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16. Remitted from London to Amsterdam a bill of £754 . 10. sterling, how many pounds Flemish is the sum, the exchange at 336. 6d. Flemish per pound sterling? Ans. £1263 . 15.9. Flem.
17. A merchant at Rotterdam remits £1263 . 15. 9. Flemish to be paid in London, how much sterling money must he draw for, the exchange being at 33s. 6d. Flemish per pound sterling ?
Ans. £754. 10.0 18, If I pay in London £852, 12.6. sterling how many guilders must I draw for at Amsterdain, exchange at 34 schel. 43 groats Flemish per pound sterling ?
Ans, 8792 guild. 13 stiv. 144 pennings. 19. What must I draw for at London, if I pay at Amsterdam 8792 guild. 13 stiv. 14} pennings, exchange at 34 schel. 44 groats per pound sterling ?
Ans. £852. 12.6. To convert Bank Money into current, and the contrary. Note. The Bank Money is worth more than the Current. The difference between one and the other is called agio, aird is generally from 3 to 6 per cent. in favour of the Bank.
To change Bank into Current Money, Rule. As 100 guilders Bank : is to 100 with the agio added :: so is the Bank given: to the current required.
To change Current Money into Bank. Rui.E. As 100 with the agiu added : is to 100 Bank :: so is the current money given: to the Bank required.
20. Change 794 guilders, 15 stivers, current money into Bank florius, agio 47 per cent. Ans. 761 guilders, 8 stivers, 11:47 pens.
21. Change 761 guilders, 9 stivers Bank, into Current Money, agio 4 per cent. Ans. 794 guilders, 15 stivers, 46 pennings.
VI. IRELAND. 22. A gentleman remits to Ireland £575. 15. sterling, what will he receive there, the exchange being at 10 per cent ?
Ans. £ 633...6...6. 23. What must be paid in London for a remittance of £633...6...6. Irish, exchange at 10 per
cent? Ans. £575.15. COMPARISON OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
1 If 50 Dutch pence be worth 65 French pence, how many Dutch pence are equal to $50 French pence? Ans. 2696
2. If 12 yards at London make 8 ells at Paris, how many ells at Paris will make 64 yards at London ?
3. If 30lb. at Loudon make 2816. at Amsterdam, how many Ib. at London will be equal to 35016. at Amsterdam ? Ans. 375.
4. If 9516. Flemish make 10016. English, how many 16. English are equal to 2751b. Flemish ?
compared in the same question: or it is linking together a va riety of proportions.
When it is required to find how many of the first sort of coin, weight, or measure, mentioned in the question, are equal to a given quantity of the last.
RULE. Place the numbers alternately, beginning at the left hand, and let the last number stand on the left hand : then mul. tiply the first row continually for a dividend, and the second for a divisor.
Proof. By as many single Rules of three as the question reowres.
1. If zuis. at London make 23/b. at Antwerp, and 1551b. at Antwerp make 18016. at Leghorn, how many ib. at London are equal to 7216. at Leghorn ? Left.
23 20 X 155 X 72223200 155
180 23 X 180 -41.40) and
2232004140=5337. Ans. 2. If 12b. at London make 1010. at Amsterdum, 100lb. at Amsterdam 12010. at Thoulouse, how many 15. at London is equal to 40lb, at Thoulouse?
Ans. 4016. 3. If 140 braces at Venice are equal to 156 braces at Leghorn, and 7 braces at Leghorn equal to 4 ells English, how many braces at Venice are equal to 16 elis English?
4. If 4016. at London make 3616, at Amsterdam, and 901b at Amsterdam make 1161h. at Dantzic, how many ih, at London is equal to 130lb, at Dantzic?
Ans. 1121194 When it is required to fi:d how many of the last sort of coin, weight, or measure, mentioned in the question, is equal to the quantity of the first.
RULÉ. Place the numbers alternately, beginning at the left hand, and let the last number stand on the right hand; then multiply, the first row for a divisor, and the second for a dividend.
EXAMPLES. 5. If 121b. at London make 1015, at Amsterdam, 1001b. at Anisterdam, 120lb. at Thoulouse, how many lb. at Thonlouse are equal to 40lb. at London?
Ans, 40lb. If 401b. at London make 2635, at Amsterilain, and 90lb. at Amsterdam 11616. at Dantzic, how mariy the ai Dantzic are equal to 122!b, at London?
418. 141 tooted Progression consists of two arts, Arithmetical and Geome. trical.
I when the rank
of numbers increase or decrease regularly by the continual adding or subtracting of the equal numbers : As 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, are in Arithmetical Progression by the con. tinual increasing or adding of one; 11, 9, 7, 5, 3, 1. by the continual decreasing or subtracting of two.
Note. When any even number of terms differ by Arithmetical Progression, the sum of the two extremes will be equal to the two middle numbers, or any two means equally distant from the extremes: as 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, where 6+8, the two middle numbers ure 12+2=14, the two extremes :-10+4, the two means=14.
When the number of terms are odd, the double of the middle term will be equal to the two extremes ; or of any two means equally distant from the middle term; as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, where the double of 3=5+1=2+436. In Arithmetical Progression five things are to be observed, vix
1. The first term ; better expressed thus, F.
N. 4. The equal difference......
Rule. Multiply the sum of the two extremes by half the number of terms, or multiply half the sum of the two extremes by the whole number of terms, the product is the total of all the terms: or thus, I. F. L. N. are given to find S.
1. How many strokes does the hammer of a clock strike in 19 hours ?
12+1=13, then 13 X 6=78. 2. A man buys 17 yards of cloth, and gave for the first yard 2s. and for the last 108. what did the 17 yards amount to?
Ans. £5.2.0. 3. If 100 eggs were placed in a right line, exactly a yard asunder from one another, and the first a yard from a basket, what length of ground does that man go who gathers up these 100 eggs singly, returning with every egg to the basket to put it in ?
Ans. 5 miles, 1300 yards. The first second and third term given to find the fourth.
Rule. From the second subtract the first, the remainder die vided by the third less one, gives the fourth: or thus, II. F. L. N. are given to find D.
4. A man wad eight sons, the youngest was 4 years old and the eldest 32, they increase in Arithmetical Progression ; what was the common difference of their ages ?
Ana. 4 32-4-28, then 28+3–1=4 common difference. 5. A man is to travel from London to a certain place in 12 days, and to go but 3 miles the first day, increasing every day by an equal excess, so that the last day's journey may be 58 miles, what is the daily increase, and how many miles distant is that place from London ?
Ans. 5 daily increase.
3+5= 8 the second day,
The whole distance is 366 miles.
RULE. From the second subtract the first, the remainder divide by the fourth, and to the quotient add i, gives the third : or thus, III. F. L. D. are given to find N.
6. A person travelling into the country, went 3 miles the first day, and increased every day 5 miles, till at last he went 58 miles in one day, how many days did he travel ?
58—3—55. then 55-5=11. 11+1=12 the Ans. 7. A man being asked how many sons he had, said that the youngest was 4 years old, and the oldest 32 ; and that he increased one in his family every 4 years, how many had he ?
Ans. 8. The second, third, and fourth terms given, to find the first.
RULE. Multiply the fourth by the third made less by 1, the product subtracted from the second gives the first: or thus,
IV. L. N. D. are given to find F.
EXAMPLES. 8. A man in 10 days went from London to a certain town in the country, every day's journey increasing the former by A, end the last he went was 46 miles, what was the first ?
Ans. 10 miles, 4x10—1=36, then 46--36=10 the first day's journey. 9. A man takes out of his pocket at 8 sereral times, so many aifferent numbers of shillings, every one exceeding the former by 6, the last at 46, what was the first?
Ans. 4. The third, fourth, and fifth given to find the first.
Rule. Divide the fifth by the third, and from the quotient subtract half the produce of the fourth multiplied by the third less I gives ihe first : or thus, V. N. D. S. are given to find F S DXN-1
10. A man is to receive £360 at 19 several payments, each to exceed the former £4, and is willing to bestow the first payment on any one that can tell him what it is, .What will that person have for his pains ?
.1ns. £8. 4 x 1241 360 - 12–30, then 30- 38 the first payment.
2 The first, third, and fourth given to find the second.
Rule. Subtract the fourth from the product of the third, multiplied by the fourth, that remainder added to the first gives the second : or thus, VI. F. N. D. are given to find L.
11. What is the last number of an Arithmetical Progression, begiming at 6, and continuing by the increase of 8 to 20 places?
20 X 8-8=152, then 158+6=158 the last number.
GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION Is of
some common ratio; that is, by the continual multiplication or division of some equal number : as 2, 4, 8, 16, increase by the multiplier 2, and 16, 8, 4, 2, decrease by the divisor 2.
Note. When any number of terms is continued in geometrical Progression, the product of the two extremes will be equal to any two means, equally distant from the extremes ; as 2 : 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, where 64 X2 are = 4X32, and 8x16=128.
When the number of terms are odd; the middle term multiplied into itself will be equal to the two extremes, or any two means, equally distant from the mean, ás 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, where 2x32 4 X16=8X8364.
In Geometrical Progression the same five things are to be sbserved as are in Arithmetical.