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with the Jews. But, lest the descendents of Abraham by Ishmael, and the sons of Keturah, and those of Isaac by Esau, should be supposed to be the persons intended by the apostle; he does not here begin with Abraham's seed, but with Israel: “ All are not Israel, which are of Israel." Now, certainly all the descendents of Jacob belonged to the nation of Israel, “the chosen people “ of God,” to whom many and distinguishing external privileges appertained: but they did not all belong to the “ true Israel of God;"2 to those “ whom he had predestinated to the adoption of “ children, by Jesus Christ, unto himself, accord“ing to the good pleasure of his will."3—“The “ children of the flesh, these were not the children “ of God:” for of the latter the apostle had before said, “ If children then heirs ; heirs of God, and “ joint-heirs with Christ.” This is the general principle, into which he resolves all his particular examples ; his doctrine, of which all his examples are apposite illustrations : and he concludes the argument by saying, “ Therefore he will have “ mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom “ he will he hardeneth.” Indeed he supposes this doctrine will excite the objections of many readers; and adds, “ Thou wilt say then unto me, Why “ doth he yet find fault? for who hath resisted his “ will ?”—thus confounding his secret purpose with his revealed commands. This he answers, not by qualifying his doctrine, but by -saying, “ Nay but, Oman, who art thou that repliest “ against God? Shall the thing formed say to “ him that formed it, Why hast thou made me

'John viij. 37–39, 44. .? Gal. vi. 16. . ' Eph. 1. 5.

“ thus ? Hath not the potter power over the clay, “ of the same lump to make one vessel unto ho“ nour and another to dishonour? What if God, “ willing to shew his wrath and to make his power “ known, endured with much long-suffering the “ vessels of wrath fitted to destruction; and, that "he might make known the riches of his glory “ on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore pre“ pared unto glory; even us whom he hath called, “ not of the Jews only, but also of the gentiles?”] Now will any man having well considered this argument, continue to say that the whole of it ' refers to the present world only?' 'Atwelay and dočar, perdition and glory, the words here used, uniformly relate to eternal condemnation or eternal happiness, when spoken in this way concerning individuals.

The above declaration was made to Moses, after God had laid aside his purpose of consuming the Israelites, for worshipping the golden calf; and when “he repented of the evil which he thought to do unto his people.”—The mercy therefore here spoken of is not forgiveness of sins, granted to each person separately at the day of judgment, but God's receiving his chosen ' people collectively into favour again after they had displeased him; such national reconciliation in this world, as well as the original election of 'a peculiar people for the purpose of executing 'the great plans of divine Providence, being per'fectly consistent with striet retribution to indi'viduals in a future life.'? 'Rom. ix. 18.-23.

• Ref. 239. VOL. VIII.

with the Jews. But, lest the descendents of Abraham by Ishmael, and the sons of Keturah, and those of Isaac by Esau, should be supposed to be the persons intended by the apostle ; he does not here begin with Abraham's seed, but with Israel: “ All are not Israel, which are of Israel.” Now, certainly all the descendents of Jacob belonged to the nation of Israel, “ the chosen people “ of God,” to whom many and distinguishing external privileges appertained: but they did not all belong to the “ true Israel of God;"2 to those “ whom he had predestinated to the adoption of “ children, by Jesus Christ, unto himself, accord“ing to the good pleasure of his will."3—“ The “ children of the flesh, these were not the children ~ of God:” for of the latter the apostle had before said, “ If children then heirs ; heirs of God, and “ joint-heirs with Christ.” This is the general principle, into which he resolves all his particular examples ; his doctrine, of which all his examples are apposite illustrations : and he concludes the argument by saying, “ Therefore he will have “ mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom “ he will he hardeneth.” Indeed he supposes this doctrine will excite the objections of many readers; and adds, “ Thou wilt say then unto me, Why “ doth he yet find fault? for who hath resisted his “ will?”—thus confounding his secret purpose with his revealed commands. This he answers, not by qualifying his doctrine, but by -saying, “ Nay but, О man, who art thou that repliest “ against God? Shall the thing formed say to “ him that formed it, Why hast thou made me . ' John viii. 37–39, 44. .? Gal. vi. 16. . ' Eph. 1. 5.

“thus? Hath not the potter power over the clay, “ of the same lump to make one vessel unto ho“nour and another to dishonour? What if God,

willing to shew his wrath and to make his power “known, endured with much long-suffering the “ vessels of wrath fitted to destruction; and, that

he might make known the riches of his glory “ on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore pre“pared unto glory ; even us whom he hath called, “not of the Jews only, but also of the gentiles ?”? Now will any man having well considered this argument, continue to say that the whole of it ' refers to the present world only?' 'ATudelay and gotav, perdition and glory, the words here used, uniformly relate to eternal condemnation or eternal happiness, when spoken in this way concerning individuals.

"The above declaration was made to Moses, after God had laid aside his purpose of consuming 'the Israelites, for worshipping the golden calf; ? and when “he repented of the evil which he thought to do unto his people.”—The mercy therefore here spoken of is not forgiveness of sins, granted to each person separately at the day of judgment, but God's receiving his chosen people collectively into favour again after they had displeased him ; such national reconciliation

in this world, as well as the original election of 'a peculiar people for the purpose of executing

the great plans of divine Providence, being per'fectly consistent with striet retribution to individuals in a future life.'?

'Rom. ix. 18.-23. . Ref. 239. VOL. VIII.

Here again the illustration is confounded with the subject, which the apostle purposed to illustrate. The sovereign purpose of God, in hardening Pharaoh and the Egyptians, and in having mercy on rebellious Israel, as a nation, in not executing condign temporal punishment on them; bore a striking resemblance to his wise, holy, righteous, and merciful purposes and decrees, concerning the true Israel, and their enemies. In both cases, “He hath mercy on whom he will “ have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth :" in both, he assigns no reasons for his conduct, but his own good pleasure ; notwithstanding the presumptuous inquiries and objections of his enemies. “ I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and “ earth, that thou hast hid these things from the “ wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto “ babes. Even so, Father, for so it seemed good “ in thy sight.”l-Personal election to eternal life, is perfectly consistent' with strict retribution to 'individuals in another world.'

"The apostle shews from the ancient scripture, that Pharaoh's disobedience and wickedness were “the means of making known the power of God; ' and repeats, that God shews, or does not shew, 'mercy, according to the determination of his so'vereign will. He supposes some one to object; • If this be the case, why does God find fault, since

his will cannot be resisted i St. Paul answers by first reproving the presumption of this objec'tion as urged by a creature against his Creator, who has the same power over his creatures which

'Matt. xi. 25, 26. Luke x. 21,

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