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place, whose pens and tongues have uttered such poison against the common good, and in their pride, would willingly adhere to Rome; as, by many superstitions it plainly appears, they have introduced some Babylonian ceremonies, and made a bridge unto the church, by the Arminian opinion, to pass over to popery:

The state of Venice, jealous of any their members confederating with enemies, cause them to be strangled, and hanged up between columns, confiscate their goods and estates, banish their

children, and make them incapable of government; if for jealousy, much more, for so foul acts committed, ought they to die, by the law of God and man

Among the Athenians, Lacedemonians, and Romans; whosoever should go about to alter the form of government, or laws, without publick consent, hath been ever accounted the highest traitor ; witness their ostracism, and many such exemplary punishments, used to such wretches.

If destroying the head be high treason, then ruining the state of the body must be; for if it be suffocated with gross spirits, the head will not only ach, but be apoplectical or lethargical, such a sympathy or rather relation is betwixt head and members, that no rhetorick or eloquence can take it away: In this case it is no pity, but convenient

, makes it treason. But how many ways the Lord of Strafford hath perpetrated this intention, hath been often proved.

In 18, and 21, Jacobi, the whole house adjudged it treason, to alien the hearts of the subjects from the sovereign, which hath been done by his counsellors. His imprisoning without law, was high treason, in Sir Haukin Hanby, 25. E. 3. Art. 61, who was drawn, hanged, and quartered.

Judge Thorpe's giving such an oath, contrary to law, was high treason; and is not his? The reason Richard the Second was all to escape, condemned by

, was, because he suffered divers malefactors parliament, which caused the oppression of the subject and ruin of the kingdom.

In all ages, a lethargy in Kings hath caused their ruin; witness Edward the Second, Richard the Second, and Henry the Sixth. I humbly desire God to bless his Majesty. But consider we, that the three kingdoms will not be satisfied, unless the wrong received be expiated with the oblation of some, who hath caused a heretick condition.. stri

The Lord of Strafford hath .had counsel, in case of treason, when none hath had the like since the conquest.. 1 So the whole world may sce with what temper, gravity, and patience they proceed.:,:

Edward Earl of Northumberland, in the 8th of Richard II, because his deputy let the Scots take Berwick Castle, was condemned of high treason, and

yet he never consented thereunto, for it was done without his privity; but the Lord of Strafford writ to the mayor of Newcastle, to let in the Scots, and caused the arms to be taken away from the four adjacent counties, making them incapable of defence.

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Wherefore it is visible as the sun, he is guilty, besides his other crimes ; now this delay of punishment hath kindled such a fire, as all the subjects of the three kingdoms are in a flame, and will not be satisfied:

Ex parois magna crescunt.

I pray God divert the evil, and give us true repentance.

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Composed by Mr. Cavendish, one of his own Servants, being his

Gentleman-Usher.

Loudon, printed by William Sheers, 1641. Quarto, containing one-hundred

twenty-six pages.

IT seemeth no wisdom to credit every light tale, blazed abroad in the

mouths of vulgars, for we daily hear, how, with their blasphemous trump, they spread abroad innumerable lyes, without either shame or honesty, which, prima facie, shew forth a visage of truth, as though it were an absolute verity, though indeed nothing less; and, amongst

the better sort, those babblings are of no validity. I have read the allegations of divers worthy authors against such false

rumours and opinions of the common people, who delight in nothing more, than to hear strange things, and to see new alterations of authority, rejoicing sometimes in such novelties, wbich afterwards

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slo produce repentance. Thus, may all men of understanding

conceive the madness of the rude multitude, and not give too much credence to every sudden rumour, until the truth be perfectly known, by the report of some approved and credible persons, that

commonly have the best intelligence. I have heard, and also seen set forth in divers printed books, some

untrue imaginations, after the death of divers persons, who, in their lives, were in great estimation, invented rather to bring their honest

names in question than otherwise. Now, forasmuch as I intend to write here some special proceedings of

Cardinal Wolsey, the great archbishop, his ascending unto honour and great promotion, his continuance in it, and sudden falling from the same: A great part thereof shall be of mine own knowledge, and

some part from credible persons informations. This Cardinal was my lord and master, whom, in his life-time, I served,

and so remained with him in his fall continually, during the time of all his troubles, both in the south and north parts, until he died. In all which time, I punctually observed all his demeanors, as also

in his great triumph and glorious estate. And, since his departure, I have heard divers surmised and imagined

tales concerning his proceedings and dealings, which I myself have certainly known to be most untrue, unto which I could have sufficiently answered according to truth : But conveiving it to be much better to be silent, than to reply against their untruths, whereby I might, perhaps, have rather kindled a great flame of displeasure, than have quenched one spark of their untrue reports; therefore I did refer the truth thereof to the Almighty, who knows

the truth of all things, Nevertheless, whatsoever any man hath conceived of him in his life,

or since his death; thus much, I dare say, without offence to any, thạt, in my judgment, I never saw this realm in better obedience, and quiet, than it was in the time of his authority, nor justice better administered, with partiality, as I could justly prove, if I should

not be taxed with too much affection. I will therefore here desist to speak any further, by the way of apology,

and proceed now to speak of his original, and ascending through fortụne's favour to high dignity, and abundance of wealth.

An Adoertisement to the Reader.

WHO pleaseth to read this history advisedly, may well perceive the mutability of honour, the tottering state of earthly dignity, the deceit of flattering friends, and the instability of princes favours.

This great cardinal having experience of all this, witness his fleeting from honour, the loss of friends, riches, and dignities, being forgotten of his prince, whilst. fortune smiled, having satiety of all these : and she, bending her brow, deprived him of all terrestrial joys, who, by twenty years study and pains,, had obtained so great wealth and dignity, and, in less than one year, lost all.

And thus was his honour laid in the dust.

CHAP. I,

Of the Cardinal, his Original, and who he was.

TRUTH

RUTH it is, Cardinal Wolsey was an honest poor man's son in the

town of Ipswich, in the county of Suffolk, and there born, who being but a child was very apt to learn; wherefore, by means of his parents, and other his good friends, he was maintained at the university of Oxford, where, in a short time, he prospered so well, that, in a small time, as he told me with his own mouth, he was made batchelor of arts, when he was but fifteen years of age, and was most commonly called the boy batchelor. Thus, prospering in learning, he was made fellow of Magdalen college in Oxford; after that, he was made master of Magdalen School, at which time were the Lord Marquis of Dorset's sons' there at school, committing unto him as well their education as their instructions and learning.

It pleased this Lord Marquis, against Christmas, to send as well for the schoolmaster as for the scholars home to his house, for their recreation in that pleasant and honourable forest. They being a while there, the Lord Marquis their father perceiving them to be well improved in learning for the time: He was so well contented, that he, having a benefice in his gift, being at that present void, gave the schoolmaster the same, in regard of his diligence. After Christmas, at his departure to the university, he having the presentation thereof, repaired to the ordinary for his institution ; and, being then furnished with all his instruments, at the ordinary's hands, for his preferment, made haste, without any further delay, to his benefice, to take possession thereof, Now you shall understand, that the schoolmaster had not been long there, but one Sir James Pawleț, Knt. dwelling in the country thereabouts, took an occasion of displeasure against him, but upon what ground I know not: Insomnuch, that Sir James was so bold as to set the schoolmaster by the heels during his displeasure, which affront was afterwards neither forgotten, nor forgiven: For, when the schoolmaster mounted so high as to be lord chancellor of England, he was not forgetful of his old displeasure most cruelly ministered unto him by Sir James, but sent for him, and after a very sharp reproof enjoined him not to depart out of London, without license first obtained; so that he continued in the Middle Temple the space of five or six years, and afterwards lay in the Gatehouse next the stairs, which he re-edified, and sumptuously beautified the same all over on the outside, with the cardinal's arms, his hat, his cognisance and badges, with other devices, in so glorious a manner, as he thought thereby to have appeased his old displeasure.

This may be a good precedent for men in authority, which work their own wills without wit, to remember that greatness may decay. And those, whom they do punish more of humour than justice, may afterwards be advanced to great honour, as this Cardinal was, and they abased as low as this Sir James was, which seek revenge. Who would have thought, when Sir James Paulet punished this poor school-master, that ever he should have mounted to so great dignity as to be chancellor of England, considering his mean parentage and friends? These be the wonderful works of God's Providence. And I would wish, that all men in authority would fear God, in all ages, in the time of their triumph and greatness, considering that advancement and authority are not permanent, but many times slide and vanish suddenly away, as princes pleasures alter and change, or, as all living creatures must, of necessity, pay the debt due to nature, which no earthly creature can resist.

Shortly after, it chanced the said Lord Marquis died, after whose decease, the schoolmaster thinking himself but a weak beneficed man, and that he had left his fellowship in the college; for, as I understand, if a fellow of that house be once promoted to a benefice, he shall, hy the rules of the same house, be dismissed of his fellowship, and now, being also destitute of his singular good lord, as well as of his fellowship, which was most of his relief, thought lc.g to be provided of some other help, to defend him from all such storms as he might meet with. In his travel thereabouts, he grew acquainted with a very great and ancient knight, who had a great place in Calais, under King Henry the Seventh. This' knight he served, and behaved himself so discreetly, that he obtained the special favour of his said master; insomuch that, for his wit and gravity, he committed all the care and charge of his said office to his said chaplain. And, as I understand, his office was the treasurership of Calais, who, in regard of his great age, shortly after was discharged of his said office, and so returned into England, intendo ing to live a more private life; but, through his instant labour and good favour, his chaplain was preferred to be the King's chaplain. And, when he had once cast anchor in the port of promotion, how he then bestirred himself, I shall now declare.

He having, then, just occasion to be daily in sight of the King in his closet, not spending the rest of the day in idleness, would attend those men, whom he thought to bear most rule in the council, and were most in favour with the King; which, at that time, was Dr. Fox, Bishop of Winchester, and lord privy-seal; and also Sir Thomas Lovell, Knight, a very sage and wise counsellor, being master of the wards and constable of the Tower.

These ancient and grave counsellors, in process of time, perceiving this chaplain to be a man of a very acute wit, thought him a mcet instrument to be employed in greater affairs.

Not long after, it happened that the King had an urgent occasion, to send an ambassador to Maximilian the Emperor, who lay, at that present, in the Low Countries, at Flanders, and not far from Calais.

Now the bishop of Winchester and Sir Thomas Lovell, whom the King most esteemed, as the chiefest of his council, one day, advising

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