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rest of the world: and, if the other nations of the earth had any claim on God, which required him to ' care alike for them,' I cannot see that the objections about partiality and respect of persons might not have been brought forward by them, as fairly as they are now by the opponents of Calvinism. Indeed no man can fairly and fully justify the divine conduct in this particular, without conceding all the leading principles on which Calvinism is grounded. The same is the case, with all those nations which are favoured with the means of salvation. If all have any right to them, and an equal right to them, why are some so highly favoured above others? Is "God a re"specter of persons?" But, if all be undeserved, and contrary to man's deservings, according to our principles; then all have as much as they deserve, yea, more: none have a right to complain: all have cause of gratitude: but some more than others; as Israel had more cause for thankfulness than the surrounding nations had.
But, though Israel was chosen nationally to external privileges, temporal and spiritual, is there no intimation in scripture of another election, even in respect of Israel? Not to speak of the frequent intimations given by the prophets, of a remnant whom God would, or did distinguish from other Israelites, what says the apostle ?" They "are not all Israel which are of Israel."1 If so, there is an Israel within Israel: but how is this? "Even so, at this present time, there is a remnant "according to the election of grace."2 This refers to "the seven thousand in Israel," whom the Lord had "reserved to himself," in the days of Elijah. These were "a remnant according to the "election of grace," and the rest of the nation were not. Is it not then undeniable, that there was a national election to external advantages, and a personal election entirely distinct from it? an election of individuals from among the elect nation ? and that the notional election of Israel was a type and figure of the personal election of the true Israel, " the church of the first-born, who are "written in heaven ?"1 The texts which are next adduced in the Refutation, as further proofs of the election of Israel,2 are considered by expositors, almost universally, as prophecies relative to the future dealings of God with the nation of Israel; and as coincident with the words of our Saviour, "Except those days should be shortened, no "flesh" (that is, none of Israel) " should be saved; "but for the elect's sake those days shall be "shortened." 3 But this subject will be more fully considered in another place: nor are proofs needful of the national election of Israel, as it is not denied by Calvinists.
1 Rom. ix. 6. "Rom. xi. 5, 6.
'In the numerous passages of the Old Testa'ment, in which they are thus spoken of, there is 'not the slightest allusion to their being predes'tinated to happiness in the world to come ; nor in'deed will any one contend that all the Jews were 'designed for eternal salvation. They were elected 'in this world only, as an introductory and pre'paratory step to the execution of God's merciful 'scheme of human redemption through the incar'nation and sufferings of Christ.'4
1 Heb. xii. 23. 2 Is. xliii. 20. xlv. 4. Ixv. 9.
'Matt. xxiv. 22. 'Ref. 203.
This is a decisive proof that the national election of Israel was an entirely different thing from the election spoken of in the New Testament; being only a shadow or type of it. "God hath "from the beginning chosen you unto salvation, "through sanctification of the Spirit, and belief "of the truth; whereunto he hath called you by "our gospel, to the obtaining of the glory of our "Lord Jesus Christ."l "Elect, according to the "foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanc"tification of the Spirit unto obedience, and "sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ."2 Wherever election and predestination are spoken of in the New Testament, concerning Christians, they are uniformly connected with "things which "accompany salvation,"3 as the reader may easily perceive by examining and comparing the scriptures referred to.—The election of Israel was indeed ' an introductory and preparatory step to the 'execution of God's merciful scheme of human 'redemption;' but had the Israelites themselves no advantages in consequence of it?" What ad"vantage then hath the Jew? or what profit is "there of circumcision? Much every way; chiefly "because that unto them were committed the "oracles of God." 4 It is probable that, from the days of Moses to the coming of Christ, more persons out of this comparatively small nation, were spiritual worshippers and accepted servants of God, than in all the world besides.
'We shall in like manner find that the same
» 2 Thes. ii. 13, 14. » 1 Pet. i. 2. 'Rom. viii. 28—30. Eph. i. 4, 5, U—14. Col. iii. 12. 2 Tim. i. 9. Tit. i. 1, 2. 1 Pet. ii. 9, 10. 'Rom. iii. 1,2.
'words, elect and chosen, are applied to collective 'bodies of men who were converted to the gospel, 'without any restriction to those who-were obedient 'to its precepts, and will hereafter be saved; and 'that an infallible certainty of salvation, in conse'quence of a divine decree, is not attributed to any 'number of Christians, or to any single Christian, 'throughout the New Testament.''
This is a statement which will require much proof: but let every argument have its due weight. What ' collective bodies of men were converted f to the gospel,' in the same manner that Israel was chosen as a nation? Even the three thousand converted on the day of Pentecost, and the" tens "of thousands"2 who afterwards believed, were merely a remnant of the nation of Israel; and like the seven thousand in the days of Elijah, " a "remnant according to the election of grace." God had " not cast away his people whom he fore"knew"3 even when he rejected that nation from being his church. "Israel hath not obtained that "which he seeketh for; but the election hath "obtained it: and the rest were blinded."—The more copious of the apostolical epistles are addressed to the churches, or to the saints, and not to individuals: yet these were not collective bodies, they were not, as Israel is, elect nations; but a small remnant out of the large population of Asia, Macedonia, Achaia, and Rome, "according to the "election of grace."—In the epistles, however, to Timothy and Titus, the apostle joins himself with the person to whom he writes, when he speaks on this subject : and thus applies it to individuals.4
1 Ref. 203, 204. s Acts xxi. 20. itovou nvptafcf.
3 Rom. xi. 1—7. '2 Tim. i. 9. Tit. i. 1, 2.
He mentions Clement, and others, "whose names "are in the book of life ;"' and he says, " Salute "Rufus, chosen in the Lord," rw JxWo» b Kvpiw.2 St. John also addresses one of his epistles to "the "elect lady and her children," and mentions her "elect sister." 3 And our Lord himself calls Paul "a vessel of election:" Xxevo; Uxoyw.4
'St. Peter tells the " strangers scattered through'out Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bi'thynia," that they are "elect according to the 'foreknowledge of God ;" and "a chosen genera'tion, a peculiar people, that they might shew 'forth the praises of him who hath called them 'out of darkness into his marvellous light." It is 'evident that the apostle here refers to the calling 'of these men to the knowledge of his gospel, 'which, like every other circumstance relative to 'this gracious dispensation, was foreknown by 'God; and that, by denominating the Christians 'of these five extensive countries, indiscriminately, '" elect," and " a chosen generation," he did not 'mean to assert that they would all be saved ; but 'that they were admitted to "the marvellous light" 'of the gospel, while other nations were still 'wandering in the "darkness" of heathenism. 'And, to put this beyond all doubt, the same 'persons, whom in his first epistle he addresses as * " elect according to the foreknowledge of God," 'in his second epistle he addresses as " them that 'have obtained like precious faith with us, through 'the righteousness of God, and our Sayiour Jesus
'Phil. iv. 3. Comp. Rev. xvii. 8. * Rom. xvi. 13. '2 John 1, 12. * AcUix. 15.