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TREATISE

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PRACTICAL SURVEYING; teen
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From its First Principles.
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WHICH IS DEMONSTRATED

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BY ROBERT GIBSON.
Revised, Corrected and Adapted to the use of Schools, American Surveyors, &

BY JOHN D. CRAIG

BALTIMORE:

PUBLISHED BY F. LUCAS JÚN. AND JOSEPH CUSHING.

J. Robinson, printer.

1816.

SEAL.

DISTRICT OF MARYLAND, Ss.
BE IT REMEMBERED, That on this Twelfth day of November, in the

Forty-first year of the Independence of the United States of America,
F. Lucas, Jun. of the said District, hath deposited in this office the

title of a Book, the right whereof he claims as Proprietor; in the words

** following, to wit : “ A Treatise on Practical Surveying; which is Demonstrated from its first prin. ciples.-Wherein every thing that is Useful and Curious in that! Art, is fully considered and explained.-- by Robert Gibson.

---Revised, Corrected and Adapted to the use of Schools, American Surveyors, &c. by Johan United States, sintituled,

Craig:”
In conformity to the et
“ An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts
and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein
mentioned.” And also to the act, entitled, “ An act supplementary to an act, en-
titled “ An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps,
charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times
therein mentioned,” and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing,
engraving, and etching historical and other prints."

PHILIP MOORE,
Clerk of the District of Marykande

The art of the Congress of the

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ADVERTISEMENT.

THE present edition of Gibson's Surveying, being intended for the use of schools, as well as for the Ameri. can reader and surveyor in general, several alterations have been made in various parts of the work. Useless calculations have been either abridged, or entirely omitted, and a number of new examples for calculating surveys, and dividing of land, substituted in their room. Different parts of those calculations are designedly omitted, for the better exercising of the learner. And it is presumed, the arrangement of the plates will be found highly advantageous, both for the conve, nicnce of the reader and the preservation of the book. The press has been carefully corrected, and it is hoped that the work is as free of such errors as any publication of the kind.

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PREFACE.

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THE

he word geometry imports no more than to measure the earth, or to measure land; yet in a larger and more proper sense, it is applied to all sorts of dimensions. It is generally supposed to have had its rise among the Egyptians, from the river Nile's destroying and confounding all their land-marks, by its annual inundations, which laid them under the necessity of inventing certain methods and measures to enable them to distinguish and adjust the limits of their respective grounds, when the waters were withdrawn.' And this opinion is not entirely to be rejected, when we consider that Moses is said to have acquired this art when he resided at the Egyptian court. And Achilles Tatius in the beginning. of his introduction to Aratus's Phænomena, informs us, , that the Egyptians were the first who measured the heavens and the earth (and of course the earth first) and that their science in this matter, was engraven on columns, and by that means delivered to posterity.

It is a matter of some wonder, that though survey. ing appears to have been the first, or at least one of the first of the mathematical sciences, that the rest have met with much greater improvements from the peas of

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