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pores being open, besides feverish distemperatures and ventosities, oftentimes very great and dolorous affects of the brain, breast, sinews, and joints.
I may not let pass, how certain accidents now and then befal some in their bathing, as, weakness and subversion of the stomach, faintness, and sometimes swoonings; and these the physiciant must take special care to prevent, which may be occasioned by means of the sulphurous vapours of the bath; yet I must tell you, that these, or the like accidents our baths do seldom occasion, especially the Cross Bath, but in them that are weak by nature, that are subject to swooning, or go into them preposterously, without fit preparation and direction. And the reason is, because, our baths being large, and having no sulphur in them, nor in the cavities near adjoining, the vapours are the less noisome, not so gross and adusted ; and therefore not quickly offensive, but to them that are very weak by nature, or, as I have said, go into them without fit preparation, or make longer stay in them, than is meet.
And here I cannot but lay open baths Technology, with such as, for the health of their bodies, resort to those baths; wherein I am sure to gain little thanks. But I pass not for it, my purpose being to discharge a good conscience, and to do my country good. The thing, therefore, that I would have you to take notice of, is, how the people of that place, that keep houses of receipt, and their agents, for such they have in every corner of the streets, and also before you come to the gates, press upon you, importuning you to take your lodging at such and such an house, near to such and such a bath, extolling the baths near which they dwell, above the rest, respecting altogether their own gain, not your good or welfare. And, when they have gotten you into their houses, they will be ready to fit you with a physician, perhaps an empirick*, or upstart apothecary, magnifying him for the best physician in the town, that will not cross them in removing you to another bath, though the bath, near which you are placed, be altogether contrary to your infirmities and state of body, or, at least, not so convenient as some other. And this is also a special reason, why many, oftentimes, receive rather burt, than good, by the use of the baths.
My counsel, therefore, to the learned physicians shall be this: That they so tender the good of their patients, and their own worth and reputation, as that, for base gain, they subject not themselves to these kind of people, in hope to get patients by their means: And to the patients, that they fall not by any means into the hands of empiricks, who, by their ill qualified physick, will spoil their bodies, and, by reason of their pragmatical nature, persuade and put them to unnecessary
preposterous courses, which cannot but produce disasterous effects.
But, seeing that no calling is more disgraced, than by the men of the same calling, I wish all professors of physick to carry themselves worthy of their calling, to be faithful and honest in their courses, not to insinuate with any, or, after the manner of our Bath-guides, press upon them to be retained. If an empirick or mountebank seek about for work, I blame them not; let them deceive those that will be deceived; but, for such as are graduated in the noble faculty of physick to do so, it is fiddler-like; a note, if not of some unworthiness in them, I am sure, of a base mind. Let those, therefore, that are physicians indeed, strive to maintain the reputation of their art, and not, by a base insinuating carriage, or mountebank-like tricks, to get a note and repute, vilify their own worth, or disgrace so noble a faculty.
• Bath being a place, in regard of the baths, that many resort unto for cure of infirmities, that cannot receive help elsewhere; it were to be wished, that empiricks, and all others, wható soever they be, being uot graduates in the faculty of physick. were utterly prohibited to practise
the city, or near to the confines thereof, idque sub pæna gravissima.
But to draw to an end: When you shall, for your health, repair to the baths, be cautious, and suffer not yourself to be taken up by such as will press upon you; but rest yourself at your inn, and be well advised by a physician that knows the nature and use of the baths, and can well judge of your infirmities and state of body, what bath shall be fitting for your use, and then take up your lodging accordingly: Which course, if it were observed, and the physician carefully and learnedly perform his part, I am persuaded, that many more, than now do, would, for their infirmities, find remedy at the baths, to the great honour of the place; and that scarcely any would depart thence, but much eased and bettered in their state of body.
Thus much I thought fitting to advise and publish concerning the nature and use of our baths; and the rather, that such as preposterously use them, as the greater part, I suppose, do, that resort unto them, may not erroneously detract from the admirable vertues of them. For unto us it doth yearly appear, by the miraculous effects they work, of what excellent efficacy they are, if they be rightly and judiciously used. And seeing that, in the true use of them, there are many things to be considered, I do therefore again advise all such, as are respective of their health, that they enterprise not the use of them without the counsel and direction of some honest and learned physician resident at the baths: Which if they do, the incommodum
be majus commodo. And so I conclude this treatise,
An Advertisement of the great Utility that cometh to Man's Body by the
taking of Physick in the Spring, inferred upon the ensuing Question. The Spring being the most reviving, flourishing, and temperate Season of
the Year, whence is it, that Sicknesses are more frequent in the same, and people sooner die therein, than in any other Season ? THERE
be two reasons yielded for the same; the one taken from the winter preceding, which, by reason of its moisture, filleth the body with crude and excremental humours; and, by its coldness thickening and compacting the same, quieteth them from fluxion ; but the heat of the spring approaching, and working on those humours, rarefieth and dissolveth them; which thereupon fuctuating, and
putrefying in the body, are the cause of sickness, unless they are expelled by the force of nature, or timely help of physick.
The other reason may be taken from the inconstancy of the spring itself, which sometimes is cold, sometimes hot, sometimes moist, and sometimes dry; which sudden alterations cannot but produce feverish distemperatures, and other infirmities, according to the disposition of the matter congested in the body the winter preceding. From whence it may be concluded, that the sicknesses and deaths of people, which happen more frequently in the spring, than in any other seasons of the year, are not so much to be attributed to the spring, as to the winter, which hath filled the body with superfluities, and prepared it for sickness.
Wherefore, whosoever will be so provident, as, by the timely help of physick, to free his body, as his state and constitution shall require, of the superfluities congested in it, by means of the winter going before, he shall be sure to be far more lively, healthy, and free from sickness in the spring, than any other season of the year, so as he err not overmuch in other things. And this purging of the body, and purifying of the blood in the spring, will not only preserve from sicknesses that commonly reign in the spring, but also be a means to keep the body in a perfect integrity the whole year after: And, therefore, I commend the taking of physick in the spring, to all generous people, to them that lead a genial sedentary kind of life, especially to such as are subject to obstructions, or any yearly disease. You
may here demand of me, What time of the spring is fittest for physick, by way of precaution? I answer, That for them that are wont to be affected with sickness in the spring, and whose humours are too cholerick and thin, and consequently subject to fluxion, it is best to take physick at the very beginning thereof; but, for others, about the middle, or after; especially, if the precedent time shall be cold, and not spring-like.
You may also here demand of me, Whether it be not as necessary to take physick in the autumn, which we commonly call the Fall, as in the spring ? Whereunto in regard of a generality, I must answer, No: Because the summer prepareth not the body for sickness, filling it with superfluities, as doth the winter; yet, for some bodies it is, as for them that naturally abound with crude and phlegmatick humours, that are subject to obstructions, to cold winterly diseases, or any melancholick affects, as necessary to take physick by way of prevention in the fall, as in the spring; and that, for avoiding the superfluities before the winter, for opening the obstructions, and freeing the body of superfluous melancholy, which then, by reason of the season, increaseth. And the fittest time for the doing thereof, for such as are subject to melancholy, and autumnal diseases, is soon after the beginning of the fall; but, for others, towards the middle thepeof,
But, here, I must advertise you, that you expose not your body to the unlearned empirick, that can neither find out the peccant humours, nor parts affected; but to such as are learned in that art, that can well judge of your state of body, and accordingly prescribe you remedies, as your constitution and affected parts shall require. Many men think, yea, some of a generous note, wherein they bewray their carelesness, if not their stupidity too, that, whilst they are in health, they may, for prevention, take physick from any one, it matters not from whom it be, nor what physick it be, so it work with them. I must tell you, that may overthrow their bodies hereby, and that there is no less art and judgment required for preserving the body in health, than for curing of it, being sick; if they did but know how the four humours are or ought to be proportioned in their bodies, for enjoying, according to their constitutions, a sound and healthy state, they would, I am persuaded, be more cautious, than to commit themselves into the hands of the unlearned, who, by their inconsiderate courses, take humours from them at an adventure, as well those which are not offensive, as those which are, to the utter subversion of the economy of the body: Whereof though, perhaps, in regard of their strengths, they are not by and by sensible, which is that which only cloaketh the errors of empiricks, and, as a vail, masketh many men's eyes and understanding herein: Yet they will, as I have in divers observed to their peril, by little and little incur a relapsed state of body.
It is strange to see the ignorance of most people, how backward they are to give to the learned professors of physick their due, ready to lay scandals upon them; but forward to maguify empiricks, their physick, their honesty, their care, willing to excuse and pass over their gross slips and absurdities. O mira hominum stupiditas! But proceeds this altogether out of ignorance? I suppose, no: For doubtless, many seek unto them, and magnify their physick, because it is cheap: But such are fools and gulls, indeed, for they wrong, and even poison their bodies with gross and ill-qualified physick, to save their purse.
But, to answer the reasons, or rather the words which they produce and alledge in the favour and behalf of empiricks: To what purpose is the working of that physick which respecteth not the peccant humours, nor parts affected, but to the overthrow of the body? What is a supposed honesty in a physician without learning, but a snare, wherein the ignorant do voluntarily entrap themselves ? I say, supposed : For I cannot think that man to be honest, that usurps a calling, which, with a good conscience, he is not able to discharge. Or, to what purpose is the care that empiricks take about their preposterous and ill-composed medicines, but to the utter ruin of the patient's body? As it too unluckily happened of late to a gentleman of good worth and note, who, taking physick, by way of prevention, of a pill-boasting surgeon, in a short space, by his ill-qualified and preposterous physick, incurred an incurable and mortal lapse of his stomach and liver, being in his constant age, and perfect strength of body. Vain, therefore, and very absurd, is that conceit, which many have in favour of empiricks, viz. If they do no good, they will do no harm. Admit, that sometimes, by their trivial petty medicines, they do no harm; yet, nevertheless for that, I must tell you, that they do much harm; for the sick body relying upon their skill, and they being not able to direct and execute such courses as shall be fitting and effectual to impugn the disease, while there is time fitting for the same, the sickness gets the mastery; and then, perhaps, when their strengths are too much weakened, and the disease become incurable, they seek help of the learned physician. So basely verily are most of our people affected to their health, that, until some practical minister, parish-clerk, apothecary, surgeon, or the like, have done their utmost hurt, they seek not to the physician.
And here, to vindicate our art from calumny, I cannot but tax the most sort of people, that being affected with any great or difficult disease, which, by reason of the nature thereof, or contumacy of the peccant humours, will have such progress, as that it cannot, in a shoet time, by the medicines and best endeavours of the 'learned physician, how forceable soever, be evicted, will reject their physician, and betake themselves, which is an absurdity, super omnem absurditatem, to some ignorant, sottish empirick, and every good wives medicine, to their great hurt and, oftentimes, overthrow. But, if it happen, that they recover thereupon, they lay an imputation upon the physician, and grace their empirick with the cure; whereas, in very deed, the matter of their disease was wholly, or, at least, the greatest part thereof, eradicated by such fit and powerful remedies, as the learned physician had formerly administered unto them: Whereupon, the residue of the cure was effected by the force of nature, not by the weak endeavours of the empirick, or trivial medicines of any other whatsoever.
I have, on purpose, enlarged this advertisement, and do leave it for a memorial and caveat to all posterity, especially to the gentlemen of this our age, who, for the most part of them, very greatly wrong their judgment and understanding, in taking physick of the unlearned ; and, wherein they do not only wrong themselves, but also give occasion of hurt unto others : For the meaner sort of people, following their example, do the like; whereby it comes to pass, that, in all likelihood, more untimely perish (which I believe to be true, in the western parts of this kingdom) under the hands of empiricks, than die otherwise. Such as will not take notice hereof, in Empiricorum manus incidant. And if any Asinus Cumanus, or Terræ filius, shall object, that divers recover under the hands of cmpiricks; I answer, in a word, that the recovery is not to be attributed to their physick, but to the strength of nature, that bears up, both against the disease, and their preposterous
A Censure concerning the Water of St. Vincent's Rock near Bristol",
which begins to grow in great Request and Use against the Stone.
THIS water of St. Vincent's Rock is a very pure, clear, crystalline substance, answering to those crystalline diamonds, and transparent stones, that are plentifully found in those clists. It is no less commendable for smell and taste, than delectable for colour and substance, and, for its temperature, excels any other of this kingdom, being almost of a mean between heat and cold : I say almost, because it is a little more inclined to cold, than to heat, which maketh it the more effectual for allaying the burning heat of the bowels; and yet, by reason of its good temperature, not quickly offensive to the stomach, if it be not lapsed by cold,
1 Urbs pulchra, & Emporium celebre,