit of all who embraced it?
This grace of God not only offers salvation, but effects it. As it saves all, who receive it, from wrath and condemnation : so it likewise effectually teacheth all those to whom it is saving grace,
that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, they « should live soberly, righteously, and godly in “this present world ; looking for that blessed
hope, and the glorious appearing of the great
God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ, who gave “ himself for us, to redeem us from all iniquity,
Note, Ref. 188.
“ and to purify us unto himself a peculiar people, “ zealous of good works.” 1
« To prove
with God was now obtained for the whole human species, through the precious blood of Christ, he represents Adam as «« the figure of him that was to come,” that is, a ' type of Christ : he then describes the analogy
between the first and second Adam, by declaring ' that the former brought death upon all men, and * the latter restored all to life; that universal sin • and condemnation were the consequence of * Adam's disobedience, and universal righteousness ' and pardon the effect of Christ's obedience : “As
by the offence of one judgment came upon all 'men to condemnation, even so by the righteous
ness of one the free gift came upon all men to `justification of life: for, as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.” The sin of Adam and the merits of Christ are here pronounced to be co-extensive; the words applied ' to both are precisely the same; “ Judgment came upon all men,” “the free gift came upon all “ Many were made sinners :” “
many were made righteous."—Whatever the words 6" all men” and “ many” signify, when applied 'to Adam, they must signify the same when ap'plied to Christ. It is admitted that in the former
case the whole human race is meant; and consequently in the latter case the whole human race is also meant.'2
This view of the parallel between Adam and 1 Tit. ï. 11-14. ? Ref. 189, 190. on Rom. v. 12—19.
Christ, and the effects of Adam's disobedience, and of the Saviour's obedience, as drawn by the apostle, is given by many commentators : but it is liable to insurmountable objections. Especially it most clearly admits, that “ the righteousness of
one came upon all men to justification of life :" and how then can universal salvation be denied ? Indeed his Lordship's words seem to admit this consequence: ‘Universal righteousness and par
don, the effect of Christ's obedience. But the passage itself plainly suggests another interpretation. “ If by one man's offence death reigned by
one, much more shall they who receive abundance « of grace,” (την περισσέιαν της χάριτος,)
gift of righteousness, reign in life by One, Jesus “Christ.” 1 Here not all men are spoken of, but they alone who“ receive this abundant grace, and “ the gift of righteousness ;” that is, true believers exclusively ; for others neither receive Christ and his grace, nor the “ gift of righteousness ;" or justification. The apostle evidently contrasts the loss sustained through Adam's fall, by all who are in him, as his descendents by natural generation, with the vastly superior and additional advantages enjoyed by all who are “in Christ," as true believers, by regeneration, or by partaking of his life-giving Spirit. “ Of him are ye in Christ “ Jesus.” 2 “ There is no condemnation to them “ that are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after “ the flesh, but after the Spirit: for the Spirit “ of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from “ the law of sin and death."3 “If
any man be in 17.
21 Cor. i. 30. Rom. viii. 1, 2. See also 1 Cor. xv. 45–47.