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180 A Letter from a Gentleman among the Dead 10 Lord Lyttleton. British against bribery and corruption, and re- All this seems strange to me in this my quiring qualifications, thews you want to retirement from the world. If I was now exclude some who defire to be admitted : upon earth, either a nobleman or a comour parliaments were sollicitous to retain moner, I should choose peace and quiet, those, who would wish to be exempt from both public and private; I should be hapattending. If the wages for attending par- py in preserving religion and morality liament were encreased, and even allow- among my countrymen, instead of suborn. ing for the difference in the value of mo- ing them to take the oath falsely about bric ney, exceeded what they were in my days, bery and corruption, debauching their I thould not be much surprised at this al minds by giving them money, that is of teration : for as the time of your atten. no use to their families, and keeping them dance, amounts to 220 or 230 days, a in continued drunkenness, that makes member's wages would come to 900 them incapable for some time of serving or 1000 l. per annun : but, as I find their country. your members expe&t no wages at all, To this, my lord, I attribute the loss of their conduct is something extraordinary. what is found only in romances and novels I am told by a noble earl, who, while among you, and what was common in my plain Sir Robert, had a principal hand in days....I mean, fimplicity of manners among the this change, that the many places and country people. Rustic innocence was, in my penfions, which your minifters have to time, as much among the men as among the dispose of among the members of the women ; but, there is scarce any mode of house of commons, would, in his time, vice or folly, that is not at this time equalmake every one willing to come in for a ly known and practised by both sexes, and share. I cannot, however, imagine, that equally in the most obscure villages as the these places and pensions are sufficient to most populous cities. Let us consider, gratify 558 members; especially if we that a million of money was spent in consider that some of the 230 in your treats and bribery at the last general eleclordihip's house would be naturally glad tion; and, if we take into the calculation to put in their pretensions. I will be the contested ele&tions, for which there bold to say, that, if an account was are some three, some four candidates, and taken of the number of persons ruined, the money that is spent by their friends among those who gain their election on these occasions, we shall not find the and those who lose it, we should find, computation too high. What place then that all the places and pensions given will not the influence of this immense sum among them, would not bring the bal- extend to ? Not even the smallest hamlet lance to be in their favour. Besides,

can escape ; and you may as well look for we are told, that the times are changed purity of manners, innocence and fimplici. from what they were, when the noble earl ty among the Capuaus of old, or in your before mentioned was in power. Your Coyent-garden, as in any place that an present king bas commanded his ministers ele&tion guinea, has found its way to. If not to interfere in elections, and his mi. I am too antiquated in my notions, if you nifters with great readiness obey him; discover too much of the lardator temporis places and pensions will no longer be given afti in me, I shall very readily kiss the to any one ; because he is a member of rod of correction, from the hand of your parliament, because he can, or has served Lordship his country. Glorious change! yet I still find, as much money is squandered, as

I am, my lord, many electors drunk, as many candidates Your lordship's ruined, and as many returning officers

. Most obedient humble servant, p....d in this general election, as any dur. ing the noble earl's adminiftration : and I

JOHN SHOR DICH. hear, but I cannot believe it, that some of the members of your lordship's house have

N. B. John Shordich in the reign of Edbeen as busy in canvalling, bribing, and

ward III. sued the county of Mindlesex (for influencing electors, as if there was no

which he was returned to Parliament) to act of parliament against it,

recover his wages,

A foort

Afbort Account of the Factory of Bencoolen, and the land of Carack. THE factory of Bencoolen is fituated captains to stay till his two thips returned

1 on the idland of Sumatra, in Afia, from the river, when he foized them both. and produces some drugs, but chiefty pep- When the Turks at Bufsorah got advice of per. There has been lately some new this, the mausoleem, or governor, fent peoforts erected, but it was always in but an pie to offer to return the money, which the indifferent condition, in point of strength, baron had been forced to pay, which was acboth on account of the nature of the works, cepted, and the ships released... At this time the small number of Europeans residing the baron got a grant of the island from the there, and the natural timidity of the na Persians to the Dutch company, and he has tives, who might occasionally affift in a built a tolerable good fort (garrisoned with defence,

100 Europeans) a little town, and also has The island of Carack, being little got together about 4000 inhabitants, and known in Europe, and not at all re- as the island is extremely well fituated for marked by travellers, fome small account trade, being nearly in the middle channel of its present state by a person lately come between the shores of Persia and Arabia from thence, may not be unacceptable to Felix, and about 30 leagues from the the public.

mouth of Bussorah river, where all tips About eight years ago Baron Kniphau- bound to Bufforah, must call for pilots; fen being resident for the Dutch com ...promises in a little time to be a very pany at Buflorah, on some trifling dispute flourishing place. with the Turkish government, was arrest. The soil is rather sandy, but produces ed and thrown into prison, and as it is very very good wheat. In several parts of the common among the Turks, had no way to inand are remains of Christian churches, by procure his enlargement but by submitting which it is conjectured, the Portuguese to pay an exorbitant fine, to the amount of were once settled here, tho' on the Dutch near 12000l. sterling, which he did, and coming, it was only inhabited by a few poor there being two Dutch ships in the river, Persian fishermen, who were, and are till he immediately set sail with them for Bata. the pilots to BufTorah.... Round the iland via, where staying only a few days, he re- are to be found some fine pearls, but they turned again into the Gulph with two lie in deep waters. ships of force, landed here with a few work. Carack is about five miles in length and men, some timber, and other materials for two in breadth, in the track of those who building a fort, and sent his two ships travel from our settlements in India to within the mouth of Bufforah river to Aleppo by the way of the Gulph. make reprisals.... In the mean time two of The military commanding officer at the Turks Thips, bound to Bufforal, stopt Carack, was, in 1758, a Scotch Hollander, at Carack (as was usual) for pilots to carry and served as interpreter with the English thern up the river..... The baron, not being who vifted the place, able to detain them forcibly, amused the

Extract from the Memoirs of Ifaac Darkin, alias Dumas, who was lately ex

ecuted at Oxford. He was the son of a cork-cutter in East- ed the keeper of it ; who, for that favour, " cheap, London, but being of a wild applied to Mr. Nugent, then a lord of the difpofition, he took to the road for money. Treasury, in Darkin's behalf, and obtained In February 1758, he was tried at Chelms. the king's pardon, on condition of his ferford for robbing Cape. Cockburn, and re- ving in Antigua. ceived sentence of death ; but, in considera- When he joined the regiment at Antigua, tion of his youth, was respited, and re- he found the life of a soldier very disagreemaining in gaol till the next aslizes, the able, and therefore resolved to defert; and lentence was changed into transportation for by infinuating himself into the good opi14 years. Not long after this, a fcheme was nion of the Captain of a ship lying there, formed by some of the prisoners to escape, and by large promises of gratuity at his by murdering the keeper, turnkeys, &c. landing in England, he was taken on bat Darkin, who was concerned, inform- board, and stowed down in the hold; but

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182
The Hiftory of Canada.

Britisk he being miffed, the ship was suspected lage a tolerable education; when in ne. and searched, but without success ; ftill ceffity, he was daring beyond credibility, The was suspected, and again searched, at and his courage was frequently restrainwhich time Darkin appeared unnoticed ed by his high notion of honour, which among the crew in a sailor's dress. he defined from deresting a mean appeare

When the ship arrived in England, he re- ance, and an abhorrence of cruelty; he turned to his old course of robbing on the possessed a soul which, in every hazard. highway, particularly in the middle and ous enterprize, overlooked all dangers and west of England; but being at length so difficulties, and which was ro firmly atnotorious, that he found it dangerous to tached to his doxies, that his shameful continue much longer, he entered on end must be imputed to his extravagance board the Royal George man of war, and in their support ; his conversation was soon got rated as a midshipman. Under agreeable, but rather trifling than senfileave of absence from his ship, he visited ble ; he was fond of an elegance in dress, Bath several times, and committed robbe- and of being thought handsome; the charies, particularly on lord Percival; of racter of Mackheath was his delight, and which the public has been already minutely with which he diverted himself while in informed.

Oxford gaol. He suffered before he arHis character seems to be a medley of rived at the age of twenty-one, after a felevity, composed of virtues and vices; he ries of robberies, by which he is said to had a large share of understanding, with have gained no less than 600l.

HISTORY OF CANADA. [Continued.]

W HILE this miserable colony funk of St. Macthew, imputing, not without

N under such a complication of disas. reason, all their calamities to the new reters, their brethren, the Tiononthates, fell a ligion which so many of their brethren facrifice to their own temerity and infatu. had embraced, engaged in a conspiracy ation. Their canton, or district, was ex- to affaffinate the missionaries who should tremely populous, the single village of St. come to disturb their peace : but those faJohn containing above fix hundred fami- thers had, by this time, gained such an asfies. They received intelligence that three cendency over these Indians, that when an hundred Iroquois were in the field; and, opportunity happened, they had not reso. in order to manifest their contempt of lution to execute their purpose ; and not such a body, all the warriors of the vile only allowed two travelling miffionaries lage took to their arms, and went in quest to make converts among them, unmoleftof the enemy. The Iroquois being sp-, ed, but some of themselves came and deprised of their intention, resolved to de. manded baptism. The hapless colony of stroy in their absence the village they had St. Joseph, being now reduced to an hand. so unwisely abandoned. With this view ful of people, intreated father Raguenau they changed their route, and fetching a to lead them to Quebec, where they might compass, reached the town of St. John cultivate such lands as thould be allotted by day break. The first intimation that to them under the security of the French the wretched inhabitants received of their fort, and the protection of their father approach, was the hideous yell, or war. Ononchio. There was no room for heliwhoop, which was immediately followed tation. They forthwith began their miwith death and desolation. All the huts gration by the river of the Outawawas, were burned to ashes, and all the inabi and halted at Montreal, where no pains tants put to the sword. Father Charles were spared to detain them: but there they Garnier loft his life on this occasion, as did not think themselves safe from the he stood in the midst of naughter, admi- fury of the Iroquois, They, for that rea. niftring the sacrament of baptisın. His son, prosecuted their voyage to Quebec, colleague, father Chabanel, who had been where they were humanely received by two days before this massacre recalled from M. d'Allebout, the governor : but the St. John, was murdered in the woods; in colony was still so poor, that it could all probability, by one of his own attend- not afford subsistence for all these guests, ants. Some of the Hurons, in the vil without exposing itself to the danger of

famine.

famine. Nevertheless, they made shift to [An. 1650.] The French colony being live. Those who could not resolve to too weak to ford any other assistance to abandon their native country, experienced their Indian allies, began about this period a viciffitude of fortune. Some fled for to indulge them with a trade for brandy; Thelter to the neighbouring nations, which, in which they found consolation for all by receiving them, were exposed to the their miseries. Not only the Hurons and resentment of the Iroquois. Others set- Algonquins, but all the other Indians who tled on the island Manitoualin, from repaired to Tadoussac and other parts, whence they afterwards came down to for the sake of traffic, became enamoured Quebec; and a third party settled in that of this baleful liquor, and drank it to such country, which is now called Pensyl- excess as produced all the irregularities and vania. All the inhabitants of the two mischiess arising from the most brutal invillages, of St. Michael and St. John the toxication. Indeed, nothing could more Evangelift, petitioned their enemies for effe&tually co-operate with the arms of the admiffion into their tribe, and were re- Iroquois, towards the utter extermination ceived accordingly. In a word, the Iro of the miserable Hurons, than the preachquois massacred such a number of their un- ing of the missionaries, and the unrestrainfortunate countrymen, and diffused the ed use of brandy. In the course of this terror of their name so far, that not only year, Mr. Lauson, one of the principal the country of the Hurons, but also the members of the company of Canada, was whole course of the river Outawawas, appointed to succeed M. d'Aillebout in which had been so populous a few years the government of that country; but he before, was now become an absolute desart, did not arrive at Quebec till the followSuch we:e the effects of the French miffion, ing summer. By this time the colony

The spirit of infatuation did not aban- was reduced to a deplorable condition, don the Indians when they found thelter at The Iroquois, flushed with victory, no Quebec. As soon as they began to breathe longer respected the French settlements; in security under the cannon of that place, but carried the war even under the mouths their despair gave way to the dæmon of of their cannon. One of their parties, presumption ; and tho' almost all their advancing to the neighbourhood of Trois warriors were flain, they thought them- Rivieres, Mr. Duplefsys-Bochart, the gofelves in a condition to retort the injuries vernor of that fortress, was rash enough they had received from the Iroquois. to march out against them, and hazarded They persuaded the Indian settlers at Syl- an action in which he lost his life ; a cirlery to join in a projected expedition; cumstance that greatly contributed to dirand having assembled a few hundreds in pirit the French and their allies, and inarms, actually took the field. Being after- crease the infolence of the enemy, whose wards reinforced by the Algonquins, at incursions were now so hot, that it was Trois Rivieres, and some Hurons that met found absolutely necessary to enclose Sylthem on the route, they marched against lery with walls, and mount them with arthe Iroquois of the canton of Agnier, in tillery, Mean while the missionaries conform of a Chriftian crusade, giving out, tinued to stroll about the country from that their only view in taking arms, was one nation to another, making profelytes; to drive the implacable infidels from the and father Buteux, falling into the hands lands of the faithful, that the missionaries of the enemy, was assassinated. No part might with the greater facility extend the of New France was more exposed to the culture of the true religion. When they incursions of the Iroquois than the inana approached the village which they intend- of Montreal, the governor of which, ed to attack, two scouts were detached to Mr. de Maisonneuve, had been obliged to reconnoitre, and one of them falling into repair to Old France, in order to sollicit the hands of the enemy, saved his own succours for his colony. He returned in life by betraying his countrymen. He not the year 1653, with a reinforcement of only gave intelligence of their approach, one hundred men, and a female housebut guided the Iroquois to the place where keeper, called Margaret Bourgeois, who the Christian Indians lay overwhelmed with in the sequel established the institution of sleep. The consequence was a general the Daughters of the Congregation. This mafsacre, from which very few of the Hu- gentleman was employed in taking mearons escaped,

[graphic]

fures for the security of his fettlement, but as yet have done us no harm." Their when one day a party of the Onondagas forbearance, however, was of thort duraappearing in light of the fort, made a tion. When they arrived at the canton of fignal for a parley. A few of their leaders Agnier, and the Indians were assembled to being at their own request admitted on determine the fate of him and his compa. the faith of the governor, declared in the nion, a woman presented a string of name of their canton, that they were ready wampum, that the might be permitted to to treat of peace, and offered presents as cut off one of the missionary's fingers. a further mark of that difpofition. This Her request being granted, the first finger was a very welcome intimation to Mr. of his left hand was cut off by a child, Maisonneuve, who embraced the proposal- who, having performed the operation, the without hestation, and specified the terms finger was given to the woman, and the of peace to which he would subscribe. The string of wampum hung round the mil. deputies retired, in order to make their fionary's neck. Next day the two pri. chiefs acquainted with these circumstances, foners being stripped naked, were led from and engaged their brethren of Onneyouth village to village, and buffeted by the woand Gonogouin in the fame negotiation. men and children. Then a council was In the mean time, as a proof of their held, in which the chiefs decreed that the fincerity, they sent 'envoys again to Mr. layman Mould be burned, and the mirde Maisonneuve with a belt of wampum, fionary left to the discretion of an old to give him notice, that five hundred of woman, whose brother had been taken or the canton of Agnier had taken the field Pain. The first was immediately executed; with design to attack Trois Rivieres. This but the father's life was spared. Three intelligence being immediately transmitted days after this incident, an Iroquois arto Mr. de Lauson, he caused the place to be riving from Trois Rivieres, told them that put in a proper pofture of defence, and ar- the peace was on the point of being con. fembled all the Hurons he could find in that cluded; but that Ononthio de.nanded part of the country. These coming up with the release of father Porcet, as a prelimia numerous detachment of the Iroquois, nary; and that they were obliged to give who were advantageously posted, attacked hostages, whose lives depended upon that them with great resolution, new a confie of the missionary. The condition of the derable number, and took their leader father was much mended by this advice. prisoner, while the rest filed with precipi. They" forthwith conducted him to a tation. Another detachment of those bar- Dutch settlement, where he was accommobarians was more fortunate; they ad- dated with a decent dress : then they led vanced to the very gates of Quebec, ra. him in triumph from one village to an. vaged the neighbourhood during the whole other, where he was entertained with marks fummer, massacred many French colonists, of the most perfect friend thip. Finally, and took some prisoners, among whom he was permittted to set out for Quebec, was father Poncet. This missionary was attended by a deputy, who was Icaded so much beloved by the whole colony, with presents for the governor general, shat his captivity was no sooner known and the superior of the millions. After than forty Frenchmen and a numerous they had travelled two days, they were body of Indians pursued the enemy, re- overtaken by an express difpatched to in. folved to release the good man, or perish form the deputy, that the hostages at in the attempt. But they were detained Trois Rivieres were put in irons, and at Trois Rivieres, to reinforce the garrison fome of them put to death. The deputy, of that fortress, of which the Iroquois had tho' greatly alarmed at this intelligence, formed the blockade. Before they reach had such an opinion of facher Poocet's in. ed this settlement, - they perceived the tegrity, that he proceeded on the journey pames of father Poncet and another French- with no other security than the father's' man, who had been taken along with word, and found that the report was withhim, carved on the trunk of a tree, at out foundation. When they arrived at the root of which they likewise found a Quebec the peace was already concluded; Jittle book in which the missionary had and next year ratified at Onondaya, where written these words : “ Six Hurons, now father Le Moyne was sent for that purbecome naturalized Iroquois, and four of pose, as a plenipotentiary, by the goverthe Agnier district, have carried us off; nor general. [To be continued.]

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