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tue and exemplary life, yet he confeffed of eminent parts and facultios in Oxford, his fault with the most sincere and dutie beside those who resorted thither from Lon. ful applications to his father that could be don; who all found their lodgings there made for his pardon ; and the prejudice he a's ready as in the colleges ; nor did the had brought upon his fortune, by bring. lord of the house know of their coming or ing no portion to him, he offered to repair, going, nor who were in his house till he by refigning his whole estate to his disposal, came to dinner or supper, where all ftilk and to rely wholly upon bis kindnefs for his met; there was no troublesome ceremony own maintenance and support. And to that or constraint to forbid men to come to the purpose, he had caused conveyances to be house, or to make them weary of staying drawn by counsel, which he brought réady there; so that many came thither to engroiled to his father, and was willing study, finding all the books they could deto seal and execute them, that they might fire in bis library, and all the persons tobe yalid. But his father's passion and in- gether, whose company they could with, dignation so far transported him (though and not find in any other society. he was a gentleman of excellent parts) In this happy and delightful converfathat he refused any reconciliation, and tion and restraint he remained in the rejected all the offers that were made him country some years; and until he had of the estate ; so that his son remained made a prodigious progress in learning. Atill in the possession of his estate against Among other things, he made himself in his will, for which he afterwards found a very short time a perfect matter of the great reason to rejoice. But he was, for Greek tongue. When he undertook to the present; so much afflicted with his fan learn it, he refolved not to see Londen, ther's difpleasure, that he transported him, which he loved above all places, till he felf and his wife into Holland, resolving had perfeétly learned it ; and accordingly to buy some military command, and he pursued the study of that language with to spend the remainder of his life in that such industry, that he soon obtained a profesfior ; but the campaign of that thorough knowledge of it, and accurately summer proving quite inactive, and find. read all the Greek historians. Before he ing no opportunity to accommodate him. was 23 years of age he perused all the felf, he dropped his defign and returned to Greek and Latin fathers, and was indesaEngland, refolving to retire to his books, tigable in looking over all books, which that since he was not like to improve him with great expence be caused to be transfelf in arms, he might advance in letters, mitted to him from all parts. He like

Being a man of a fine genius, he foon wise read all the most allowed and auentered upon a strict couse of Audy, ap- thentic ecclefiaftical writers, and all the plying himself at first to polite literature councils with wonderful care and obfer. and to poetry, in which he made such ruc. vation. With this great industry he bad sessful attempts, that be gained the csteem a memory retentive of all he had ever and admiration of the most eminent poets read, and an understanding and judgment of his time: But afterwards giving him to apply it seasonably and appofitely, with felf up to more folid parts of learning, he the most dexterity and address, and, the frequently retired, for the sake of books least pedantry and atfectation, that ever and conversation, to Oxford, and to his seat man, who knew so much was poffelled at Great Tew, near that univerôty. There with, of what quality soever. • ' de contracted a familiarity and friendship In 1633, about which time his father with the most polite and accurate men; died, he was made one of the gentlewbo found such immenfentity of wit, and men of his majesty's privy chamber. Not. such a folidity of judgment in him, so infi- withstanding which, he continued frequent. aite a fancy restrained by most exa& reason. Iy to retire to Great Tew and Oxford, ing, such a vaft fund of knowledge, that lie as before, for the sake of the company of was not ignorant in any thing, yet such learned and ingenious men. He was likean exceffive humility, as if he had known wise a member of the most polite societies, Dothing; that they frequently resorted, and in 1639 he was in the expedition against dwelt with him, as in a college situated in the Scots; and though he received some a purer air. There were Dr. Sheldon, repulse in the command of a troop of Dr. Morley, Dr. Hammond, Dr, Earles, horse of which he had the promise, he Mr. Chilingworth, and indeed all men went a volunteer with the earl of Essex.



Upon his going to this expedition he was over whom he ruled, a better and furer complimented with fine copies of verses, strength and wall to the king, than the both by Mr. Waller and Mr. Cowley, rea was to the kingdom ; and by beget

About a year after he was chosen a ting a mutual distrust, and by that a mumember of the house of commons for tual disaffection between them, to hazard Newport in the Ine of Wight, in the par- the danger even of the destruction of liament which began at Westminster the both.” He had, on the 5th of December szth of April, 1640; and from the debates, before, made another speech against the which were managed with the greatest lord Finch and the judges, wherein he gravity and fobriety, he contracted an ex. observed, “ thus the cause of all the mi. treme reverence to parliaments. From feries the nation had suffered, and the cause the unhappy and most untimely diffolu of all the jealoulies they had that they tion of this parliament he harboured some Thould yet suffer, was, that a most excellent jealowfy and prejudice to the court, to- prince had been most infinitely abused, by wards which he was not immoderately in his judges telling him, that by policy he clined before. He was re-elected for the might do what he pleased," Against the fame place in the ensuing parliament, earl of Strafford he also spoke, tho' buç which commenced the 3d of November little. He only said, that they had acfollowing; and in the beginning of it de- cured a great person of high-creason, for clared himfelf very sharply and severely intending to subvert our fundamental laws, against those exorbitances of the court, and to introduce arbitrary governinent, which had been thought moft grievous to " which (adds he) we suppose he meare the ftate. For he was so rigid an obser- to do.” Lord Clarendon observes, that ver of establithed laws and rules, that he those who did not know his composition could not endure the least breach or devi. to be as free from revenge ús it was from ation from them : and thought no mir- pride, thought that his Marpness against t'lief so intolerable as the presumption of the earl of Strafford, might proceed froin ministers of state, to break pofitive rules the memory of some unkindness not withfor reasons of ftate ; or judges, to trans- out a mixture of injustice from him towards gress known laws upon the title of con- his father ; in which they were certainly Yeniency or necessity. This made him, mistaken, for in the whole of his conduct Contrary to his natural gentleness and tem- he had no other view shan the good of his per, so severe upon the lord-keeper Finch, country. Though he was severe he was whom he impeached on the 14th of Ja- far from being violent against either of the nuary, 1640-1, in the name of the Com- two peers, and, in particular, when it was mons of England, of having traiterously moved in the House of Commons, that the and wickedly endeavoured to subvert the earl of Strafford, might forthwith (at the fundamental laws, and established govern- time he was foram accused) be impeached ment of the realm ; for being an adviser of high creason, the lord Falkland modestand promoter of thip-money, &c. He ly desired the house to consider, 'whether made a long speech, in which he enlarged it would not suit better with the graupon this affair with great severity of ar- "vity of their proceedings, first to digest gument. After having instanced in the many of those particulars which had particulars of the impeachment, he added, "been mentioned, by a committee, be. that “the crimes of the lord Finch were 'fore they sent up to the house of lords in the highest degree of parliamentary "to accuse him?" though he declared him. treason...a treason as well againft the king self well satisfied that there was enough to as against the kingdom ; for whatsoever charge him, was against the whole, was undoubtedly He had contracted a prejudice against against the head; which took from his archbishop Laud, whom he wished to have majesty the ground of his rule, tbe laws: seen less engaged in the business of the (for if foundations were destroyed, the ftate, and against fogje other of the bipinnacles were most endangered ;) which shops, which so far biaffed his judgment, took from his majesty the principal ho-' as to make hiin concur in the first billio nour of his rule, the ruling over freemen take away the votes of bishops in the ....a noble power; which endeavoured to House of Lords, though he refused to be take from his majesty the principal support one of the committee to draw up reasons of his rule, the hearts and affections of those for it. The reasons which induced him

to give his consent to this first bill were and gave the house all the opposition ho there: he did not then understand the ori- could; nor was he reserved in acknow. ginal of their right and suffrage there ; ledging, that Mr. Hambden had assured and there was at that time such a furious him if that bill might pass, there would combination against the government of be nothing more attempted against the the church by bishops, that he thought a church. For tho'' he thus voted against less composition than the dispensing with the bishops, yet we are assured that he their intermeddling in secular affairs, would had the order itself in perfect reverence, not preserve the order. However, certain and thought too great encouragement could it is he made, on the oth of February, not possibly be given to learning, nor too 1640-1, a very violent speech against great rewards to learned men, them ; in the first part of which he laid He still continued averse to the court, heavy complaints to their charge, and sets from a jealousy left it should be imagined forth the evils and mischiefs they had oc- that his views in thus altering his senticafioned; but in the latter part he greatly ments were the hopes of preferment, than softens what he had before said against which nothing was more opposite to his then, and speaks as much in favour of inclinations. He was satisfied that the that order ; enlarging upon the great be- king had fully compensated for the errors, nefits which had accrued to the world and of his administration, and therefore conto Christianity from 'it; and that there sidered that espousing the cause of his rowere many among them truly deserving vereign was in effect nothing more than of the office, and whose lives were with being an advocate in the cause of justice, out blen ilh or reproach, equally untouched of virtue, of honesty, and of his country, by guilt, envy, or malice. "If we consi- without entertaining the least private views • • der this (adds be), this confideration of his own, Nay, so far did he carry his ' will arise, that bishops may be good fears left he thould be suspected of any self< men.' ?

interested motives, that he even affected a Fiom his proceedings in this business mororeness to the court and courtiers; and rome concluded that he was no friend to left nothing undone which might prevent, the church, or the established government or divert the king or queen's favour toof it: and many in the House of Commons wards him. Therefore, when he heard began to imagine and hope, that he might that he was to be made a privy-counsellor be brought to a further compliance with and recretary of state, he resolved to de. their designs. Indeed the great opinion cline the one, and refuse the other. But he had of the uprightness and integrity of on the earneft intreaty of the king, secondthose persons who appeared most active ed by the vigorous remonftrances of Mr. against the court, kepe him for some time Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon, who froin suspecting any, design against the represented to him in the strongest lights peace of the kingdom ; and though he the great service he might be of to his madifered from them commonly in conclua jesty's affairs; and when he confidered fion, he believed long their purposes were that his refusal might bring some blemish honest. But when he grew better inform on them, and that men would think he ed what was law, the study of which he had refused so great an honour and trust, had very little, if at all, attended to, and because with it he must have been obliged discerned in them a dere to controul that to do somewhat else not justifiable, he deJaw by a vote of the house ; when he per termined to accept of the seals. Besides ceived that the commons, under the spe. which reasons he had another, which was, cious name of reforming the abuses of the left he might be thought to avoid it out government, were endeavouring to extir- of fear to do an ungracious thing to the pate the monarchy, and overthrow the House of Commons, (who were very much conftitution both in church and Itate ; no troubled at the displacing of Sir Henry man opposed more those attempts, and Vane) being determined to let them see gave the adverfe party more trouble by that as he was not afraid of the court when reason and argument. Accordingly, about he thought an opposition to its measures fix months after passing the above-men- was praise-worthy, and had accordingly tioned bill, for taking away the bishop's opposed it ; so he as little feared to opvotes, when the same argument came pose the parliament when his observation again into debate, be changed his opinion, and experience had caused him to discern

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their evil intentions, of which he had for keeper Littleton to demand from the earls' merly not the least suspicion. When the of Eflex and Holland the badges of their commons heard of his preferments, they offices of lord chamberlain and groom of were very much offended and enraged the stole; but on that lord's earnest de.

Whilft he continued in this office of fe- fire to be excused from ro disagreeable an' cretary of state, there were two things he office, the king wrote a letter immediately, could never bring himself to. The one all in his own hand, to lord Falkland ; in was, employing of spies, or giving any which, with some gracious exprefsions of countenance or entertainment to them ; excuse for putting that work upon him, her namely, to such persons, who by commu- ordered him to require the surrender of the nication of guilt or diffimulation of man- enfigos of their offices from thore two Ders, wind themselves into such trusts and earls. He was a little troubled at receive' secrets, as enable them to make discove- ing this command: they were persons ries. The other, the liberty of opening from whom he had always received great letters, upon a fufpicion that they might civilities, and with whom he had much contain matter of dangerous consequence. credit; and this harm office miglit have With regard to spies, he would say, such been more naturally and as effectually perinstruments must be void of all ingenuity formed by a gentleman-usher. However, and common honesty before they could be lie would make no excuse, and so went to of use, and afterwards they could never both, and acquainted them with his orders, be fit to be credited; and that no single and they delivered to him soon after the preservation could be worth so general staff and key. He was likewise ordered, a wound and corruption of human society, to require the great seal from the lord as the cherishing such persons would carry keeper ; but by Mr. Hyde's interpofition, with it. And, as to opening letters, he his majesty was afterwards reconciled to thought it such a violation of the law of lord Littleton, nature, that no qualification by office could Affairs growing every day worse ard' justify him in the trespass; and though he worse, and the two houses being become a was convinced by the necessity and the ini- scene of furbulence and con!ufion, in quity of the time, that those advantages of which the voice of reason was disregarded, . information were not to be declined, and and moderation, equity, and juftice had were neceffary to be practised, he found given place to violence, oppression, andmeans to put it off from himself.

iniquity; in such an unhappy juncture ic" He served his majesty in the employ- was in vain to attempt any thing for the ments he had conferred upon him with king's service in parliament, and therefore great ability, as he was well versed in the lord Falkland retired to his majetty at languages, and with the utmost integrity, York, as he was satisfied he could do nobeing above corruption of any kind, the thing which might in the least benefit his' very thought of which he abhorred; tho' affairs in London. At York it was that he was at first so little acquainted with bu- he jointly, with Sir John Colepepper, finess and the forms of it, that he did not composed an answer to the parliament's believe he could execute the office with nineteen propofitions, which was shortly any fufficiency. The king's confidence after printed. On Sir John's being adwas to great in him, that he entrusted to vanced to the place of master of the rolls, him, jointly with Sir John Colepepper, lord Falkland moved the king to bestow then knight of the thire for the county of the office of chancellor of the Exchequer Kent, and afterwards chancellor of the Ex- on Mr. Hyde, which his majesty immedichequer, and Mr. Hyde, the management ately complied with. of his affairs in parliament: about which june isth, 1642, he was one of the time his majesty retiring to York, he or- lords who signed a declaration, wherein dered them to meet constantly and consult they professed, they were fully persuaded together, and conduct them the best they that his majesty had no intention to raise could, and to give him conftant advice war upon his parliament. Some mort what he was to do, without which the time after, he subscribed to levy twenty king declared he would take no ftep in horse for his majesty's service. Upon the parliament, all which was done ac- which and other accounts, he was excording to his majesty's orders.

cepted from the parliament's favour, in the The king had commanded the lord instructions given by the two houses to theis


general, the earl of Essex. He attended hope of peace, he would be more vigo. the king to Bristol, and to the battle of rous, and exceedingly follicitous to press Edge-hill, where, after the enemy was any thing which' he thought might prorouted, he had like to incur great danger mote it. And fitting among his friends, by interposing to save those who had often after a deep silence, and frequent thrown away their. arms. He was also, fighs, he would with a thrill and rad acwith his majesty at Oxford *; and at the cent, repeat the word peace, peace! and hege of Gloucester, where he exposed him would passionately profess, that the very self to much danger.

agony he endured on account of the war, From the beginning of the civil war, and the view of the calamities and defolahis natural chearfulness and vivacity grew tion the kingdom did, and must endure, clouded, and a kind of sadness and dejec- took his feep from him, and would shortly tion of spirit stole upon him, which he break his heart. This extreme uneasiness had never been used to. After the reso- seems to have hurried him on to his de. lution of the two houses not to admit any struction; for, the morning before the treaty for peace, those indispositions which first battle of Newbury, he called for a had before touched him, grew into a per- clean Mirt, and being asked the reason fect habit of unclearfulness; and he, who of it, answered, that “ if he were Nain in had formerly been easy and affable to all the battle, they should not find his body men, became on a sudden less commu- « in foul linnen." Being dissuaded by his nicable, and very sad, pale, and extremely friends to go into the fight, as having no affected with the spleen. In his cloaths call to it, and being no military officer, and habit, which he had before always he said, “he was weary of the times, and minded with great neatness, industry, and “ foresaw much misery to his country, expence, he became not only incurious, “and did believe he should be out of it but too negligent; and in his reception of “ere night." Putting himself therefore suitors, so quick, sharp, and severe, that it into the first rank of the lord Byron's re. made him be looked upon as proud and giment, he was not with a inuskett ball imperious, than which no man was ever in the lower part of the belly, on the 20th Jers. When theçe was any overture, or of September, 1643, and in the instant

• Dr. Welwood relates in his memoirs, that during their residence at Oxford, his majesty went one day to see the public library, where he was thewed, among other books, a Virgil nobly printed and exquisitely bound. Lord Falkland, to divert the king, would have his majesty make a trial of his fortune by the Sørtes Virg:liane, an usual kind of divination in ages palt, made by opening a Virgil, Whereupon, the king opening the book, the period which happened to come up, was that part of Dido's imprecation against Æneas, Æneid, book IV. ver. 615, &c. part of which is thus tran. flared by Mr. Dryden.

Oppress'd with numbers in th' unequal field, · His men discourag'd, and himself expell'd,

Let him for succour sue from place to place,

Torn from his subjects and his son's embrace. King Charles seeming concerned at this accident, the lord Falkland who observed it. would likewise try his own fortune in the fame manner; hoping he might fall upon fome passage that could have no relation to his case, and thereby divert the king's thoughts from any impression the other might make upon him: but the place lord Falkland stumbled upon was yet more suited to his destiny than the other had been to the king's; being the following expressions of Evander, upon the untimely death of hie son Pallas, Æneid, book, II. ver. 152, &c. transated by Mr. Dryden, as under:

Oh Pallas ! thou hast failed thy plighted word,
To fight with caution, not to tempt the sword:
I warn'd thee, but in vain ; for well I knew
What perils youthfui ardour wou'd pursue :
That boiling blood wou'd carry thee too far;
Young as thou wert in dangers, raw to war!
O curft eflay of arms, disastrous doom,
Prelude of bloody fields, and fights to come!

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