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of this parched potsherd, and this great infirmity, grer
-signify My tongue cleaveth unto my jaws.". This wants his corporal afflictions. For it is incredible how this tribulation burns and dries up, and suddenly wastes all the vital moisture throughout all the limbs, and especially on the tongue, where moisture is particularly in a great
strength" is coni; that is, my energy, my effective
, on speak of any thing, that should be done, yet strength is wanting to me to do and accomplish it. For when the spirit is in its vigour and present with him the man exults, and buds forth like a fruitful tree putting forth its fruits and he does all things prosperously, and his strength is more and more invigorated. As it is said, Prov. xx. 99, “The glory of young men is their strength.” But when the spirit departs and the heart melts, the strength dries up and fails to accomplish any thing, and is like a driedup tree, that fails to bring forth fruit. 13.
And Christ, in order to make his great infirmits known, compares his dryness, not to that of a dry tree
, bat to that of a potsherd, than which nothing is more dry, more devoid of juice, and more parched. For be was so exhausted of all vital juice and natural nutri ment, that he was wholly dried and parched up: comcerning which, it is that Ísaiah, chap. lii. seems to speak; when he saith, “ For he shall grow up before him as : tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground,” for out up that most sappy, most Aourishing, and most fruitbol any positive infirmity, or any fixed disease, but od an inability to work at that time: as it now farther follows. no exposition or explanation : for a sherd is dry, parchet and bibulous: and so Christ was thirsty, when on cross, from being thus dried up. And thus thirst and dryness arose more from his spiritual straits, than from
brev of the
quantity. So that this verb of wasting' is rightly derived from the noun HAMASIM, which signifies a great and exceeding tire:’ and therefore, we have said, that the verb means to meet, to waste away, to burn up, and to dry up: for this is the same fire which they felt, who said, Deut. xviii. 16, “Let me not hear again the voice of the Lord my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not.” And Deut, v.
And Deut, v. 24, “We have seen this day that God doth talk with man and he liveth. : Now, therefore, why should we die ; for this great tire will consume us." And hence it is, that our God is called “a consuming fire,” Deut iv. and Heb. xii.
“And thou hast brought me into the dust of death.” This seems as it were a sort of sum of the whole, in which he includes all his sutterings, saying, that all his passions tend to this,-- to bring him to the dust of death. But what is this dust of death ? I think it is spoken figuratively, for, being reduced to nothing. So, Psalm vii. he seems to mean the dust of ignominy, when he says, “And lay mine honour in the dust.” And 1 Kings xvi. 2, it signifies the dust of poverty, saying, “ Forasmuch as I have exalted thee out of the dust." And Job vii. 5, the dust of sickness is meant, My flesh is clothed with worms, and clods of dust.” Hence, it seems proper to understand dust, in the scriptures, as signifying a thing reduced to nothing.
Ver. 16.–For many dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet.
Having before enumerated the two kind of passions, that is, the spiritual and sensual, he now here mentions the third and last passion, that which is corporal, or in the limbs, and pertaining to the limbs only, and to the garments, &c.--The word “many” is not in the Hebrew. And Hieronymus renders it ‘huntsmen' instead
dogs : ” and perhaps it is for the sake of making the passage accord with the title: that we may understand the huntsmen or hunting dogs, as applicable to
what at large, “ They PIERCED my hands, and my feel," this excuse,—that the verb “they pierced,” is written in Aleph; but that, on the contrary, in this passage! word is written with an Aleph between the Raish and the He, and is read CAARI not CARU; and that CAARI Signfies “ like a lion,” but CARU, “they pierced.” Moreover, they affirm, that the word CAARI is found only twice in the whole Bible, in this Psalm, and in Isaiah xxxvi. 13,
the “hind " here torn in pieces. But all these things are
But it may be said, did not Christ himself here
" (or 'malignant?')—No! These abuses and reviling are not to be judged according to the words and the sound of them, but according to the mind, intent
, and feelings of the person speaking: for that is not a reviling or abuse which is spoken without anger or hatred. Paul also calls the Jews “ dogs," “ evil workmen," and "epemies of the cross." And Christ also calls the apostles “fools." And in the same way, praises and encomiums are proved to be such, not from the mere words, but from the mind and intention of the speaker
. And so here, Christ calls those dogs who, with iniquitous barkings and bitings, accused him before Pilate, and tore him, and delivered him over to the Gentiles to be crucified, even when they knew that they did this solely out of malice. And the madness and fury of this animal is well known as differing from almost all other animals in nature and disposition : and hence it is, that the fury of the Jews and their madness is metaphorically compared to that of dogs.
But let us dwell upon this particular passage some that we may not leave a part of the scripture so important wholly without notice and observation. The Jews here pertinaciously contend that this passage not be read “they pierced,” but, “ like a lion:" alleging the Hebrew with a Caph, a Raish, and a He, without an
tion is no
trary wrou the C sense like t Chris
“ As a lion so will he break all my bones ;” and that in all other places the word is written CARIE and not CAARI: as in Psalm vii. 2 “ Lest he tear my soul like a lion” (CARIE). And Psalm x. 9, “ He lieth in wait secretly as a lion” (CARIE); that is, like a lion. And in this same Psalm also above, ver. 13, “as a ramping and a roaring lion,” (CARIE.)
I do not indeed see how they can be forced by the rules of grammar to understand CAARI in this passage to signify “they pierced.” Most certainly outward appearance stands strongly in favour of them, and not at all for us, as far as outward appearance and grammar are concerned. And it is a hard thing to say that all the copies and books that they have are corrupted in this passage. For, to say that by the application and variation of the points it may be read both CAARI and CARU is not satisfactory, because it is clear that the points are not to be trusted, as being of recent invention.
We who believe in Christ, and who hold it as a certainty, from the authority of the Gospels, that the whole of this Psalm refers to Christ, may easily be convinced that the passage should here beread“ pierced,"not“like a lion.” For we do not illustrate and prove the things wrought from the mysteries of the scriptures, but, on the con
trary, the mysteries of the scriptures from the things is wrought: that is, we illustrate the Old Testament by
the Gospel ; and not, the meaning of the latter from the sense of the former: and thus we make them both look, like the cherubim on each side the mercy-seat, toward Christ. As Jeremiah, xxiii. 20, says, “ In the latter days ye shall consider it perfectly.” And to Moses the Lord said, “ Thou shalt see my back parts.” As, therefore, we are fully assured that the hands and the feet of Christ were pierced upon the cross, so, we are not less certain that this Psalm wholly agrees with Christ, and that the rest of the sense wonderfully applies to him, and requires us to read it,“ they pierced;" and especially so as no grammatical rigour resists such a reading; and therefore, without controversy and without hesitation, we read it “they pierced.”
fe to M ta ad fe hai
a s this
feet only, distinctly from the other members of the body. it was because they were bound with bonds or with fetters, because a lion does not this to the hands and the
And, first of all, the absurdity itself of the sense which they would give this passage will press the adversaries sufficiently hard. For what is the sense or meaning of 'like a lion my hands and my feet? And as to their saying, (as they do,) that the verb “hare beset” is to be repeated, in this way, “The counsel of the wicked beset me, as á lion (beset) my hands and my feet,'—they cannot make their escape
they will only run the more deeply into the bog of absurdity
, How can it be read, 'As a lion (beset) my
hands and my feet?' for the scripture always speaks of a lion with an open mouth, and as roaring and seizing, that
may wholly devour. And, what trifling and folly is it to say that the whole body was beset with the counce of the wicked, and then to add that the hands and the feet were beset also ? As if that which beset the whole body did not beset the hands and the feet also. The same absurdity remains if they make use of any other verb to supply the sense.
For whatever verb they use to represent the lion as acting upon the hands and the feet, they must, in common sense, make to apply also to the whole body. Whereas, to our interpretation
, no absurdity is attached whatever, but all things most appropriately agree. So that if 'neither Caari nor CARU were written in the text, the very sense would compel us to understand just these verbs.
And then, again, this job will remain in their hands -they will be forced to admit that this verse refers to any and every signal suffering of these hands and these feet, whoever the sufferer might be. Let them then bring forth Mordecai ar Esther,—what suffering did either of those endure in their hands or their feet? Nor does the scripture mention any one just person endured any signal suffering in his hands or feet
. For this suffering must have been different from that of an other part of the body, and peculiar to the hands and What then was this suffering? They will not say
prop! the usace of the Chris there alitoa