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ceedingly charmed, and affiduously attended and he was persuaded that the present ap. his tectures. In the same disposition he plication was a snare, laid purposely to admitted into an intimate familiarity Cof- bring him to the block, as the like me. mo Sherius, bishop of Fano, in whom, thod had been practised to bring over the though young, he found an eminent other two to acknowledge the new title ; knowledge in several branches of litera- and as the means were the fame, fo he ture, joined to a singular honesty in man. imagined they were designed to bring on ners and conversation, and an ardent de- the same conclufion. He, therefore, confire of piety. Ac Venice also, our noble. trived some excuses for deferring his anman became acquainted with the famous swer; and when he found no delays could Gaspar Contarenus, afterwards a cardinal, prevail any longer, he took courage from and likewise with Peter Caraffa, bishop of the security of the Pope's protection, and Theate, who became in the end, the tur. his being out of the reach of Henry; and bulent Pope Paul IV, and an enemy to not only disapproved the king's divorce, Pole.' He was intimate with the famous and separation from the apostolic see, in poet, Lampridius of Cremona ; and the answer for the present, but shortly after moderate and pious Jacob Sadolet, after- drew up his piece, entitled, of the unity of wards bishop of Carpentras, and cardinal. the church, and sent it to the king of EngLewis Bacatelli he took into his family. land. This confidence was a notorious He was a student at Padua, and lived with proof of his zeal and attachment to the Pole till his death, after which he wrote fee of Rome. Besides, using very rude and his life in talian. But above all, there indecent language to bishop Sampson, he was none fo familiar with him as a noble not only pressed the king earnestly to reVenetian called Aloifius Priuli. He was turn to the obedience he owed to that see, a person of fingular worth and integrity; but excited the emperor to revenge the inand the friendship now commenced be- jury done to his aunt, the divorced queen tween him and ole ended not but with Catherine, with many sharp reflections. the death of the larter. Several other per. He compared Henry to Nebuchadnezzar, fons of the first reputation, in the re- and used many other strange expressions, public of letters, are ranked among the a proof how much the Italian air had acquaintance of our author, who was changed him. However, Dr. Sampson, it happy in the esteem of all men.
must be owned, had not spared his reflecThus the days paffed very agreeably in tions upon Pole. Besides the Treatise on Italy; but England was the scene of fresh Unity #, the latter wrote a letter to Tontroubles. The king had not only divor. ftal, bishop of Durham, to incline the king ced Catherine, but married Anne Bolen, to it; but instead of acting in the manner had entirely thrown off the papal yoke, Pole desired, Tonstal wrote him a very and assumed the title of supreme head of sharp answer to his book, in which he the church. Dr. Sampson, bishop of Chi. reproved his bitterness, and advised him chester, and afterwards of Litchfield, by the to burn his treatise. He also, in a sermon king's desire, wrote a book in defence of preached at St. Paul's, set forth Pole's un. the king's proceedings, and of his title. natural ingratitude. Henry was greatly pleased with it, and Henry VIII was much displeased with observing the high credit of Pole, both at this conduct of Pole ; and sensible that home and abroad, he was very defirous to the book could not lie concealed long have it approved and confirmed by him. in Italy, though Pole had promised not to He therefore dispatched a courier with the publish it, sent for the author to England, book, and a letter, requiring his opinion that he might explain to bim certain par. upon the matter. No body was better sages, which he found somewhat obscure acquainted with the king's violent temper and difficult. But Pole, well aware that than Pole. The fate of Sir Thomas More, it was made treason to deny the king's suchancellor, and Filher, bishop of Rochester, opremacy, which was the principal scope of who had both been beheaded for denying his book, chose not to obey the call; but the king's fupremacy, had reached his ears; desired his majesty, as he was now freed
• Bishop Burnet says this piece was more esteemed for the high quality of the au. thør than for any sound reasoning in it,
from Catherine, who had been the occa. kept no farther meafures in his intrigues fion of all this, to embrace the present against him. He was suspected of aspirhappy opportunity of reinstating himself ing to the crown, by means of a marriage with his boliness, and appear at the coun- with the princess Mary; and the king cil assembl ng at Mantua, according to was every day alarmed by informations his summons; whereby he might have which he received, of the correspondence the honour of being the cause of the refor- maintained in England by this fugitive : mation of the church in doctrine and man- Courtney, marquis of Exeter, had entered ners, for which the council was chiefly in. into a conspiracy with him ; Sir Edward tended ; assuring him, that otherwise he Nevil, brother to the lord Abergavenny, would be in great danger.
Sir Nicholas Carew, master of the horse, - The king determined to keep measures and knight of the garter ; Henry de la no longer with a man, who thus dared Pole, lord Montague, and Sir Geoffrey de haughtily to di&tate to him in the lan- la Pole, brother to the cardinal. There guage of a superior. It was manifest persons were indicted, tried, and convicfrom what fountain he now drew; and ied, before the lord Audley, who prelded therefore Henry discontinued his pension; in the trial as lord-high-steward. They stripped him of all his dignities in Eng. were all executed, except Sir Geoffrey land; and caused an act of attainder of Pole, who was pardoned ; and he owed high treason to be awarded against him. this grace to his having first carried to the Pole was abundantly compensated for these king secret intelligence of the conspiracy, Jofres and sufferings by the bounty of the A price was now set on the head of the Pope and emperor. The former created cardinal, and he was now publicly prohim a cardinal by several titles , and claimed a traitor. Upon this ac sent him with the chara&ter of nuncio, to count, and by reason of the war 1938 France and Flanders; that being near between France and the Empire, England, he might hold a correspondence he was tired of Cambray; which he with the Catholics there, in order to keep thought a place of not sufficient safety, them stedfart in the faith of the church of fince Henry was engaged in this war, and Rome. The emperor conferred several Englith soldiers continually harrassing those favours on him, and honoured him with parts.. In this perplexity, cardinal Erarthe highest esteem, for the zeal he had dus à Marchia, bishop of Liege, inviting used in vindicating the marriage of bis him to his see, he immediately joyfully reaunt queen Catherine.
paired thither, was received as a brother, [An. 1536.] The king of England and met with the most liberal entertain. was sensible that Pole chose the character ment; six months he continued here, of nuncio, in order to foment the muti. waiting till things should be quieter in nous disposition of those who favoured the England, and the disputes between the papal power in his dominions; and he emperor and France determined: but therefore remonstrated in such a vigorous these expectations proving vain, for feme manner with the queen of Hungry, regent reason or other, he thought he was still in of the Low-Countries, that the diliniffed danger of being delivered up to Henry the legate from Flanders, without allow. VIll. whereupon he left Liege, and by the ing him to exercise his commission. At Pope's command, returned through GerParis the cardinal was received very how many to Rome, where he was very gracinourably; but Henry would not suffer him ouny received ; and not long after he atto have any peace in a place fo near Eng- tended his Holiness to Nice, in the province land; and therefore sent to demand hiin of Narbonne, in France, to aflift in bringof the French king, who notifying it to ing on, and concluding a treaty of peace Pole, the latter removed to Cambray, between the emperor Charles V. and the and put himself under the protection of French monarch Francis I, which he used the bishop of that place. The enmity his utmost endeavours to effect; and his which king Henry bore Pole being become Imperial majesty gave orders, that his mito open and violent, the cardinal now nisters should pay all imaginable respects
• He was stiled cardinal deacon of St. Nereus and Achilleus, then of St. Mary in Cosmedin, and at length of St. Prisca,
to him. He was afterwards employed by for some time, Pole returned to Viterbo, the pontiff, to persuade those two princes between which and Rome he passed his and some others, to enter into a league time, pursuing his studies in great repose : againft England ; to restore the ancient re- till the pontiff resolving to have his views ligion in that kingdom, cleanse it from in calling a council no longer defeated, heresy, and relieve the devotees to the issued a second citation for holding it at apoftolic see, then in a very disagreeable the same place; and appointed Pole again, and fad condition; an affair of greater ne- with two different cardinals, (one of them ceffity and merit than to war against the cardinal Monte, afterwards Pope, by the Turks, who had appeared in Hungary. name of Julius III, and the other cardinal To dispatch this embaffy with quickness, St. Crucis, also raised afterwards to the and to avoid the toils of Henry VIII. the papacy by his own name of Marcellus II.) cardinal went incognito, and with very his legates there. Accordingly cardinal few attendants, first to the Emperor, then Pole attended there as long as he at Toledo in Spain, with the design of pro- was able; but the bad air bring- 1545 ceeding from thence to France. But ing a dangerous catarrh upon Henry had been too cunning for the Pope, him, he obtained leave to go to Padua, for and had entirely counterworked his pro- the benefit of advice and better air. The jeet; so that Pole met with but a cool council was soon afterwards removed on reception from the Emperor ; upon which the same account to Bononia. About he returned to Avignon, where he ac. which time, cardinal Pole having recovered quainted the Pope with his ill success, and his health, returned to Rome, and was receiving a letter from his Holiness to con- received as usual by the Pope, very gratinue in those parts, he took this oppor- cioudy, who made him his chief counsellor tunity of making a visit to his beloved in matters relating to kings and sovereiga friend and acquaintance, cardinal Jacob princes; and whenever any defences of Sadolet, at Carpentras; with whom he this or that proceeding were necessary, paffed fix months much to his fatis- Pole was always the penman. Thus, for faction, and in the utmost safety; this instance, when the Pope's power to replace, as well as Avignon, being under move the council was contested by the the Pope's jurisdiction. His Holiness Emperor's ambassador, he drew up á vin. having occasion for him to go to Verona, dication of that proceeding; and when the recalled him from Carpentras; and arriving emperor set forth the interim, the cardinal at Verona, he found much friendship and was employed to answer it. This famous hospitality from John Matthew Gilbert, decree contained a scheme for an accombishop of that place. At length the Pope modation, or a truce, to be observed be, considering how to reward his services, tween Papists and Protestants; but gave sent him legate to Viterbo ; an easy em- great offence to both sides, each thinking ployment, and where he might reside en- too much to be conceded to the other, tirely safe, out of the reach of his The tenor of it was in general very favou. enemies.
rable to the Romih doctrines, somewhat In this post he remained several years, softened, disguised, and palliated. The Nill maintaining his character for piety only concessions to the Protestants were and learning, and acquiring the love of the use of the cup in the eucharift, and of the people by bis moderation towards Pro- marriage to the clergy ; and even there testants ; for which, however, he was were only conditional and temporary, and charged by those who were bigotted to to continue till a general council thould their own opinions, and who had no chri. decide about it. Yet trilling as they were, Itian charity, to allow a difference of they were considered of too great consethinking in others, with favouring heresy, quence by the Pope to be deemed as cona
The Pope having called the coun- sented to by him, and therefore he oppored 1543 cil of Trent, appointed cardinal them. While this was the scene
Pole, together with the cardinal in Italy, the imperious Henry VIII. 1540 of Paris, and cardinal John Merone, the great enemy of Pole, had his three legates there. But the wars in been dead some time; and as his son Ed. Germany and other countries, rendering ic ward VI, now on the throne, had been impossible to hold an assembly at that place bred up a Protestant, cardinal Poie re
figned all thoughts of ever seeing England known to be, may plunder Rome a second more, and steadily continued to apply time." The cardinal effectually defended himfelf to the duty of his character, un- himself against these virulent calumnies. envied and admired by all.
With regard to the first, he appealed to all Paul III. having fat in the papal chair that he had done and fuffered for the digupwards of 14 years, and died at Rome in nity of the Romish church, and the cathothe 8.ft year of his age, there were three lic doctrines. As to his conduct at Viterparties in the conclave, which assembled bo, it was observable that he had lived so to elect his succeffor, the French, that of as to preserve the peace, without the the emperor, and cardinal Farnese of the necessity of having much recourse to any late Pope's family. The two last joining, punishment, much less to extremity. And unanimously chore Pole. The majority of with respect to the young nun, he made
the votes was undeniable, but the it appear she was the daughter of an Eng1549 French objected that some of their lish woman; who dying at Rome, he
party were not arrived by reason had placed the girl in a nunnery, to save of the distance, and complained that the her from falling into a wicked course of election was hurried. This party was life; that for a provision, befides the small joined by cardinal Caraffa, who hoping, if matter left her by her mother, he had dePole was ret afide, to be chosen himself, pofited a hundred aurei in the fidei monte, not only backed their arguments, but be- as it is called. Upon the whole, his angan to load him with calunnies, objecting, swer was so clear and satisfactory, that that he lay under a suspicion both of his party grew warmer in his behalf; and herefy and incontinency: in support of immediately proceeding to confirm their which he alledged, that in Germany at the election by a second scrutiny, they went council of Trent he was familiar with the to cardinal Pole's apartment, and finding Lutherans, and that his intimacy with Tre- he was gone to bed, (for it was now late mellius (a learned Jew who had been at night) they spoke to Priuli, who was baptized in the cardinal's house, and was then in waiting as gentleman of the bedknown to incline to Lutheranism) confirm- chamber, to awake his master, and aced the fufpicion ; which was further af. quaint him they were come to adore him, certained by his keeping Flaminius, a suf- according to custom. Priuli performed pected Lutheran, among his domestics for the request with much joy; but Pole resome time, and then enriching him with ceived it in a different temper. He was fome ecclefiaftical dignities. That he had very angry with tis friend, and drove the spared several heretics at Viterbo, punish- cardinals away, telling them he would not ing but few in any moderate way, and have a thing, which was to be feared ranone at all with death *. Neither was ther than defired, to be carried on tumulthat gravity of countenance which he wore tuously and rafhly, but decently and orso far removed from the suspicion of luxury, derly. That the night was not a proper but that many persons thought the young time, God was a God of light, and not nun which he maintained at his own of darkness, and therefore it ought to be expence, was really the fruit of his own deferred till day came. This scruple seem. loins. To conclude, he wondered what ed so extraordinary, that some concluded they meant by running with so much he had lost his fenres; and as by this hurry to chuse a foreigner, as if Italy strange refusal he had put them much out could not produce any who were worthy of humour, at which time the mind being of the pontificate, so that they were under prejudiced, generally frames objections, a neceffity of sending to Britain for a Pope; and sets before itself such difficulties as and to what end? continued he ; “ Why, it had never thought of before, they bé. that the emperor, whore creature he is gan to think it might be better if he was
• How noble have the enemies of cardinal Pole spoke his praise! They objelied that against him for which every man, who has the smallest degree of a truly Christian fpirit, will ever reverence his name; and which will make his character appear amiable as long as time mall latd, and cruelty be deemed no part of any religion,
not elected Pope; for it would not be boy was only 17 at the time of this strange out of the way to suppore, should he ob- advancement; and father Paul observes, tain it, that he would exert himself in re. that he turned out a great disgrace to forming the court of Rome, and college of his dignity. But it has been said the cardinals. Therefore upon this considera- cause of his promotion was the Pope's tion, reinforced by Pole's enemies, who baving an unnatural affection for him, joyfully seized this happy moment, when tho' others ascribe it to his money. Be he had disobliged his friends to second this that as it will, this was a very ridiculous objection, they resolved to elect some and imprudent action in the Pope, who other person to the papal chair ; and after nevertheless carried it always very friendly much caballing and many intrigues, car to Pole, during all his pontificate ; and dinal de Monte was chosen, who allumed when the latter came, among the other the name of Julius III, What were the cardinals, to kiss his feet, as usual, he rose intentions of cardinal Pole in this manner and embraced him in the kindest manner, of proceeding, is hard to say ; he certain not without tears of joy; and frequently ly might have ascended the chair without acknowledged, that he owed his promoany difficulty or interruption; it was en- tion entirely to the refusal of cardinal tirely his own fault that he did not. Some Pole. authors relate that he was twice elected The tranquility of Rome being foon to succeed Paul III. and that the first time, afterwards greatly disturbed by the wars he made the excuse that the election was in France, and on the borders of Italy, the too hasty, and without due deliberation; cardinal retired, with the Pope's leave, to and che second, because it was done in the a monastery of the benedi&tines called
night. However that be, cardinal Magazune, situated near the lake of Be1550' de Monte, now Julius III. gave nacus, in the territory of Verona. In this
a strange omen of what advance pleasant retirement he continued till 1553, ments he intended to make ; for at giving when he was unexpectedly surprised with out of the conclave, he bestowed his hat, the news of the death of the sovereign of as is the custom, on a boy who was his England, Edward VI. and the acceffion of monkey-keeper ; and being asked what he his fister Mary. This opened a scene to faw in him worthy to make a cardinal of, new events, and entirely altered the fituhe answered, as much as the cardinals had ation of cardinal Pole, as will be related in seen in himself to make him Pope. This' the next Number.
THOUGHTS on various Subjects, from BUTLER.
THE following reflections we subjoin churches take the contrary course, and be.
to those contained in a formerNum. lieve religion more concerned in one erber, without any apology.
roneous opinion, than all the most inhu“The enmities of religious people would man and impious actions in the world. never rise to such a height, were it not for “Charity is the chiefest of all Christian their mistake that God is better served virtues, without which, all the rest fignify with their opinions than with their prac. nothing: for faith and hope can only bring tices ; opinions being very inconsiderable, us on our way to the confines of this further than they have influence upon ac- world ; but charity is not only our contions.
voy to heaven, but engaged to stay with “ All reformations of religion seldom us there for ever.---And yet there is not extend further than the mere opinions of any sort of religious people in the world, men. The amendment of their lives and that will not renounce and disclaim this conversations are equally unregarded. And necessary cause of salvation, for mere trifles though all the reformation our Saviour of the Nightest moment imaginable; nay, preached to the world, was only repen- will not preposterously endeavour to retance and amendment of life, without cure thcir eternal happiness by destroying taking any notice at all of men's opinions that, without which it is never to be oband judgments; yet all the Chriftian tained. From hence are all their fpiritual September, 1761,