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him and keep his commandments as well as “ It is forbidden to a man to teach his slave the men ; and therefore he wills that they the law.” But, alas, the passage of the Word should make use of the same means, that they of God which forbids it, is not referred to. It should hear, and learn all the words of the is only an inference from the passage, “ Ye law. The traditionists have, therefore, in shall teach your sons ;” but is evidently this case plainly made void the law of God. contrary to the whole tenour of the law of God commands women as well as men to learn Moses. In the first place, the Israelite who the law: the rabbies say they are exempt had been sold by the tribunal, or who, on from this duty. God commands that the wo. account of poverty, had sold himself, was still man should be taught. It is plain, there. | an Israelite, and did not forfeit, finally, his fore, that the oral law which contradicts the right to his inheritance in the land, ; how, written law cannot be from God. The com- then, could he forfeit his right to the law, mand of God is so plain that it is un- which Moses gave as “ the inheritance of necessary to enter deeply into the second rab. | the congregation of Jacob ?” The law of binical reason for the prohibition to teach Moses expressly provides a day of rest“ for women the law. It is evident that God did the man servant and the maid-servant,” that not think that the poverty of their under they may not only have rest for their bodies, standing was any obstacle to their learning his but may have time to learn the will of God, will. Indeed it has pleased Him to show that and provide for that eternity to which they are He is no respecter of persons with regard to hastening as well as their masters. Indeed, if male or female, more than with regard to rich meditation on the Word of God was more or poor. He has not only given them his law, necessary for one Israelite than another, it was but conferred on women as well as men the gift for the Hebrew servant. If he had been of prophecy, so that the names of Deborah, guilty of theft, and had been sold by the Hannah, and Huldah, must ever be remem. tribunal, he had special need of instruction in bered amongst the inspired messengers of God. the law of God to lead him to repentance, and The rabbies seem to have forgoiten that “ the to teach him his duty for the future. If he fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom,” had been guilty of no crime, but had been and that this fear may be implanted by God compelled by poverty to sacrifice his liberty, just as easily in the heart of a woman as of a | surely he needed the consolation which the rabbi. But without inquiring further into Word of God can supply, to enable him to their reasons or their motives, suffice it to say, I bear his hard lot with patience, and to prevent that the oral law in thus robbing women of him from murmuring. But here the oral law their right and inheritance in the law of God, steps in, and actually prohibits his master from and in degrading them to the same category teaching him ; and instead of encouraging him with children and slaves, is opposed to the in his leisure time to turn to the Word of God plain commands of the written law. But not as his refuge and his comfort, it tells him that so the New Testament. It exactly agrees he is not bound to study it. Here, again, the with the Old in considering woman as a ra. New Tesament is much more like the law of tional and responsible being, and a candidate Moses, which breathes, all through, a spirit for everlasting life. It, therefore, gives one of the most tender compassion for those in general rule for the education of children, male servitude. Moses commands the Israelites to and female. " Ye fathers provoke not your remember that they had themselves been bond. children to wrath, but bring thein up in the men in Egypt. The New Testament reminds nurture and admonition of the Lord.” (Ephes. Christian masters that they have a Master in vi. 4.) It does indeed prescribe modesty and heaven. “ Ye masters do the same things subjection to the women in the mode of unto them, forbearing threatening: knowing learning, but in so doing it plainly points out that your inaster also is in heaven; neither is their duty to become acquainted with the will there respect of persons with him.” (Ephes. of God. « Let the women learn in silence vi. 9.) It also plainly teaches that the relation with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman which exists between believing masters and to teach nor to usurp authority over the man, servants is, before God, that of brethren. but to be in silence.” (1 Tim. ii. 11, 12.) “ And they that have believing masters, let
In these and other passages the woman is them not despise them, because they are breth. placed in the position assigned her in the Oldren ; but rather do them service because they Testament, and not in the very subordinate are faithful and beloved, partakers of the rank assigned her by the oral law. “ Women, benefit.” (1 Tim. vi. 2.) Yea, the New and slaves (D'ay), and children, are exempt Testament lays down a general principle, the from the study of the law.” But we think very opposite of that, that " women, and that this rule is as false with regard to slaves slaves, and children are exempt from the study as to women. Here the oral law says that of the law. It says, " There is neither Jew slaves are not bound to learn. In Hilchoth nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there Avadim, c. viii. 18, we find that they are not is neither male nor female, for ye are all one to be taught.
in Christ Jesus.” (Gal. iii. 28.) It does not dispense men from their relative duties, nor
אסור לאדם ללמד את עבדו תורה :
גוי שעסק בתורה חייב מיתה - לא יעסוק אלא בצבע מצות שלהן בלבד : וכן גוי ששבת אפילו ביום מימות
בתורתו ולא יוסיף ולא יגרע • ואם עסק בתורה או
מכין אותו ועונשין אותו ומודיעין שבת או חדש דבר | אותו שהוא חייב מיתה על זה אבל אינו נהרג :
deprive any of their legitimate privileges, but concerned. Instruction out of God's Word is tcaches that for all, Jew or Greek, bond or therefore the only means of producing convicfree, male or female, there is but one way of tion. Entertaining these sentiments, we salvation. Very different is the doctrine of the endeavour to compare the oral law with the oral law. We have seen that it makes a grand Word of God, and to convince its advocates distinction between male and female, bond that they are in error. We do not wish to and free, we need not, therefore, be surprized have the modern Jews confounded with the if it make the line of demarcation broader still authors of the system. Very many Jews of between Jew and Greek.
the present day are ignorant of its details. Not having time to make the inquiry, they
take it for granted, that their forefathers were 787 • Dia a't nav 192 125y's 9780Y' Ox 970707 right in preferring their own system to Chris
tianity, and that they are bound to do the ynyto yo335 713 nius 7 U13 nye goriva same. But even those who are learned in the mioyo ya 1990 527 778 77 Ting & oral law, and know its details, are not to be
| viewed in the same light as the original compilers. They have received the system from
their forefathers, and view it through the “A Gentile who employs himself in the law medium of filial affection and national prejuis guilty of death. He is not to employ him. dice. They remember that to the Jews the self except in the seven commandments that law was given, and that the Jewish nation has belong to the Gentiles. And thus a Gentile been the original instrument in God's hand to who keeps a Sabbath, though it be on one of diffuse light over the world; they have therethe week days if he make it to himself as a fore hitherto taken it for granted that they Sabbath, he is guilty of death. It is not must be right. The narrow prejudices of necessary to add, if he appoint for himself a Christians for ages confirmed them in their festival. The general rule is, that they are views. But now circumstances are different. not permitted to innovate in religion, or to Christians begin to understand the position in make commandments for themselves out of which God has placed the Jewish nation, and their own heads. Either let a Gentile become to look forward to their restoration to the fa. a proselyte of righteousness, and take upon vour of God as the time of blessing for the him the whole law: or let him remain in his whole world. Christians can now honour and own law, and neither add nor diminish. But estimate the learning, the talent, and the con. if he employs himself in the law, or keeps a stancy of those very rabbies whose system they Sabbath, or makes any innovation, he is to be consider as erroneous. Now, then, is the time beaten and punished, and informed that he is for the Jews themselves to inquire into those for this guilty of death--but he is not to be religious opinions, which have been handed killed.” -(Hilchoth Melachim, C. X. 9.) down to them, and to compare them with This law is taken from the Talmudical trea the law and the prophets. We trust that tise Sanhedrin,* where it is followed, by an many will admit, that the laws which we apparently contradictory statement, “ that a have been considering are bad, and thereGentile who employs himself in the law is as fore cannot be from God. Let them then good as a high priest;" but the contradiction remember, that the originators of these laws is immediately removed by the explanation are the men who rejected the claims of the which there follows, and says, that " law” is Lord Jesus Christ. If then these men were to be understood of the seven commandments / in error in making these laws, they were of the Gentiles. Now we admit that liberty | in condemning Jesus of Nazareth because of conscience was not understood at the time; he opposed them; and if the laws be and that it would be unjust to expect that bad, the Lord Jesus was right in opposing the compilers of the oral law (who were igno- | them. Yea, and where they taught error He rant of, or opposed to, the New Testament, and his disciples taught the truth. The rabwhere liberty of conscience was first plainly bies have taught constraint. Jesus of Nazareth revealed) should be at all elevated above the and his disciples have taught that fire is not to level of their own times. But making this be called down from heaven on those who differ admission and apology for the men, we cannot from us; that “ the servant of God must help saying that the law itself is bad, and not strive; but be gentle to all men, apt to cannot be from God. Religion is a matter teach, patient, in meekness instructing those between God and man. The heart, the con. | that oppose themselves; if God will peradscience, and the understanding are all alike venture give them repentance to the acknow* Fol. 59. col. 1.
ledging of the truth.” (2 Tim. ii. 25.)
London :- Sold at the London Society's Office, 16, Exeter-hall, Strand; by James Duncan, Pa'ernoster
row; and B. Wertheim, 57, Aldersgate-street. This publication may be had by applying at No. 5, No. 7, or No. 13, Palestine-place, Bethnal-green.
עמדו על דרכים וראו ושאלו לנתבות עולם - ירמיה ו' טז'
The Jewish deputies, when asked by such bold assertion respecting the Talmud. Napoleon whether they considered French- It only intimates that the oral law teaches men as their brethren, replied in the affir- | this doctrine, by subjoining to the passage mative, and after quoting the Mosaic laws from Leviticus the same extract from Naimorespecting the stranger said, “ To these sen- nides, alluded to by the Jewish deputies. timents of benevolence towards the stranger, The Catechism gives the extract a little more Moses has added the precept of general love at length, and as follows:-“ We are bound for mankind : Love thy fellow-creuture as in every thing to treat the non-Israelite, who thyself.' "* And in the authorised Jewish sojourns with us with justice and with love, Catechism used in Bavaria, after the expla- as we would treat an Israelite. Yea we are nation of the moral duties, we find the fol even bound to maintain him, as the Scripture lowing question :-“ Are these laws and du, teaches in the words, - Thou shalt give it to ties, affirmative and negative commandments, the stranger that is in thy gates, that he may binding with respect to a non-Israelite ?" eat it.' (Deut. xiv. 21.) Our wise men Answer" By all means, for the fundamental have commanded us for the good of society, law of all these duties, “ Love thy neighbour even to visit the sick of the heathen, to bury as thyself,' is expressly laid down by the their dead, and to deal out alms to them : for Holy Scriptures in reference to the non- of our Creator it is said, “ The Lord is good Israelite, yea, to the heathen, as it is written, to all; and his tender mercies are over all his 6 And if a stranger sojourn with thee in your works.' (Psalm cxlv. 9.) (Maimonid. Hil. land, ye shall not vex him. But the stranger choth Melachim 10, 12).” that dwelleth with you shall be unto you as No doubt the passage as here given, both one born amongst you, and thou shalt love him by the French deputies and the Bavarian Ca. as thyself: for ye were strangers in the land techism, is very plausible ; and if it could be of Egypt: I am the Lord your God.' ” found verbatim either in the Talmud or any (Levit. xix. 33–35.)+ These declarations are of its compendiums, would go far to justify very explicit, and, as forming part of public the bold assertion of the former, and the cau. documents, highly satisfactory. The repre. tious insinuation of the latter. But unforsentatives of the Jewish people in France, and tunately the original passage is very different. the teachers of the Jewish youth in Bavaria, In the above citations, it is mutilated in order declare, that in the scriptural command,“ Thou to suit the purpose of the citers. In the Jad shalt love thy neighbour as thyself,” neighbour Hachasakah it stands as follows:-means fellow-man, without distinction of nation or religion. Where then did they learn this interpretation ? From the Talmud or from the New Testament? The Jewish De. puties say, from the former. On the page cited above they add, “ This doctrine is also professed by the Talmud. We are bound, says a Talmudist, to love as brethren all those Dy? 7 9 1'9777 737 '" 370 ONS '97 0170 who observe the Noachides, whatever their religious opinions may otherwise be. We are
6 And thus it appears to me, that the prosebound to visit their sick, to bury their dead, | lytes allowed to sojourn are to be treated with to assist their poor, like those of Israel. In the same courtesy and benevolence as the short there is no act of humanity which a true
Israelites ; for behold, we are commanded to Israelite is not bound to perform towards those maintain them, as it is written, Thou shalt who observe the Noachides." The Bavarian give it to the stranger (proselyte) that is in thy Catechism is more cautious. It makes no gates, that he may eat it. As to that saying
of our wise men not to return their salute, it • Transactions of Parisian Sanhedrin, p. 178.
+ Lehrbuch der Mosaischen Religion. München, refers to the Gentiles, not to the proselute 1826, page 150.
allowed to sojourn. But even with regard to I We quote the passage as we find it. Noachides the heathen, the wise men have commanded is here taken for the seven commandments of the
us to visit their sick, and to bury their dead children of Noah, contrary to the usual acceptation of the word.
with the dead of Israel, and to feed their poor
וכן יראה לי שנוהגין עם גרי תושב בדרך ארץ וגמילת חסדים בישראל - שהרי אנו מצווין להחיותן שנאמר לגר אשר בשעריך תתננה ואכלה • וזה שאמרו חכמים אין |
אפילו הגוים כופלין להן שלום • בגוים לא בגר תושב צוו חכמים לבקר חוליהם: ולקבור מתיהם עם מתי ישראל : ולפרנס ענייהם בכלל עניי ישראל • מפני דרכי
along with the poor of Israel, FOR THE SAKE | Bavaria, had one common object--they wished OF THE WAYS OF PEACE ; for it is written, to prove, or to intimate, that the Talmud "The Lord is good to all, and his mercies are teaches us to love as ourselves all our fellowover all his works ;' and again, "Her ways men, without any respect to religious differare ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are ences. In order to prove this, they both repeace." (Prov. iii. 17.) The reader will fer to one and the same passage and from observe that there are several striking differ. the middle of that passage they both omit one ences between this translation and that of the important sentence. What conclusion will Bavarian Catechism ; and these differences be drawn by any man of common understand. prove that, by the word “neighbour," the ing? Just this, that as they both quote one oral law does not understand a fellow-man and the same passage, there must be a great without any regard to his religious opinions. scarcity of proof from the Talmud ; and that, First, the Bavarian Catechism says, “We are as they both make the same omission, the bound in everything to treat the non-Israelite sentence omitted must be unfavourable to that who sojourns with us with justice and with proof; and that, therefore, this one passage love, and as we would treat an Israelite.” does not prove that the Talmud teaches any The original says, “ And thus it appears to such doctrine. Such is the conclusion to me, that the proselytes allowed to sojourn are which we are led by considering the facts of to be treated with the same courtesy and the case. An examination of the omitted benevolence as the Israelites.” The Bavarian passage will show that this conclusion is most Catechism translates this passage as if it were just" As to the saying of our wise men, not the undisputed law of Israel thus to act ; to return their salute, it refers to the Gentiles, whereas Maimonides only offers his own opi. not to the proselytes allowed to sojourn." nion. He says, “It appears to me.” Here Had this passage been inserted in its place, the French deputies represent the matter more the Bavarian Catechism could not have been accurately, by saying, “ We are bound, says translated swing (sojourning proselytes) a Talmudist.” Not the Talmud, but a Tal- “ non-Israelites," for from this passage it mudist. Then, again, the Bavarian Cate appears that these sojourners are different from chism speaks generally of " non-Israelites.” the 6 Gentiles," whose salute is not to be Maimonides speaks of only one particular returned. In plain English, this passage class, the proselytes who had permission to restricts « the courtesy and benevolence" to sojourn in the land of Israel. *That we do those proselytes who, by taking upon them not misrepresent Maimonides' nieaning, is plain the seven commandments of Noah, obtained from the words of the Jewish deputies, who the privilege of sojourning in the land of also restrict the sense to that one particular Israel; and consequently excludes “the Genclass. “ We are bound, says a Talmudist, tiles”-and consequently disproves the asserto love as brethren all those who observe the tion that the Talmud ieaches us to love as Noachides, whatever their religious opinions ourselves all our fellow-men, without any may otherwise be.” Here, then, on the show. respect to religious differences. On the con. ing of the Jewish deputies themselves, the trary, this passage tells us that the salutation Talmud does not teach that all men are to of the Gentiles is not to be returned. It be loved as brethren, but only those who keep prescribes two different lines of conduct to be the seven commandments of Noah. How, pursued towards different religionists, and then, are we to regard the idolater and the makes the difference of religious persuasion heathen, who have not embraced these seven the basis of the rule. But some readers may commandments, and how are we to treat say, that the difference is very small-that the them? This leads us to notice,
command " not to return the salute of the 2dly, The important omission made by the Gentiles," is a mere matter of etiquette Bavarian Catechism. In citing the words of whereas the command to visit the sick of the Maimonides, the compilers have omitted the Gentiles, to bury their dead, and to feed their whole sentence, “ As to the saying of our wise poor, is a substantial kindness. This we men not to return their salute, it refers to the should admit, if the reason assigned for such Gentiles, not to the proselytes allowed to conduct, “ for the sake of the ways of peace,” sojourn. To this sentence, the French | did not utterly remove all the apparent kind. Jewish deputies have also made no allusion ; ness. And this brings us to and yet this sentence is found in the very The third misrepresentation of the Bavamiddle of the passage quoted. What goes rian Catechism. It translates the words 39 before and what follows is quoted by both, 01309 377 (for the sake of the ways of peace) but both have with one common consent “ for the good of society.” Here, then, omitted this passage. Now this mere fact of there is an evident difference between us. But omission is, in itself, sufficient to excite the who is right ? We do not ask the Israelite suspicions of Israelites not acquainted with to believe us. Maimonides here refers to anthe oral law. The Jewish deputies in Paris, other passage of the oral law, where this exand the compilers of the Jewish Catechism in pression is fully explained, and where the
מפרנסים עניי עכ'וס עם עניי ישר מפני דרכי שלום • ואין ממחין בידי עניי עכ''ום בלקט שכחה ופיאה מפני
ושואלים בשלומם ואפי' ביום חגם מפני דרכי שלום דרכי שלום ואין כופלין להן שלום לעולם • ולא יכנס לביתו של נכרי עכ''ום ביום חגו לתת לו שלום • מצאו בשוק נותן לו שלום בשפה רפה ובכובד ראש : אין כל הדברים האלו אמורי' אלא בזמן שגלו ישרי לבין האומות או שיד עכ'וס תקיפה על ישראל אבל בזמן שיד ישראל תקיפה עליהם אסור לנו להניח עובד כיום בינינו אפילו יושב ישיבת עראי או עובר ממקום למקום בסחורה לא יעבור בארצנו אלא עד שיקבל עליו שבע מצות שנצטוו בני נח שנאמר לא ישבו בארצך אפילו לפי שעה ואם
command “not to return the salutation of the the Gentiles are the weakest, there will be no Gentiles” is also found. We will give this necessity “ for the ways of peace," or, as the passage, and then the unlearned can judge for Bavarian catechism has it, « for the good of themselves :
society.” It is plain, therefore, that the passage cited by the French deputies and the Bavarian catechism does not answer the purpose for which it is cited. It does not prove that the Talmud teaches us to love our fellow-men as ourselves, whatever be their religious opinions. On the contrary, it teaches that a wide distinction is to be made between one class of religionists and another; and that | if men be idolaters, we are to show them no | kindness, except for fear of the consequences that might result from betraying our real sentiments. When, therefore, the Jewish depuries and the compilers of the Bavarian Catechism asserted the true explanation of the
| Mosaic command, - Thou shalt love thy “ The poor of the idolaters are to be fed with neighbour as thyself,” it is plain that they the poor of Israel for the suke of the ways of had not learned it from the Talmud, but peace. They are also permitted to have part somewhere else. We hesitate not to say, that of the forgotten sheaf, and the corner of the they learned it from the New Testament, for field, for the sake of the ways of peace. It is there it is taught plainly, repeatedly, and also lawful to ask after their health, even on without any reservation. A certain lawyer their feast-day, for the sake of the ways of once asked Jesus of Nazareth, “ Who is my peace; but never to return (literally reiterate) neighbour ? And Jesus answering, said, A the salutation, nor to enter the house of an certain man went down from Jerusalem to idolater on the day of his festival to salute Jericho, and fell among thieves, which stripped him. If he be met in the street, he is to be him of his raiment, and wounded him, and desaluted in a low tone of voice, and with a parted, leaving him half dead. And by heavy head. But all these things are said chance there came down a certain priest that only of the time that Israel is in captivity way; and when he saw him he passed by on among the nations, or that the hand of the the other side. And likewise a Levite, when idolaters is strong upon Israel. But when he was at the place, came and looked on him, the hand of Israel is strong upon them, we are and passed by on the other side. But a certain forbidden to suffer un ilolater amongst us, Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he even so much us to sojourn incidentally, or to was ; and when he saw him, he had compaspass from place to place with merchandize. sion on him, and went to him, and bound up He is not to pass through our land until he his wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set take upon him the seven commandments him on his own beast, and brought him to an given to the children of Noah, for it is said, inn, and took care of him. And on the * They shall not dwell in thy land,' (Exod. morrow when he departed, he took out twoxxiii. 33, not even for an hour. But if he pence, and gave them to the host, and said take upon himself the seven commandments, unto him, Take care of him; and whatsoever then he is a proselyte permitted to sojourn. thou spendest more, when I come again, I (avin ha).” Hilchoth Accum., c. x. 5, &c. will repay thee. Which now of these three, This is the passage alluded to, and the reader thinkest thou, was neighbour to him that fell may now judge whether the words, “ For the among the thieves ? And he said, He that sake of the ways of peace," can be interpreted showed mercy on him. Then said Jesus unto as the Bavarian Catechism renders them, “ for him, Go thou and do likewise.” (Luke x. the good of society.” If so, then “ the good 29, &c.) Here then the Lord Jesus Christ of society” is to be consulted only whilst the teaches us that we are to show kindness even Jews are in captivity, and the Gentiles have to an idolater, for that even he is included in got the power : but as soon as the Jews get the class specified by the word " neighbour.” power, " the good of society” nay safely be Jesus of Nazareth makes no limitation " for disregarded. The meaning plainly is, that in the sake of the ways of peace,” but gives a the present position of affairs it is advisable to general command. And he appears to have keep the peace between Jews and Gentiles, selected this case of a man lying half dead, inasmuch as the Gentiles are at present the in order to contrast it with a similar case supstrongest. Now, then, it is expedient to visit posed in the oral law. the sick, and feed the poor, and bury the dead « If a Gentile, an idolater, be seen perishing, of the Gentiles, for this will promote that or drowning in a river, he is not to be helped object; but when the tables are turned, and out. If he be seen near to death, he is not to