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them, every one was accounted accursed jail-delivery, appointed as often as a who died on a tree. This serves to ex competent number of prisoners in the plain the difficult passage in Rom ix. 2, Inquisition are convicted of heresy, where the apostle wishes himself accur- either by their own voluntary or extortsed after the manner of Christ ; i. e. led confession, or on the evidence of rercrucified, if happily he might by such a tain witnesses. The process is this :-In death save his countrymen. The pre- the morning they are brought into a position ato here made use of is used in great hall, where they have certain hathe sare sense, 2 Tim. i. 3, where it ob | bits put on, which they are to wear in viously signifies afier the manner of. the procession, and by which they know

ACEPHALI, such bishops as were their doom. The procession is led up exempt from the discipline and jurisdic by Dom nican friars, after wbich come tion of their ordinary bishop or patri- the penitents, being all in black coats arch. It was also the denomination of l without sleeves, and barefooted, with a certain sects ; 1. of those who, in the af. wax candle in their hands. These are fair of the council of Ephesus, refused followed by the penitents who have narto follow either St. Cyril or John of An- rowly escaped being burnt, who over tioch ; 2. of certain heretics in the fifth their black coats have flames painted, century, who at first, followed Peter wit, their points turned downwards. Mongus, but afterwards abandoned him, | Next come the negative and relapsed, upon his subscribing to the council of who are to be burnt, having flames on Chalcedon, they themselves adhering to their habits pointing upwards. After the Eutychian heresy; and, 3, of the fil. these come such as profess doctrines lowers of Severus of Antioch, and of all, contrary to the faith of Rome, who, in general, who held out against the besides flames pointing upwards, have council of Chalcedon.

their picture painted on their breasts, ACOEMETÆ, or ACOMETI, an or with dogs, serpents

, and devils, all opender of monks at Constantinople in the mouthed, about it. Each prisoner is atfifth century, whom the writers of that tended with a familiar of the Inquisition ; and the following ages called Axoluetus ; and those to be burnt have also a Jesuit that is, Watchers, because they per- on each hand, who are continually formed divine service day and night preaching to them to abjure. After the without intermission. They divided prisoners, comes a troop of familiars on themselves into three classes, who al horseback; and after them the Inquisiternately succeeded one another, so that tors, and other officers of the court, on they kept up a perpetual course of wor- mules: last of all, the Inquisitor general ship. This practice they founded upon on a white horse, led by two men with that passagem pray without ceasing," black hats and green hat-bands. А 1 Thess. v 17.

scaffold is erected big enough for two or ACOLYTHI, or Acoluthi, young || three thousand people; at one end of people who in the primitive times, as- which are the prisoners, at the other the pired to the ministry, and for that pur- || Inquisitors. After a sermon made up of pose continually attended the bishop. || encomiums of the Inquisition, and inIn the Romish church, Acolythi were vectives against heretics, a priest asof longer continuance; but their func- || cends a desk near the scaffold, and, tions were different from those of their having taken the abjuration of the pefirst institution. Their business was to | nitents, recites the final sentence of those light the tapers, carry the candlesticks who are to be put to death, and delivers and the incense pot, and prepare the them to the secular arm, earnestly bewine and water. At Rome there were seeching at the same time the secular three kinds; 1. those who waited on power not to touch their blood, or put the pope ; 2. those who served in the ineir lives in danger !!! T'he prisonchurches; 3. and others, who, together ers being thus in the hands of the civil with the deacons, officiated in other magistrate, are presently loaded with parts of the city

chains, and carried first to the secular ACT OF FAITH (Auto da Fe,) in jail, and from thence, in an hour or the Romish church, is a solemn day held two, brought before the civil judge; by the inquisition for the punishment of who after asking in what religion they heretics, and the absolution of the inno- | intend to die, pronounces sentence on cent a cused. They usually contrive the such as declare they die in the comAuto to fall on some great festival, that munion of the church of Rome, that they the execution may pass with the more || shall be first strangled, and then burnt awe; and it is always on a sunday. The || to ashes; or such as die in any other Auto da Fe may be called the last act of faith, that they be burnt alive. Both the luquisitorial tragedy: it is a kind of ll are immediately carried to the Ribera,


the place of execution, where there are | apostles, such as the acts of Abdias, of as many stakes set up as there are pri- Peter, of Paul, St. John the Evangelist, soners to be burnt, with a quantity of St. Andrew, St. Thomas, St Philip, and dry furze about them. The stakes of St. Matthias ; but they have been all the professed, that is, such as persist in proved to be spurious. the heresy, are about four yards high, ACTS OF 'PILATE, a relation sent having a small board towards the top by Pilate to the emperor Tiberius, confor the prisoner to be seated on. The cerning Jesus Christ, his death, resurnegative and relapsed being first stran-rection, ascension, and the crimes of bled and burnt,' the professed mount which he was convicted before him. their stakes by a ladder, and the Jesuits, It was a custom among the Romans, after several repeated exhortations to that the pro-consuls and governors of be reconciled to the church, part with provinces should draw up acts or methem ; telling them that they leave them inoirs of wbat happened in the course to the devil, who is standing at their of their government, and send them to elbow, to receive their souls, and carry the emperor and senate. The genuine them with him to the flames of hell. acts of 'Pilate were sent by him to TiOn this a great shout is raised ; and the berius, who reported them to the secry is, “ Let the dog's beards be made!"nate ; but they were rejected by that which is done by thrusting flaming furzes assembly, because not immediately adfastened to long poles against their dressed to them; as it is testified by Terfaces till their faces are burnt to a coal, tullian, in his Apol. cap. 5, & 20, 21. which is accompanied with the loudest The heretics forged acts in imitation of acclamations of joy. At last, fire is set to them ; but both the genuine and the the furze at the bottom of the stake, spurious are now lost. over which the professed are chained so ADAMITES, a sect that sprang up high, that the top of the flame seldom in the second century. Epiphanius tells reaches bigher than the seat they sit on ;) us, that they were called Adamites, so that they rather seem roasted than from their pretending to be re-establishburnt. There cannot be a more lamented in the state of innocence, such as able spectacle; the sufferers continually Adam was at the moment of his creacry out, while they are able, “ Pity, for tion, whence they ought to imitate him the love of God!" Yet it is beheld, by in going naked. They detested mar. all sexes and ages, with transports of riage ; maintaining that the conjugal joy and satisfaction--O merciful God! union would never have taken place upis this the benign, humane religion thou on earth, had sin been unknown. This hast given to men ? Surely not. If such obscure and ridiculous sect did not last were the genius of Christianity, then it long. It was, however, revived with would be no honour to be a Christian. additional absurdities in the twelfth cenLet us however, rejoice that the time tury. About the beginning of the fifis coming when the demon of Persecuteenth century, these errors spread in tion shall be banished out of this our Germany and Bohemia: it found also world, and the true spirit of benevolence some partisans in Poland, Holland, and and candour pervade the universe ; || England. They assembled in the night ; when none shall hurt or destroy, but and, it is said, one of the fundamental the earth be filled with the knowledge maxims of their society was contained of the Lord, as the waters cover the in the following verse : sea! See INQUISITION.

Jura, perjura, secretum prodere noli. ACTION FOR THE PULPIT. Swear, forswear, and reveal not the secret. See DECLAMATION.

ADESSENARIANS, a branch of the ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, one Sacramentarians ; so called from the of the sacred books of the New Testa- Latin Adesse, to be present, because ment containing the history of the in. they believed the presence of Christ's fant church during the space of twenty- | body in the eucharist, though in a mannine or thirty years from the ascension der different from the Romanists. of our Lord to the year of Christ 63. It ADIAPHORISTS, a name given in was written by Luke, and addressed to the sixteenth century to the moderate Theophilus, the person to whoni the Lutherans who adhered to the sentievangelist had before dedicated his gos-ments of Melancthon ; and afterwards pel. The style of this work, which was to those who subscribed the interim of originally composed in Greek, is much Charles V. (See INTERIM.] The word purer than that of the other canonical is of Greek origin (adwpogos,) and sigwriters. For the contents of this book difies indifference or lukewarmness. we refer the reader to the book itself. ADMIRATION is that passion of

There have been several acts of the the mind which is excited by the disa covery of any great excellence in an Christ in his liuman nature is the Son object. It has by some writers, been of God, not by nature, but by adoption. used as synonymous with surprise and ADOPTION, an act whereby any wonder ; but it is evident they are not person receives another into his family, the same. Surprise refers to something owns him for his son, and appoints him unexpected ; wonder, to something his heir. 2. Spiritual adoption is an act great or strange; but admiration in of God's free grace, whereby we are cludes the idea of a high esteem or res- received into the number, and have a pect. Thus, we say we admire a man's right to all the privileges of the sons of excellencies; but we do not say that we God.-3. Glorious, is that in which the are surprised at them. We wonder at saints, being raised from the dead, are at an extraordinary object or event, but we the last day solemnly owned to be the do not always admire it.

children of God, and enter into the full ADMONITION denotes a hint or possessiva of that inheritance provided advice given to another, whereby we for them, Rom. viii. 19. 23. Adoption is reprove him for his fault, or remind him a word taken from the civil law, and of his duty. Admonition was a part of was much in use among the Romans in the discipline much used in the ancient the apostles' time; when it was a cuschurch ; it was the first act or step to- tom for persons who had no children of wards the punishment or expulsion of their own, and were possessed of an esdelinquents. In case of private offences, tate, to prevent its being divided, or it was performed according to the evan- | descending to strangers, to make choice gelical rule, privately ; in case of public of such who were agreeable to them, offence, openly before the church. If and beloved by them, whom they took either of these sufficed for the recovery into this political relation of children ; of the fallen person, all farther pro- obliging them to take their name upon ceedings in a way of censure, ceased; them, and to pay respect to them as if they did not, recourse was had to ex- though they were their natural parents, communication.-Tit. iii. 10. 1 Thess. and engaging to deal with them as though v. 14. Eph vi. 4.

they had been so; and accordingly to ADONAI, one of the names of the give them a right to their estates, as an Supreme Being in the Scriptures. The inheritance. This new relation, founded proper meaning of the word is “my in a inutual consent, is a bond of affecLords," in the plural number; as Ado tion; and the privilege arising from ni is my Lord,' in the singular. The thence is, that he who is in this sense a Jews, who either out of respect or su- father, takes care of and provides for perstition do not pronounce the name the person whom he adopts, as though of Jehovah, read Adonai in the room he were his son by nature ; and thereof it, as often as they meet with Jehovah fore civilians call it an act of legitima. in the Hebrew text. But the ancient || tion, initating nature, or supplying the Jews were not so scrupulous; nor is place of it. there any law which forbids them to It is easy, then to conceive the propronounce the name of God.

priety of the term as used by the aposADONISTS, a party among divines ile in reference to this act, though it and critics, who maintain that the He must be confessed there is some differbrew points ordinarily annexed to the ence between civil and spiritual adopconsonants of the word Jehovah are not tion. Civil adoption was allowed of and the natural points belonging to that provided for the relief and comfort of word, nor express the true pronuncia- ihose who had no children ; but in spi. tion of it; but are the vowel points be ritual adoption this reason does not jonging to the words Adonai and Elo- appear. The Almighty was under no him, applied to the consonants of the obligation to do this; for he had innujne-fiable name Jehovah, to warn the merable spirits whom he had created, readers, that instead of the word Jeho. besides his own Son, who had all the vah, which the Jews were forbid to pro- perfections of the divine nature, who nounce, and the true prononciation of was the object of his delight, and who which had long been unknown to them, is styled the heir of all things, Heb i. 3. they are always to read Adonai They When men adopt, it is on account of are opposed to Jehoviste, of whom the some excellency in the persons who principai are Drusius, Capellus, Bux-are adopted; thus Pharaoh's daughter torf, Alting, and Reland

adopted Moses because he was exceedADOPTIONISTS, the followers of ling fair, Acts vii. 20, 21; and Mordicai Felix of Urgil and Epiland of Toledo, adopted Esther because she was his who towards the end of the eighth cen- uncle's daughter, and exceeding fair, cury advanced the notion that Jesus | Erst, ii, 7: but man has nothing in him


that merits this divine act, Ezek. xvi. 5. || a postle, “whether Paul, or Apollos, or In civil adoption, though the name of a Cephas, or the world, or life, or death son be given, the nature of a son may or things present or things to come, all not : this relation may not necessarily be are yours. 1 Cor iii 22.-3. Divine proattended with any change of disposition | tection.“ In the fear of the Lord is or temper. But in spiritual adoption we strong confidence, and his children shall are made partakers of the divine na. have a place of refuge.” Prov. xiv. 26. ture, and a temper or disposition given As the master of a family is engaged to us becoming the relationship we bear, || defend and secure all under his root, Jer. iii. 19.

and committed to his care, so Jesus Much has been said as to the time of || Christ is engaged to protect and defend adoption. Some place it before regene. his people

They shall dwell in a ration, because it is supposed that we | peaceable habitation, and in sure dwell. must be in the family before we can beings and quiet resting places.” Isa. xxxii. partakers of the blessings of it. But it 18. Heb i 14-4, Unspeakable felicity. is difficult to conceive of one before the || They enjcy the most intimate commuother; for although adoption may seem njon with the Father, and with his Son to. precede regeneration in order of Jesus Christ. They have access to his nature, yet not of time; they may be throne at all times, and under all cirdistinguished, but cannot be separated.cumstances. They see divine wisdom “As many as received him to them regulating every affair, and rendering gave he power to become the sons of everything subservient to their good. Gud, even to them that believe on his | Heb. xii. 6-11. The laws, the libername;" John i. 12. There is no adop-ties, the privileges, the relations, the tion, says the great Charnock, without provisions, and the security of this faregeneration. Adoption,” says the mily are all sources of happiness; but same author, “is not a mere relation ; | especially the presence, the approbathe privilege and the image of the sons tion, and the goodness of God, as the of God go together. A state of adoption governor thereof, afford joy unspeakis never without a separation from de-able and full of glory, 1 Pet. i. 8. Prov. filement, 2 Cor. vi. 17, 18. The new name ii. 17. Heb. iv. 16.-5. Eternal glory. in adoption is never given till the new In some cases, civil adoption might be creature be formed. As many as are made null and void, as among the Roled by the spirit of God, they are the mans, when against the right of the sons of God, Rom. viii, 14. Yet these || pontifex, and without the decree of the are to be distinguished. Regeneration, college ; but spiritual adoption, as it is as a physical act, gives us a likeness to divine as to its origin, so it is perpetual God in our nature ; adoption, as a legal || as to its duration. “The Son abideth in act, gives us a right to an inheritance. the house for ever.” John viii. 35. “ The Regeneration makes us formally his inheritance of the saints is incorrupti. sons, by conveying a principle, 1 Pet. i-ble, undefiled, and never fadeth away." 23 ; adoption makes us relatively his 1 Pet. i. 4 “Now are we the sons of sons, by conveying a power, John i. 12, God, and it doth not yet appear what By the one we are instated in the di- we shall be : but we know that when he vine affection ; by the other we are par- || shall appear, we shall be like him, for takers of the divine nature.”

we shall see him as he is.” 1 John, üj. 2. The privileges of adoption are every in the present state we are as children way great and exiensive. 1. It implies at school; but in heaven we shall be as great honour. They have God's name children at home, where we shall alput upon them, and are described as ways behold the face of our heavenly * his people, called by his name," 2 Father, for ever celebrating his praises, Chron. vii. 24. Eph. iii. 15. They are admiring his perfections, and enjoying no longer slaves to sin and the world ; || his presence. “So shall we be ever but, emancipated from its dreadful bon with the Lord.” i Thess. iv 17. dage, are raised to dignity and honour, The evidences of adoption are, 1. Gal. iv. 7: 1 John, üi. 1, 2.--2. Inex- | Renunciation of all former dependenhaustible provision and riches. They cics. When a child is adopted he relininherit all things. Rev. xxi. 7. All the liquishes the object of his past confidence, blessings of a temporal kind that are for and submits himself to the will and pleatheir good shall be given them. Psalm sure of the adopter ; so they who are Ixxxiv. 11. All the blessings of grace brought into the family of God will are treasured up in Jesus Christ for || evidence it by giving up every other obthem. Eph. i. 3. All the blessings of ject so far as it interferes with the will glory shall be enjoyed by them. Col. i. and glory of their heavenly Father. 27. '“All things are yơurs," says the Ephraim shall say, What have I to

do any more with idols?” Hos. xiv 8.1 through Jesus Christ. Eph. i. 5. Applied “Olber lords have had dominion over to believers by the Holy Spirit. Gal. iv. us; but by the only will we make | 6 Rom. viii 15, 16. A blessing of the mention of thy name.". Is. xxvi. 13. || greatest importance. 1 John iii 1, and Matt. xiii. 45, 46. Phil. iii. 8.-2. Affeclays us under an inviolable obligation of lion. This may not always apply to submission, Heb. xii. 9; imitation, Eph. civil adoption, but it always does to spi v. 1; and dependence, Matt. vi 32. See ritual. The children of God feel a re|| Ridgley's and Gill's Body of Divinity, gard for him above every other cbject || art. Adoption ; Charnock's Works, vol. His own excellency, his unspeakable || .1. p. 3–72; Flavel's Works, vol. ii. p. goodness to them his promises of future | 601 ; Brown's System of Nat and Rev. blessings, are all grounds of the strongest Religion, p. 442; Witsii Econ. Fæd. p. love. “Whom have I in heaven but || 165. thee? and there is none upon earth that ADORATION, the act of rendering I desire besides thee." Psalm lxxiji 25. | divine honours, including in it reverence, “ Thou art my portion), saith my soul, esteem, and love ; this is called supreme, therefore will I hope in thee." Lam. iii or absolute. The word is compounded, 24. Luke vii. 47 Ps xviii. 1.-3. Access of ad, “to,” and 08, oris,“ mouth ;” and 10 God with a holy boldness. They who literally signifies to apply the hand to are children by adoption are supposed the mouth, " to kiss the hand;" this to bave the same liberty of access as || being, in the eastern countries, one of those who are children by nature ; so the great marks of respect and submisthose who are partakers of the blessings sion. See Job xxxi. 26, 27. The attiof spiritual adoption will prove it by a tude of adoration, however, we find has reverential, yet familiar address to the not been confined to this mode; standFather of spirits : they will confess their ing, kneeling, uncovering the head, unworthiness, acknowledge their de- prostration, bowing, lifting up the eyes pendance, and implore the mercy and to heaven, or sometimes fixing them favour of God. "Because ye are sons, upon the earth with the body bending God bath sent forth the Spirit of his forward ; sitting with the under parts of Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Fa the thighs resting on the heels, have all ther." Gal. iv. 6. "Through Jesus been used, as expressive of veneration Christ we have access by one Spirit and esteem Whatever be the form, unto the Father.” Eph. ii. 18. Having however, it must be remembered, that such a privilege, “they come boldly to adoration, as an act of worship, is due to the throne of grace, that they may obtain Gud alone. Matt. iv 10 Acis x. 25, 26. mercy, and find grace to help in time of || Rev xix 10. There is, 2, what may be need. Heb. iv. 6.-_4. Obedience. Those || called adorativa human, or paying howho are acopted into a family must mage or respect to persons of great rank obey the laws of that family; so be- || and dignity This has been performed lievers prove themselves adopted by || by bowing, bending, the knee, falling on their obedience to the word and ordi- || che face. The practice of adoration nances of God. “ Ye are my friends, I may be said to be still subsisting in if ye do whatsoever I command you. England, in the ceremony of kissing the John xv 14 “ Whoso keepeth his king or queen's hand, and in serving word. in him verily is the love of God them at table, both being performed perfected: hereby know we that we are kneeling on one knee. There is also, in him. He that saith he abideth in 3, adoration relative, which consists ini him, ought himself also to walk even as wor hip paid to an object as belonging he walked.” 1 John ij. 4, 5.–5. Patient | o or representative of another. In this yet joyful expectation of the inheritance sense the Romanists profess to adure the In civil adoption, ind ed, an inheritance cross not simply or immediately, but in is not always certain ; but in spiritual respect of Jesus Christ whom they supadoption it is To them, who, by pa pose to be on it. This is generally, tient curitinuance in well doing, seek for however, considered by protestants, as glory, and honour, and immortality.coming little short of idolatry. See eternal life" Rom. ji. 7. “We look IDOLATRY. not at the things which are seen, but ac ADVERSARY, one who sets himself the things which are not seen ; for the | in opposition to another: one of the names things which ar- seen are temporal, but of Satan. See Satay. the things which are not seen are eter- ADVERSITY, a state which is opnal.” 2 Cor iv. 18 Rom. vi. 23. Heb.posite to our wishes, and the cause of xi. 26, 27. From the consideration of sorrow. It stands opposed to prosperity. the whole of this doctrine, we may learn See AFFLICTION. that adoption is an act of free grace ADULTERY, an unlawful commerce

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