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"of the whole world."' Were it possible, that a preacher could go into other worlds, and address sinful intelligent beings, of other orders than Adam's race; he could not address them as we may any of the human race, in every part of the world. He could not say, "Believe in the Lord "Jesus Christ and thou shalt be saved." But, wherever we meet with a human being, we can consistently feel no other embarrassment in thus addressing him, than in calling to those who are asleep after the sun is risen, and exhorting them to arise and go forth to their labour, for the natural light of the world shines and suffices for all.
The infinite value and sufficiency of the atonement made by the death of him who is God and Man in one mysterious person; the way in which the scripture calls on sinners without distinction to believe in Christ; and every circumstance respecting redemption; shew it to be a general benefit, from which no one of the human race will be excluded except through unbelief. Every exhortation, invitation, and encouragement imaginable may therefore be used without reserve, in addressing men of any nation and description.—Yet some line must be drawn as to the actual effect of this redemption, by all who do not hold universal salvation. "He that believeth not shall be "damned." The difference then, in this respect, between Calvinists and others is less than is supposed. Calvin himself says, 'Redemption is 'sufficient for all, effectual only to the elect.' His opponents say, It is 'sufficient for all, effectual 'only for believers.' But faith is "the- gift of "God;" and the only question is, whether he determines to give faith to one man and not to another, at the moment; or whether he previously decreed to do it; and, whether he gives faith to one and not to another, because of some good disposition or conduct, seen or foreseen, in one above the other, previous to his special preventing grace. If he do no injustice to those who are left to themselves and continue unbelievers, it could not be unjust to decree even from eternity, thus to leave them. Some think, that none ever truly believe except the elect; others think differently. But all who allow the truth, and abide by the plain meaning, of the scripture agree, that through this general redemption, believers, and none except believers among adults, shall be saved. The words of the apostle, " Whom he foreknew, them he did "also predestinate; and whom he predestinated, "them he also called; and whom he called, them "he also justified; and whom he justified, them "he also glorified ;"l by not mentioning redemption among these special blessings, imply, that this is to be considered as general : and our seventeenth Article goes on exactly the same ground.
1 1 Johnii. 1,'2.
'It is natural to conclude, that the remedy, pro'posed by a Being of infinite power and infinite 'mercy, would be commensurate to the evil; and 'therefore, as the evil operated instantly in prof ducing the corruption of Adam's nature, which 'was soon transmitted to his offspring, we may 'infer that all, who were to partake of that corrupt 'nature; were to partake also of the appointed re* medy.'2
1 Rom. viii. 28—31. * Ref. 185.
It is allowed that the remedy is commensurate, as to sufficiency : but, 'if all, who partake of 'Adam's corrupt nature, were to partake also of 'the appointed remedy,' all must finally be saved'. Indeed the preceding words, 'that he would coun'teract and defeat the consequences of Adam's 'transgression upon all his posterity,' imply this. Yet it is evident that all are not recovered to holiness in this life; and there is no intimation that any will be recovered to it in another life; nay, much to the contrary: yet " without holiness no "man shall see the Lord."
'In this passage, (Isa. liii. 6.) the universal de'pravity of mankind is asserted, and the expiation 'of Christ is declared to be as universal as the de'pravity of man.''
It may be questioned whether the prophet, in the passage referred to, be not speaking of the whole church, rather than of the whole human race: but, however that may be, it is the expiation itself, which is declared to be universal, and not the actual efficacy or event; which is every where limited to believers.
'" And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will 'draw all men unto me." St. John in his gospel, 'says, that Christ "was the true Light, which 'lighteth every man that cometh into the 'world.'"2
The effect and application are evidently meant in the first of these texts; and, if all men be actually drawn unto Christ, as an universal proposition, all wijl finally be saved, unless again drawn ."" 'Ref. 186. 'Ref. 187.
from him; for "him that cometh unto him, he "will in no wise cast out." Now it is certain feet that all are not thus drawn. But is it uncommon to use general language, where an interpretation of the word all or every, as meaning what admits of no exception, would be absurd? In the very chapter from which the second quotation is made, and just before it, the evangelist says of John the Baptist, " The same came for a witness, "to bear "witness of the light, that all men through "him might believe." Did the sacred historian mean, that all men, or even all Jews, without exception, did actually believe in Christ through John's testimony? The testimony was intended for a general benefit to all, without exception, who would avail themselves of it: and in the same sense we must understand the subsequent clause, " That was the true Light, which lighteth "every man that cometh into the world." 'With 'this light he enlighteneth every man, namely, 'who doth receive him.'l Christ is the sole source of all true light in religion, by which any man in the world ever was, is, or shall be, enlightened: but all men are not actually enlightened.—" Then "shall every man have praise of God."2 Did the apostle mean, that every individual of the whole assembled world would, at the day of judgment, "receive praise of God ?"—" All seek their own, "not the things of Jesus Christ."3 Was this meant universally? In short this seems a common form of ellipsis: He lighteneth every man who is
enlightened Every man shall have praise of God
—who has praise at all. It is undeniable, that 'Whitby. '1 Cor. iv. 5. * Phil. ii. 21
those who hold the universal salvation of mankind, without exception, seize on a few of these general expressions, as the only support of their cause against the most direct declarations of the whole scripture; and some circumspection is required in adducing and applying them.
'Tit. ii. 11. This passage is stronger in the 'original than in our translation, 'Eirspayi; i, x«-p'; T$ '©£« ij <rwn$pioy woLviv dvSpuntuf: it should have been 'translated, " The grace of God, which bringeth '(or offereth) salvation to all men, hath appeared." 'Mr. Wakefield gives this construction.'1
The scripture here referred to is full to the point, on the subject of the last remark. Had then the saving grace of God at that time actually appeared, or been made manifest, to all men universally? or had it actually brought, or offered, salvation to all men? or will it ever thus bring salvation to all men universally? or, is it only meant, that the salvation was made known to men, without distinction of nation or rank in life, as the benefit of all who embraced it?
This grace of God not only offers salvation, but effects it. As it saves all, who receive it, from wrath and condemnation: so it likewise effectually teacheth all those to whom it is saving grace, "that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, they "should live soberly, righteously, and godly in "this present world; looking for that blessed "hope, and the glorious appearing of the great "God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ, who gave "himself for us, to redeem us from all iniquity, 1 Note, Rcf. 188.