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By his lady Christian, daughter of minority, and at law got the better Edward lord Bruce, of Kinlofs in of all his adversaries. the kingdom of Scotland, he had By his wife Elizabeth, second three fons; the eldest of whom, daughter of William Cecil, earl of William, made the tour of Europe, Salisbury, he had a son, William, accompanied by his father's tutor, who also travelled for improvement, Mr. Hobbes, and turned out an ac- and in his father's life-time reprecomplished young nobleman. sented the county of Derby in the

In the beginning of the troubles first parliament of Charles II. He he retired with king Charles to was a nobleman of a high spirit, and York, and afterwards attended him fine accomplishments, elegant, senin his parliament at Oxford. Then fible, brave, and liberal. He ache withdrew beyond seas, and, when companied Mr. Montagu, the Engthe parliament prevailed, his great lish ambassador in France; and was eftate was requestered. His brother, insulted on the stage at the opera in Mr. Charles Cavendish, served the Paris by three French officers, one king with equal courage and fideli- of whom he struck on the face. All ty, signalized his extraordinary va- three, being intoxicated with liquor, lour on many different occafions, immediately drew their swords, and attained to the rank of a general, attacked him with great fury. He and was sain valiantly fighting at set his back to one of the scenes, Gainsborough, after having, by a and made a gallant defence ; but he life of honour, and a disposition received several wounds, and, in all equally affable and humane, endear- probability, must have been mura ed himself to all his acquaintance. dered, had not a strong Swiss, beHis brother, the earl, returned to longing to Mr. Montagu, caught England after the Restoration, and him up in his arms, and thrown him spent the remainder of his life in over the stage into the parterre. ease and affluence, exerting the vir- One of his arms was torn in his fall tues of religion and hospitality. He by an iron spike; but he soon recowas enabled to gratify his liberal vered. The three officers were, by difpofition by the care and economy the French king's command, comof his mother, one of the most fpi- mitted to prison ; from whence they rited and accomplished women of were not released, till he himself in her time. She had obtained the terceded in their behalf. In parliawardship of her son, whose estate ment, lord Cavendish signalized was encumbered with valt debts, himself in opposition to the court, and near thirty vexatious law-suits. and made some severe speeches By her steady and fagacious manage- against the measures of the adıninisment she payed off the debts in his tration, which indeed were not de

ti'cbed with Christopher Monk, duke of Albemarle ; and afterwards to Ralph, bake of Montague : lady Frances, who efpoufed John Campbell, lord Glenorchy, dejt son of the earl of Braidalbain in Scotland; lady Margaret, married to John Holas, earl of Clare, afterwards duke of Newcastle ; lady Catherine, married 10 Ibemas Tufton, earl of Thanet; and lady Arabella, whoje buloand was Charles Spencer, earl of Sunderland. February 1761.



fensible. He spoke with great bold- earl invited the theriff to his house, ness and propriety, contracted an where he detained him a prisoner, intimate friendship with lord Ruffel, until he had compounded for his and was one of the chiefs who pro- own liberty, by granting a bond moted the exclusion-bill againt the for the payment of the 30,000 1. king's brother. Perhaps, like other The countess dowager, his mother, honest men, he was heated by al- solicited his pardon of the king, tercation and opposition to a dan- and begged his majesty would acgerous degree of the democratical cept, in payment of the fine, bonds spirit. When lord Ruffel had re- and acknowledgments for twice the ceived sentence of death, he offered sum, which the earl's father, and to change cloaths with him in pri- his grandmother, had lent to his son, and stay there in his room, royal father and brother in their while the other should escape : but greatest distresses; but this proposal lord Ruffel was too noble to accept was rejected. The earl had renthis generous offer. When Mr. dered himself obnoxious to James; Thynne, with whom also he main- and the king of England never fortained an intimacy of friendship, got, nor forgave, the enemies of was assaslinated by the contrivance the duke of York. Under this load, of count Coningsinark, and that fo- and many other family incumreigner had been acquitted by a brances, the earl of Devonshire bepacked jury, he sent a challenge to gan and finished the magnificent bim, charging him with treachery palace of Chatsworth. In this reand murder, and defying him to the treat, he, by his influence and pocombat-proof, which, however, the pularity, became one of the chief count declined.

inftruments of the Revolution. He In the reign of James II. this earl made application to the prince of being insulted in the verge of the Orange, invited him over, concertcourt by colonel Culpepper, was so ed measures with the earl of Danby, much master of himself, that, upon the lord Delamere, fir Scroop Howe, the colonel's fubmiffion, he pardon- and a few other gentlemen; and reed him, on condition he should ne- cured a great number in the interests ver more appear at Whitehall; but of this design. As soon as he heard meeting him afterwards in the pre- of the prince's landing, he assemfence-chamber, where Culpepper bled a considerable number of the seemed to eye him with insolence nobility and gentry at Nottingham, of disdain, the earl wrung his nose, where they subscribed a declaration and caned him out of the apart. in favour of the prince; formed a ment. For this outrage he was pro regiment of horse, received the ficuted by information, sentenced princess Anne, who had Red from to pay a fine of 30,000l. and, tho' her father, conducted her to her a peer, con mitted to the prison of husband at Oxford, and then joined the King's Binch, until the fine the prince of Orange at Sion-house. should : payed. From thence he He was afterwards one of the leadesc:ped to his feat at Chatsworih; ing men in parliament who voted and the theriff of Derhymire was the throne vacant, and presented ordered to appréhend him. The the crown of England to the prince


and princess, by whom he was con- Anne, and bore the crown between stituted lord lieutenant of Derby- the dukes of Richmond and Somerfire, appointed lord steward of the set. He was appointed one of the houshold, and installed knight of commissioners for the union with the garter.

Scotland. He continued a staunch In the following parliament, the afferter of whig principles, without house of lords, upon his complaint, the narrow prejudices of party. He ordered the keeper of Newgate to was moderate and charitable, Ginbring, in safe custody, to the bar of cerely attached to the religion of the house, the judges of the King's his country; a good judge of men, Bench who had fined him in 30,000l. a patron of merit, a tolerable schoand committed him to prison. They Jar, and an indifferent poet. He accordingly appeared, acknowledged died in the year 1707, leaving by their crime, and begged his lord. his wife, lady Mary Butler, daughship’s pardon. Then the house re- ter of the duke of Orinond, three solved, “ That the court of King's fons; of whom the eldest, William, Bench, in over-ruling the earl of succeeded him in his titles and Devonshire's plea of privilege of estate. parliament, and forcing him to plead This nobleman had made a camover in chief, it being the usual paign under king William in Flantime of privilege, did thereby com- ders; queen Anne constituted him mit a manifeft breach of the privi- captain of the yeomen of her guard. lege of parliament i and that the He was afterwards declared lord fine of 30,000 l. imposed by the steward of the houshold, sworn of court of King's Bench upon the earl the privy council; appointed lord of Devonshire, was excessive and warden and chief justice in eyre of exorbitant, against Magna Charta, all the forests, parks, and chaces the common right of the subject, beyond Trent; lord lieutenant and and the law of the land." They custos rotulorum of the county of afterwards declared and adjudged, Derby, and installed knight of the “ That no peer-of this realm, at Garter. He was nominated one of any time, ought to be committed the regents of the kingdom for the for the non-payment of a fine to the better securing the protestant succerking."

sion; and, when George I. ascended This earl of Devonshire lived in the throne, declared lord steward of great splendour; and exhibited his the houshold, and sworn of the pri. tafte for magnificence, in a remark- vy council. He acted, in the sequel, able manner, when he attended as president of the council, and one king William, in the year 1691, at of the lords juftices, while the king his grand congress held in the Hague. was in Germany, both under George There he outfhone all the princes I. and his fucceffor. He married in superb liveries, maily plate, and the lady Rachel, daughter of Wilsumptuous furniture.

liam lord Ruffel, hy whom he had lo the year 1694, he was created four sons and several daughters. He marquis of Harrington and duke of was an amiable nobleman, who inDevon bire. He acted as lord high herited the virtues of his ancestors ; Iteward at the coronation of queen died in the year 1729; and was fuc

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ceeded in his title and fortune by the extent of his understanding, the his eldest son William, the heir of goodness of his heart, and the gehis good qualities. He likewise suc- nerosity of his disposition. Upon ceeded to all his places; was cap- his return from that kingdom he tain of the band of pensioners, pri- was made master of the horse to vy counsellor, keeper of the privy his majesty; and afterwards fucseal, knight of the Garter, lord lieu- ceeded the late duke of Grafton in tenant of Ireland, lord steward of the high office of lord chamberlain, his majesty's houshold, and one of which he still possesses. the regency in the king's absence. He is known by the titles of the He married Catherine, daughter most noble prince William Cavenand fole heir of John Hoskins, Esq; dinh, duke of Devon Dhire, marquis by whom he had four fons and three of Harrington, earl of Devonshire, daughters; namely, William, mar- and baron Cavendish of Hardwick, quis of Hartington, the present duke lord chamberlain of his majesty's of Devonshire, who was called up by houshold, knight of the most noble writ to the house of peers during order of the Garter, lord lieutenant the life of his father; lord George and custos rotulorum of the county Cavendish, knight of the thire for of Derby, lord high treasurer of Derby ; lord Frederick Cavendish, a Ireland, governor of the county of general officer in the army; lord Cork in that kingdom, and goverJohn Cavendish, member of parlia- nor of the Charter-house, and one ment for Weymouth; lady Caro- of the lords of his majesty's privy lina, married to lord Duncannon, council. son of the earl of Besborough, of the Arms. Sable, three harts heads, kingdom of Ireland; lady Elizabeth, caboshed, argent, attired, or. who espoused the honourable John Creft. On a wreath, a snake noué, Ponsonby, Efq; second son to the proper. earl of Besborough; and lady Rachel, Supporters. Two harts, each gorgmarried to Horatio lord Walpole, of ed with a garland, or, Sprig of roses, Woollerton in Norfolk.

proper; attired, or. The present duke of Devonshire, Motto. Cavendo tutus, Latin.-In whose character is altogether ami- caution safe. able, succeeded his father in the Chief Seats. At Chatsworth and year 1755 ; was appointed lord lieu- Hardwick in Derbyshire, and Detenant of Ireland, where he was uni- vonshire-house in Piccadilly. versally esteemed and beloved for

Conclufion of a Letter to a Friend, concerning Horace's Epiftle to the Pisos,

or the Art of Poetry.

M y dear friend, mistake me not; an argument, to support his cause,

W I impeach not Horace's sense that has the appearance of being or accuracy; I applaud his art, his va- conclusive, though it is not altogefrities, as Persius terms it. As an able ther so in reality; much more parcounsel may be allowed to advance donable is the poet who applies to

the the imagination, in order to bring outstript, and to acknowledge my about a good purpose, though the unacquaintance with poetry; tho', conclusion should not follow from to tell the truth, I never applied mythe premisses with a philosophical self to it seriously and regularly.” rigour. I doubt not but Horace Here let me observe, that fane himself was sensible of the fraud; seems most naturally to agree with but it was an honest fraud, if I may didici; and that the point should be bo speak. The end was good, but placed immediately after the former, the means crafty.

rather than the latter. If, instead Another strong argument, to one of fane, plane, or prorfus, had been of Piso's rank, to diffuade him from put, then either of these must have giving himself too much up to been joined to ne feire. But the sense poetry, is couched in the following and the ridicule is, I think, stronger paffage :

with Jane, as I have pointed the Ego nec fudium fine divite vena, verle ; but this ihall not much Nec rade quid poffit video ingenium; alterius fic dispute. Ältera poscit opem res, conjurat amice. Another proof, ftill more direct Qui fiudat optatum cursa contingere metam and full, that an itch of writing Multa talit fecitque puer furdavit & alfit

verses was modifh at that time, may Abftinuit evenere & Baccbo.

be seen from the following paffage As if he had said, “ If your ge- in his Epistle to Auguftus, ver. 108: njus were ever fo extraordinary, even as excellent as the divine Homer's,

Mutavit mentem populus levis, & calet une

Scribendi Audio : pueri patresque feveri, yet you can never be a great poet Fronde comas vintti, conant & carmina di&tant.. without great pains and application. Ipfe ego, qui nullos me affirmo fcribere versus, You must often labour hard, and Invenior Partbis, mendacior & prius orto mortify yourself, abstaining from

Sole vigil calamum & chartas & Scrinia posco,

Navem agere ignarus navis timet ; Abrotanum wine and women." A hard leffon

ægris this, for a young man of quality! Non audet, nifi qui didicit dare; quod mediAnd a little after,

corum eft

Premittunt medici; traflant fabrilia fabri :
Ne fatis eft dixife ego mira poemata pango, Scribimus indosti, dostique poemata paffim.
Occupet extremum foabies; mibi turpe relinqui,
Et quod non didici fane, nescire fateri.

Now the light people bend to other aims; This is a fine contrast to the lines A lust of scribling ev'ry breast inflames; mentioned immediately before, and Our youth, our senators, with bays are

crown'd, a strong ridicule on youths pretend. And at our feasts eternal rhimes go round, ing to poetry, without the proper Ev'n I, who verse and all its works deny, qualifications. It is likewise a proof, Can fajthless Parthians lying fons out-lie: that this was a fashionable folly And, ere the rising sun displays his light,

Ti amongst the young men of rank in

I call for tablets, papers, pens, and write, Horace's time.

A pilot only dares a vessel steer ; It may be para- A doubtful drug unlicens'd doctors fear; phrased thus: “ All this you must Musicians are to founds alone confin'd; undergo ; for it is far from being And ey'ry artist hath his crade affign'd; suficient to say, I make extremely

But every desperate blockhead dares to

write : pretty copies of verses, better than

Verse is the trade of every living wight. most of my rivals : devil take the

FRANCIS. hindmott, I think it disgraceful to be

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