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to those that are sick and feverish, especially those in whom a cholerick humour, inflamed, stirs up the head-ach. Besides, there are some kinds of sound, which some persons cannot endure; and yet can give you no reason for it, but are constrained to fly to specifical properties and antipathies; and such we may conceive to be between the Cock's crowing and a Lion's ear, with much more likelihood than that the remora stays vessels under full sail; and a thousand other effects impenetrable by our reason, but assured by our experience.

Lastly, This astonishment that the Cock puts the Lion into, with his crowing, is not very unreasonable: this king of beasts having occa. sion to wonder, how out of so small a body should issue a voice so strong, and which is heard so far off, whereas himself can make such great slaughters with so little noise. Which amazement of the Lion is so much the greater, if the Cock be white, because this colour helps yet more to dissipate his spirits, which were already scattered by the first motion of his apprehension.

A QUESTION,

WHETHER THERE BE NOTHING NEW?

Being one of those Questions handled in the Weekly Conferences of Monsieur

Renaudot's Bureau d'Addresses, at Paris,

Translated into English, Anno 1640. Quarto, containing six pages.

London, printed by R. B. for Jasper Emery, at the Eagle and Child, in St. Paul's

Churcb-yard, near St. Augustine's Gate.

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HE desire to learn is natural, and no less pleasing to the mind

getting: And as men receive more contentment in one new purchase, than in often thinking on all those which they had made before ; so our understanding takes a great deal more pleasure in feeding upon new nourishment, than in chewing the cud upon that which it had already ; yea, and among those new repasts, if it light upon any which it never tasted before, it receives it, as our palate is wont to do, with so much the more pleasure: For nature is more pleased with the change, than with the continuation of the use of any thing; the reason is, because, seeking the supreme good, and not finding it in any of those things which he hath yet made trial of, she always hopes to find it elsewhere, This sweetness is that which allays the bitterness of learning to children, who are ravished with the pleasure of learning all those histories, and pedantical conceits, which we can so hardly endure when we are grown

to more age. It may be, it makes old men so melancholick, because you can hardly tell them any thing that they know not; and, therefore, men's talk is tedious to them; whereas ignorant youth admires and takes pleasure in every thing. And we are so delighted with novelty, that there is no beast su ill-favoured, which seems not pretty, when it is

young, witness the ass's foal; nor no plant of so little delight, as that novelty cannot commend it, as we see in the hop, and the primrose. But,

I distinguish novelty into physical, or natural, moral, and artificial. The first of these is in new productions, whether of substances, or accidents, or of diseases, unknown to the ancients. The second of new and unusual actions. The third of inventions.

According to which distinction we may state this question, and that, in my opinion, must be done thus: There are no new substantial productions ; nature having displayed all her forces, almost these six thousand years (according to the true account, and much more, if we believe the Egyptians and Chinese) and having run through all imaginable varieties of species, by the divers combinations of all her matters; and, also, through all mixtures of qualities, and other accidents; which makes it impossible to shew any disease, that is new and unknown to the foregoing ages. But, for actions, it is another case; their number cannot be determined, because they depend upon the liberty of man, which could be no longer liberty, if our will were not free to pass some set number. Much less can inventions be said to be determinate, and reducible to a certain number, because they depend, in their productions, upon the wit of man, which is infinite in its duration, and in its conceptions, which cannot be bounded, no not by that vacuum, which some have imagined on the further side of the heavens. Of which all our inventions are proofs sufficient.

The second said, that this exception is unnecessary, there being nothing at all new in any of those fore-named classes, according to the testimony of him that was best able to judge, as being the wisest, and who had made the most experiments; I mean Solomon, who boldly pronounces of his own times, that there was not then, nor should ever be, any new thing. How much more then is it true in our time, being so many years after him? For, to begin with the Formæ substantiales, as they call them, there is not one of that sort new, not only in its species, but even in its individual qualities, which, indeed, appear new to' our senses, but yet are not so, for all that; as the shape of a marble statue was in the stone not only in possibility, but also in act, before the graver made it appear to our eyes, by taking away that which was superfluous, and hindered us from seeing it. And if we believe, that we have so good a horse, that his like was never found; it is not, because it is so, but, because it seems so; other horses, as good, or better than that, never coming to our hands. Much less likely is it, that new diseases should be produced, as some have believed, imagining that the ancients were not curious enough to describe all those of their times, or their successors diligent enough to examine their writings, to find them there. As for human actions, do we see any now-a-days, that have not been practised in times past, whether good or bad,

is new,

valiant or cowardly, in counsel or in execution ? And that, which they call invention, is, for the most part, nothing but a simple imitation in deeds, or words. Thus, printing and guns, which, we believe, were invented within these two or three hundred years, are found to have been in use, among the Chinese, above twelve hundred years. So saith Terence of speech, Nihil est jam dictum, quod non dictum sit prius. Our very thoughts, though they be innumerable, yet, if they were registered, would be all found ancient.

The third said, That nature is so much pleased with diversity, which is nothing else but a kind of novelty, that she hath imprinted a desire of it, in all things here below, and, it may be, in things above also ; for they are pleased in their work, and the supreme and universal causes produce us these novelties. Thus, the different periods of the heavens make new aspects, and new influences, not only every year, but also every month, every day, yea, every moment. The moon, every quarter, shews a several sort of face; and particularly, when she sends all her light towards the sun, she is called new. The sun, at his rising,

and so he appears incessantly to some country or other in the world; in each of which he makes new seasons, and, amongst the rest, spring, because it is the most pleasant time, is commonly called, in France, le renouveau, because it renews all things; the air decking, itself with a more chearful light, the trees cloathing themselves with leaves, the earth with greenness, the meadows being enamelled and embroidered with new flowers. The young man, that feels the down upon his chin, acknowledgeth his mossy beard to be new; upon his wedding-day, he is a new married man; it is a pretty new case to his bride, to find herself made a woman; her great belly and lying-in are also novelties to her; the little infant then born is a new fruit; his first sucking is new; his teeth, at first coming, are new. And so are all other conditions of clerkship, and priesthood, and widowhood, and almost infinite others. Yea, many things, that seem not at all to be new, yet are so, as a river seenis very ancient, and

yet it renews itself

every moment; so that the water, that now runs under the bridge, is not that which was there yesterday, but still keeps the same name, though it be, altogether, other indeed. We ourselves are renewed from time to time, by our nourishment's continual restoration of our wasted triple sub

Nor can any man doubt, but that there are new diseases, seeing nothing is written of them in the books of the ancients, nor of the remedies to cure them, and that the various mixtures of tảe qualities which produce them, may be in a manner innumerable; and that both sorts of pox were unknown to the ancients. But this novelty appears yet better in men's actions, and divers events in them, which are, therefore, particularly called news. Such are the relations of battles, șieges, takings of towns, and other accidents of life; so much the more considerable, by how much they are ordinarily less regarded. It were also too much injustice to go about to deprive all inventors of the honour due to them, maintaining, that they have taught us no new thing. Do not the, sectaries and heresiarchs make new religions ? Moreover, who will make any question, whether we have not reason to ask, what new things Africa affords now-a-days, it having been so fertile

stance.

in monsters, which are bodies intirely new, as being produced against the laws of nature. And, when the King calls down money, changeth the price of it, determines its weight, is not this a new ordinance ? IR short, this is to ge&bout to pervert, not only the signification of words, but also common sense, in maintaining, that there is nothing new; and it had not been amiss, if the regent, who printed such paradoxes in a youthful humour, had never been served with new laid eggs, nor changed his old cloaths, and, if he had complained, answer might have been made, That there is nothing new,

The fourth said, That there are no new substances, and, by consequence, no new substantial forms, but only accidental ones; seeing nothing is made of nothing, or returns to nothing; and, in all the other classes of things, there are no new species, but only new individuals, to which monsters are to be referred, Yea, the mysteries of our salvation were always in intellectu divino: Which made our Saviour say, that Abraham had seen him, And, as for arts and inventions, they flourished in one estate, whilst they were unknown in another, where they should appear afterward in their time. And this is the sense, wherein it is true, that There is nothing new.

THE

PREROGATIVE OF PARLIAMENTS

IN ENGLAND,

Proved in a Dialogue between a Counsellor of State, and a Justice of Peace.

Written by the worthy Knight,
SIR WALTER RALEIGH.

Dedicated to the King's Majesty, and to the House of Parliament now assembled.

Preserved to be now happily, in these distracted Times, published, and printed 1640. Quarto, containing seventy-four Pages.

Counsellor.

Now, Sir, what think you of Mr. St. John's trial in the Starwithal, because he was imprsioned in the Tower, seeing his dissuasion from granting a benevolence to the King was warranted by the law.

Justice. ' Surely, Sir, it was made manifest at the hearing, that Mr. $t. John was rather in love with his own letter; he confessed he had

This is the 287th article in the Catalogue of Pamphlets in the Harleian Library.

seen your lordship's letter, before he wrote his to the Mayor of Marlborough, and in your lordship's letter there was not a word whereto the statutes, by Mr. St. John alledged, had reference; for those statutes did condemn the gathering of money from the subject, under title of a free gift; whereas a fifth, a sixth, a tenth, &c. was set down, and required. But, my good lord, though divers shires have given to his Majesty, some more, some less, What is this to the King's debt ?

Couns. We know it well enough, but we have many other projects.

Just. It is true, my good Lord; but your lordship will find, that when by these you have drawn many pretty sums from the subjects, and those sometimes spent as fast as they are gathered, his Majesty being nothing enabled thereby, when you shall be forced to demand your great aid, the country will excuse itself, in regard of their former payments.

Couns. What mean you by the great aid?
Just. I mean the aid of parliament.

Couns. By parliament I would fain know the man that durst persuade the King unto it; for if it should succeed ill, In what case were he ?

Just. You say well for yourself, my Lord, and perchance, you that are lovers of yourselves, under pardon, do follow the advice of the late Duke of Alva, who was ever opposite to all resolution in business of importance; for if the things enterprised succeeded well, the advice never came in question: If ill, whereto great undertakings are commonly subject, he then made his advantage, by remembering his country council: But, my good Lord, these reserved politicians are not the best servants, for he that is bound to adventure his life for his master, is also bound to adventure his advice : “Keep not back counsel,' saith Ecclesiasticus, when it may do good.'

Couns. But, Sir, I speak it not in other respect, than I think it dangerous for the king to assemble the threc estates; for thereby have our former kings always lost somewhat of their prerogatives. And, because that you shall not think, that I speak it at random, I will begin with elder times, wherein the first contention began, betwixt the kings of this land, and their subjects in parliament.

Just. Your Lordship shall do me a singular favour.

Couns. You know that the King of England had no formal parliament till about the eighteenth year of Henry the First, for in his seventeenth year, for the marriage of his daughter, the king raised a tax upon every hide of land by the advice of his privy-council alone. But you may remember how the subjects, soon after the establishment of this parliament, began to stand upon terms with the king, and drew from him by strong hand, and the sword, the great charter.

Just. Your Lordship says well, they drew from the king the great charter by the sword, and hereof the parliament cannot be accused, but the Lords.

Couns. You say well, but it was after the establishment of the parliament, and by colour of it, that they had so great daring; for before that time they could not endure to hear of St. Edward's laws,

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