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cion and contact, is what is generally kinds of ornaments, and in others they called the eye of the volute. The volutes might certainly be introduced with advanor helices of the Corinthian order are tage. Nature is lavin of ber beauties of much the same ; except they have only this kind. The ringlets, curls, and waytwo, or one and a half, circumvolutions. ings of human and other animal hair; the Three semi-circumvolutions or segments various serpentine risings in the human of this curve, terminating in the centre, face and body, and the bodies of other joined and reversed, is the true line, an animals ; the wreaths of the serpent and imitation of which has been called by other vermicular creatures; the curls and the ingenious Mr. Hogarth, tbe line of twistings of many parts of vegetables; and beauty.
the pleasing sensations which a view of There are two sorts of spiral curves them produce, show how much beauty which wind out of the same plane. The depends upon this kind of variety, Art is first of these contains those curves whose fertile in her imitations of these beauties. axes, or the lines generated by the motion in architecture and plaister of Paris work; of the centre round which they wind, are in carpentry, thip-building, cabinet-makTrait, and the second where they are curve ing, musical instrument.making, sculpture, lines. The first differs according to the upholstery, embroidery, &c. consequently, progressions of the spaces ; one of which in drawing, engraving, and painting, &c. is imitated by Mr. Hogarth's line of grace, volutes, scrolls, cimas, lines of beauty, &c. and others by some modern projecting and other ornaments, for which we have volutes in architecture and carving, &c. as yet no names, are frequently used ; and, The second differs according to the pro- therefore, such instruments must be very gressions of the spaces, and the curvature useful in those arts. of the axes. Some of these are also imi. The objections which have been made tated by our modern projecting volutes to the uses of these principles in mechanics,
The imperfect (pires are chiefly of two , are of very little weight ; for, besides kinds, elliptic and angular. Both these their being a new discovery in the science consist of all the various forts which per- of geometry, instruments constructed upfeer spires do. Belides, the elliptic ones on them must be as useful for describing consist of an infinite number of forts, volutes, &c. as a common pair of comaccording to the differences between the palles is for circles, or rulers for strait lines. long and short diameters, in the same way to say that they can be done well enough as elliptic circles or ellipses. Some of these by hand without them, is no objection; elliptic curves are imitated in architecture, at least the same may be made against and also some angular ones, particularly common compasses, &c. as circles and in the Roman order, where the volutes are strait lines are even more easily done by generally quadrangular.
hand than volutes, &c. and every one The uses of the spiral compasses must knows that the exacteft methods made use therefore be very universal in the manual of, both by the ancients and moderns, for arts; since imitations of these kinds of describing volutes, are very tedious, imcurves make ap the chief parts of most perfect, and in small ones impradicable.
HISTORY OF CANADA. (Continued.] Anno HE afterwards navigated his veffel he made feveral voyages through the lakes, 1678... to Niagara, where he traced out until his own velfel was dashed in pieces another fort, and left the execution of it among the rocks, and the other built by to the chevalier de Tonti, together with Tonti perished in such a manner, that no directions for building a second bark, at particulars of her fate could be learned. the mouth of the lake Erie, above the This difafter was succeeded by a misforgreat cataract of Niagara. In the mean tune ftill more interesting. He had detime, he travelled on foot through the pended, in a great measure, u pon the whole district of Tsonnonthuan; and friend hip of the Illinois Indians, a nuhaving spent the winter in different ex- merous nation, in whole country he cursions, in order to extend the fur trade, hoped to establish convenient communi. he returned to Cadarakui, From thence cations between Canada and the Milliliipi,
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Ile had already brought them over to his short duration. The Iroquois, being rcainterests í but before he could make any dered more intracrable by the apprehenadvantage of their good will, they sustain- fion so visible in their enemies and their ed a defeat from the Iroquois, who were French allies, roon recommenced the war determined to break with the French co- with their usual ferocity. The French Jony, and took this previous step to dif- suspected the Englim colonists to be the able their allies from giving them much authors of this rupture; and their suspiolistance. All that la Salc could do, was cion seems to have been not altogether to revisit this nation, and encourage them without foundation, con dering the dis10 maintain their engagements, which, in- putes and contests which now prevailed decd, they were on the brink of renounc- between the two nations, on account of ing. The French commander was bold Acadia and Nova Scotia. Tonti having and enterprizing, but at the same time received intelligence that an army of the itern and haughty, and quite ignorant of Iroquois was in full march to invest him the art of conciliating the affection. His in Creve-cour, te abandoned that fort allies wavered, and his own people con with his whole garrison, amounting to five fpired against his life. The design being soldiers, beldes the two fathers recole's, discovered, the conspirators consulted their one of whom, called father Gabriel, was, in Cafety by Aight, and he filled up their 'the course of their voyage up the river os places wirii a company of young Indian the Illinois, found separated from the rest volunteers.
of the company, and murdered by a party [An. 1680.] He now detached one of the Kikapous, for the sake of plunder. Dacan, accompanied by father Hennepin, Tonti spent the winter in the bay of the to trace up the Mililippi, if possible, to Lake Michigan : but La Sale returning its source. They departed on this expe. in the spring with a reinforcement of men dition, from Fort Creve-ceur, about the and necessaries, they retook poffeffion of end of February, and advanced up the 'Creve-ceur, and finithed the other, to stream as far as the forty-fixth degree of which they gave the name of St. Louis. north latitude : there their progress was "These precautions being taken, they fell 1topped by a considerable cataraat, ex- down the Milli flippi, and took formal porrending the whole breadth of the river, fefion of the country of the Akanías; the which the misionary denominated The fall same ceremony they performed at the of St. Antonio de Padua. Then they fell down mouth of the river, from whence they rethe river, and were made prisoners by the paired to Michillemack. Sioux, who detained them a long time in [An. 1683.) in the following spring captivity. At length, being released by La Sale arrived at Quebec, and soon after the intercession of some French Canadians, set sail for France. Mean while the count they failed down as far as the sea, from de Frontenac, and, M. Duchesnau, having whence they returned to Creve-coeur, with embroiled the French settlement by their out having met with any other accident. perpetual quarrels, the king of Franco La Sale, in his return from this settlement recalled them both, and had appointed Mr. to Cadarakui, pitched upon a spot on the le Fevre de la Barre governor-general, and banks of the river of the Illinois, for an- Mr. de Meulles intendant. These gentleother fore, and left the construction of men were well provided with instructions, it to M. de Tonti, who bad scarce begun to which they payed very little attention; the work, when he received advice that but the colony was in much greater want the French garrison had murinied at of men : for the total amount of the inCreve-cour. Thither he repaired with all babitants did not yet exceed nine thorpoffible diligence; but on his arrival found fand, exclusive of those who had settled no more than seven or eight men, the rest in Acadia. Many circumstances concurhaving escaped with all they could carry red to render its fituation extremely deaway. On the back of this misfortune, the licate at this juncture. Colonel Dongan, Iroquois invaded the country of the Illinois, the English' governor of New York, had to the number of- fix hundred warriors; been at great pains to wrest the fur trade and ail that Tonti could do, was to medi- from the French adventurers, by furnishate a suspension of hostilities, by means ing the Indian markets with commodities of two misionaries, who understood the fold cheaper than the traders of Canada Indian language. . But this peace was of could afford them. At the same time, be did not fail to foment every occasion of the new governor and intendant. The quarrel berween the French and the Iro. former began his administration by conquois, or Five Nations. Two French co-, voking an assembly, to which he invited Ionists having been murdered by the In- not only the intendant and the bihop, but dians, near the lake Superior, the Sieur de also the principal officers of the army. Luth found means to seize and execute the several members of the superior council, atlaslins; a circumstance which was deep- the subaltern judges, with the superiors of ly resented by their countrymen.. A chief the missions and the Seminary. The reof the Tronnonthuans had been killed in fult of their consultation was a memorial a fray at Michillemakinac, by an Illinois. to the king, importing, that the Iroquois On soch occasions, satisfaction is always Indians seemed bent upon turning the sur demanded of the people among whom trade entirely into the channel of Newthe murder is committed. As this acci. York, the inhabitants of which employed dent happened among the Kiskacons, a under hand intrigues to infiame their anination of the Outawawas, the count de mority against the subjects of France : that Frontenac fent a person to exhort the Can- those barbarians sought only to amuse tbe tons to suspend hoftilities, until he should French with vague profeffions, until they prevail upon the Kiskacons to make due should debauch, or destroy all their Indian satisfaction : at the same time, he defired allies; and that, therefore, vigorous meathey would send deputies to Cadarakui, sures were absolutely necessary for the prewhere he would meet them, to deliberate fervation of Canada: that the colony could on this affair, and remove all other causes not arm above a thousand men, and ever in of dispute. They refused to meet him, un that case, there would not be leit a fufficiless he would come as far as the river ency of hands for agriculture : that it would Onondaga ; a demand which he rejected therefore be expedient to send from France with scorn, as an indignity; and he de- a small body of troops, to garrison the · clared in public, that he took the Outa. fort of Cadarakui, which stood very conwawas under his protection. The haugh- venient for a magazine, or place of arms, ty deportment of this officer was very ill within two or three days march of Tronruited to the weakness of the colony, and nonthuan, the most remote of all the Canirritated the Iroquois to such a degree, tons; that they could not act to advanthat they resolved to take vengeance with tage, without three or four vessels on the the first opportunity. In the mean time, lake Ontario, to convey or transport, octhey temporised so far, as to send a depu. cafonally, provisions, ammunition, and tation to Montreal, headed by the chief troops : that in order to bring the IroTeganisforens, a person very well af- quois to reason, and disable them from fected to the French intereft. He declar future attempts, the war ought to be car. ed in the name of the Cantons, that they ried at once into the country of Tron. were perfeëtly well disposed to live on nonthuan : but before this could be taken, terms of friendship with their father On- it was hoped the king would send over a onthio, and his allies. But they had con- thousand or fifteen hundred indented fercealed their real design from Teganisforens, vants to cultivate the lands, together with whom the governor loaded with presents materials for building the vessels, and stores and civility. The count, however, could for supplying the magazines. In connot prevail upon the Kiskacons to make sequence of this remonftrance, the French any other satisfaction to the Iroquois, thanking sent over an immediate reinforcethat of sending them belts of wampum, ment of two hundred soldiers, with nowhich, they alledged, was all the atone- tice that colonel Dongan was to receive ment they were obliged to make, accord- an express order from the king of Greating to the laws and customs of the coun Britain to live in terms of friendship with try. As for the Cantons, it soon appear- the French colony. But to there injunc. ed that their deputation was no other tions the colonel paid very little regard. tlian an expedient to amuse the French, Indeed there was little sincerity on cither and lull them into a fatal security, while fide, for at this very juncture the French they should prepare for war, and strike a king strongly recommended it to La Barre, decisive stroke against the Illinois, whom to binder, if possible, the English from they accordingly invaded.
making any se element in Hudson's bay. • Such was the situation of Canada, at the
[To be continued.] arrival of Meff. de la Barre, and de Meulks,
STUDY of the BELLES LETTRES.
Upon TASTE. [Continued.] poetry was, in all appearance, secrated by public feast and folema
previous to any concerted plan sacrifice. In these institutions, the of worship, and to every establith poet bure, a principal Share. It was ed system of legislation. When cer- his genius that contrived the plan; tain individuals, by dint of fuperior that executed the form of worfhip; prowess or understanding, had ac- and recorded in verfe, the origin quired the veneration of their fel. and adventures of their gods and low savages, and erected themselves demi-gods; hence the impurities into divinities on the ignorance and and horrors of certain rites ; te fuperftition of mankind; then my- groves of Paphos and Baal-Peot ; thology took place, and such a the orgies of Bacchus; the bunan swarm of deities arose, as produced facrifices to Moloch and Diana. a religion replete with the most Hence the theogony of Hesiod; the Thocking abfurdities. Those whom theology of Homer ; and those ittheir superior talents had deified, numerable maxims, scattered thro' were found to be still actuated by the antient poets, inviting man the moft brutal passions of human kind to gratify their fensual appe: nature ; and, in all probability, tites, in imitation of the gods, their votaries were glad to find such who were certainly the best judges examples to countenance their own of happiness. It is well known, vicious inclinations. Thus forni- that Plato expelled Homer from cation, incest, rape, and even be. his commonwealth, on account of stiality, were sanctified by the a. the infamous characters by which mours of Jupiter, Pan, Mars, Ve- he hath distinguished his deities; nus, and Apollo. Theft was pa- as well as for some depraved lenti tronized by Mercury ; drunkenness ments, which he found diffuked by Bacchus; and cruelty by Dia- through the course of the Iliad and na. The same heroes, and legis. Odykey. Cicero enters into the lators, those who delivered their spirit of Plato, and exclaims in his country, founded cities, establish- first book de Natura Deorum, de ed societies, invented useful arts, multa absurdiora funt ea, qua, pecta. or contributed in any eminent de- rum vacibus fufa, ipsa luaunalt gree to the security and happiness cuerunt : qui, & ira infiammates, of their fellow creatures ; were in- libidine furentes, induxerunt Deos, fe Spired by the same lufts and appe- ceruntque ut eorum bella, pugnas, prie tites, which domineered among lia, vulnera viderimus : odia preteria, the inferior classes of mankind; diffidia, difcordias, ortus, interitu, therefore every vice incident to hu- querelas, lamentaliones, fujas ir lite man nature, was celebrated in the ni intemperantia libidines, adulteria, culture of one or other of these vincula, cum humano generi contut? divinities; and cyery infirmity con- mar:alesque cx immortali preeria
“ Nor are those things much more day was composed in the most abfurd; which, flowing from ihe sublime species of poetry, such as poet's tongue, have done mischief the ode or hymn ; the subsequent even by the sweetness of his ex altercation was carried on in Iamprellion. The poets have intro. bics, and gave rise to satire. We duced gods infamed with anger, are told by the Stagyrite, that the and enraged with lust; and even highest species of poetry was emproduced before our eyes, their ployed in celebrating great actions ; wars, their wrangling, their duels, but the humbler sort used in this and their wounds. They have ex. kind of contention; and that in posed besides, their antipathies, the ages of antiquity, there were animolities, and diffenfions; their some bards that professed heroics ; origin and death; their complaints and some that pretended to lamand lamentations ; their appetites bics only. oi uey npaixão, oi de indulged to all inanner of excess, idu Boy Tomtal. To these rude their adulferies, their fetters, 'their beginnings we not only owe the amorous commerce with the human birth of satire, but likewise the species; and from immortal pa- origin of dramatic poetry. Tragedy rents derived a mortal offspring.” herself, which afterwards attained to -As the festivals of the Gods ne- such dignity as to rival the Epic cessarily produced good cheer, which muse, was at first no other than a was often carried to riot and de- trial of Crambo or lambics, bebauchery, mirth of confequence tween two peasants, and a goat was prevailed; and this was always at the prize, as Horace calls it, vilo tended with buffoonery. Taunts eertamen ob hircum; “ A mean conand jokes, and raillery and repartee, test for a he-goat.” Hence the would nécessarily ensue ; and indi- name tpayadie, signifying the viduals would contend for the vic goat-song, from tpayos hircus, and tory in wit and genius. These sy carmen. contests would in time be reduced
Carmine qui tragico vilem certavit ob bircum, to some regulations, for the enter. Mox etiam agreftes fatyros nudavit, & afper tainment of the people thus aflem. Incolumi gravitate jocum tentavit : eo quod bled, and some prize would be des Illecebris erat, & grata novitate morandus creed to him who was judged to
doed to Spectator, funer ufque facris, & potus & exlex.
Hor, excel his rivals. The candidates
The tragic bard, a goat his humble prize,
The tragic bare for fame and profit being thus fti. Bade satyrs naked and uncouth arise ; . mulated, would talk their talents. His muse severe, secure and undirmay'd,
The rustic joke in solemn strain convey'd ; and naturally recommend ihese al
For novelty alone he knew could charm ternate recriininations to the audi
A lawless croud, with wine and feasting ence, by cloathing them with a kind warm. of poetical meafure, which fhould Satire then' was originally a bear a near resemblance to profe. clownish dialogue in loose lambics, Thus, as the folemn fervice of the so called because the actors were ma
min * Oi jer ju posurótepoí, Tas nenas eu quourto at pagsis oide sue Τελεγεροι, τας των φαυλων, πρώτον ψόγους ποιυντες: