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restoring all our conquests, it would be driving generosity into extravagance; most of them have been colonized with British subjects, and improved by British capital, and surely we owe no more to the French nation than any well-meaning individual might owe to a madman, wbom-at the expense of a hard struggle, black eyes, and bruises—he has at length overpowered, knocked down, and by the wholesome discipline of a bull's pizzle and strait-jacket, brought to the handsome enjoyment of bis senses. I think with you, what we return to them should be well paid for; and they should have no Pondicherry to be a nest of smugglers, nor Maurilius to nurse a hornet-swarm of privateers. In short, draw teeth, and pare claws, and leave them to fatten themselves in peace and quiet, when they are deprived of the means of indulging their restless spirit of enterprise.

--The above was written at Abbotsford last month, but left in my portfolio there till my return some days ago; and now, when I look over what I bave written, I am confirmed in my opinion that we have given the rascals too good an opportunity to boast that they have got well off. An intimate friend of mine,* just returned from a long captivity in France, witnessed the entry of the King, guarded by the Imperial Guards, whose countenances betokened the most sullen and ferocious discontent. The mob, and especially the women, pelted them for refusing to cry. Vive le Roi.' 'If Louis is well advised, he will get rid of these follows gradually, but as soon as possible. “Joy, joy in London now!! scene has been going on there; I think you may see the Czar appear on the top of one of your stages one morning. He is a fine fellow, and has fought the good fight. Yours affectionately,

WALTER Scott."

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On the 1st of July, 1814, Scott's Life and Edition of Swist, in nineteen volumes 8vo, at length issued from the press. This adventure, undertaken by Constable in 1808, had been proceeded in during all the variety of their personal relations, and now came forth when author and publisher felt more warmly towards each other than perhaps they had ever before done. The impression was of 1250 copies; and a reprint of similar extent was called for in 1824. The Life of Swist has subsequently been included in the author's Miscellanies, and has oblained a very wide circulation.

By his industrious enquiries, in which, as the preface gratefully acknowledges, he found many zealous assistants, specially among the Irish literati, 7 Scott added to this edition many admirable pieces, both in

prose and verse, which had never before been printed, and still more which had escaped notice amidst old bundles of pamphlets and broadsides. To the illustration of these and of all the better known writings of the Dean, he brought the same qualifications which bad, by general consent, distinguished his Dryden, “uniting," as the Edinburgh Review expresses it, “to the minute knowledge and patient research of the Malones and Chalmerses, a vigour of judgment, and a vivacity of style to which they had no pretensions." His biographical narrative, introductory essays, and notes on Swist, show, indeed, an

Sir Adam Ferguson, who had been taken prisoner in the course of the Duke of Wellington's retreat from Burgos.

+ The names which he particularly mentions, are those of the late Matthew Weld Hartstonge, Esq., of Dublin, Theophilus Swist, Esqq., Major Tickell, Thomas Steele, Esq., Leonard Macnally, Esq., and the Rev. M. Berwick.

intimacy of acquaintance with the obscurest details of the political, social, and literary history of the period of Queen Anne, which it is impossible to consider without feeling a lively regret that never accomplished a long cherished purpose of preparing a Life and Edition of Pope on a similar scale. It has been specially unfortunate for that

true deacon of the crast," as Scott often called Pope, that first Goldsmith and then Scott should have taken up, only to abandon it, the project of writing his life and editing his works.

The Edinburgh Reviewer thus characterises Scolt's Memoir of the Dean of St Patrick's :

" It is not every where extremely well written, in a literary point of view, but it is drawn up in substance with great intelligence, liberality, and good feeling. It is quite fair and moderate in politics; and perhaps rather too indulgent and tender towards individuals of all descriptions—more full, at least, of kindness and veneration for genius and social virtue, than of indignation at baseness and profligacy. Altogether, it is not much like the production of a mere man of letters, or a fastidious speculator in sentiment and morality; but exhibits throughout, and in a very pleasing form, the good sense and large toleration of a man of the world, with much of that generous allowance for the

*Fears of the brave and follies of the wise,'

which genius too often requires, and should therefore always be most forward to show. It is impossible, however, to avoid noticing that Mr Scott is by far too favourable to the personal character of bis author, whom we think it would really be injurious to the cause of morality to allow to pass either as a very dignified, or a very amiable person. The truth is, we think, that he was extremely ambitious, arrogant, and selfish; of a morose, vindictive, and haughty temper; and though capable of a sort of patronising generosity towards his dependents, and of some attachment towards those who had long known and flattered him, his general demeanour, both in public and private life, appears to have been far from exemplary; destitute of temper and magnanimity, and we will add, of principle, in the former; and in the latter, of tenderness, fidelity, or compassion."-Edinburgh Review, vol. xvii.,

p. 9.

I have no desire to break a lance in this place in defence of the personal character of Swist. It does not appear to me that he stands at all distinguished among politicians (least of all, among the politicians of his time) for laxily of principle; nor can I consent to charge his privale demeanour with the absence either of tenderness, or fidelity, or compassion. But who ever dreamed-most assuredly not Scoll-of holding up the Dean of St Patrick's as on the whole an "exemplary character?" The biographer selt, whatever his critic may have thought on the subject, that a vein of morbid humour ran through Swist's whole existence, bolh mental and physical, from the beginning. “lle early adopted," says Scott,“ the custom of observing his birth-day, as a term not of joy but of sorrow, and of reading, when it annually recurred, the striking passage of Scripture in which Job laments and execrales the day upon which it was said in his father's house that a man-child was born;" and I should have expected that any man who had considered the black close of the career thus early clouded, an:

read the entry of Swift's diary on the funeral of Stella, his epitaph on himself, and the testament by which he disposed of his fortune, would have been willing, like Scott, to dwell on the splendour of his immortal genius, and the many traits of manly generosity “which he unquestionably exhibited," rather than on the faults and foibles of nameless and inscrutable disease, which tormented and embittered the far greater part of his earthly being. What the crílic says of the practical and business-like style of Scott's biography, appears very just—and I think the circumstance eminently characteristic-nor, on the whole, could his edliton, as an edition, have been better dealt with than in the Essay which I have quoted. It was, by the way, written by Mr Jeffrey, at Constable's particular request. “It was, I think, the first time I ever asked such a thing of him,” the bookseller said to me; "and I assure. you the result was no encouragement to repeat such petitions." Mr Jeffrey attacked Swift's whole character at great length, and with consumate dexterity; and, in Constable's opinion, his article threw such a cloud on the Dean, as materially checked, for a time, the popularity of his writings. Admirable as the paper is, in point of ability, I think Mr Constable may have considerably exaggerated its effects;- but in those days it must have been difficult for him to form an impartial opinion upon such a question; for, as Johnson said of Cave, that she could not spit over his window without thinking of The Gentleman's Magazine," I believe Constable allowed nothing to interrupt his paternal pride in the concerns of his Review, until the Waverley Novels supplied him with another periodical publication still more important to his fortunes.

And this consummation was not long delayed; a considerable addition having by that time been made to the original fragment, there appeared in The Scott's Magazine, for February 1st, 1814, an announcement, that "Waverley; or, 'tis Sixty Years Since, a novel, in 3 vols. 12mo," would be published in March. And before Scott came into Edinburgh, at the close of the Christmas vacation on the 12th of January, Mr Erskine had perused the greater part of the first volume, and expressed his decided opinion that Waverley would prove the most popular of all his friend's writings. The MS. was forth with copied by John Ballantyne, and sent to press. As soon as a volume was printed, Ballantyne conveyed it to Constable, who did not for a moment doubt from what pen it proceeded, but took a few days to consider of the maller, and then offered L.700 for the copyright. When we recollect what the slate of novel literature in those days was, and that the only exceptions to its mediocrity, the Irish Tales of Miss Edgeworth, however appreciated in refined circles, had a circulation so limited that she had never realized a tithe of L. 700 by the best of them-it must be allowed that Constable's offer was a liberal one.

Scott's answer,

however, transmitted through the same channel, was, that. L. 700 was too much, in case the novel should not be successful, and too little in case it should. He added, “ If our fat friend had said L.1000, I should have been staggered.” Johì did not forget to hint this last circumstance to Constable, but the latter did not choose to act upon it; and he ultimately published the work, on the footing of an equal division of profits between himself and the author. There was a considerable pause between the finishing of the first volume and the beginning of the second. Constable had, in 1812, acquired the copyright of the Encyclopædia Britannica, and was now preparing to publish the valuable Supplement to that work, which has since, with modifications, been incorporated into its text. He earnestly requested Scott to undertake a few articles for the Supplement; he agreed -and, anxious to gratify the generous bookseller, at once laid aside his tale until he had finished (wo essays—those on Chivalry and the Drama. They appear to have been completed in the course of April and May, and he received for each of them (as he did subsequently for that on Romance)-L.100.

The two next letters will give us, in more exact detail than the author's own recollection could supply in 1830, the history of the completion of Waverley. It was published on the 7th of July; and two days afterwards he thus writes :

TO J. B. S. Morritt, Esq. M.P., London.

“Edinburgh, 9th July, 1814. “My dear MORRITT, -I owe you many apologies for not sooner answering your very entertaining letter upon your Parisian journey. I heartily wish I had been of your party, for you have seen what I trust will not be seen again in a hurry; since, to enjoy the delight of a restoration, there is a necessity for a previous bouleversement of every thing that is valuable in morals and policy, which seems to have been the case in France since 1790.* The Duke of Buccleuch told me yesterday of a very good reply of Louis to some of his attendants, who proposed shutting the doors of his apartments to keep out the throng of people. “Open the door,' he said, 'to John Bull; he has suffered a great deal in keeping the door open for me.'

Now, to go from one important subject to another, I must account for my own laziness, which I do by referring you to a small anonymous sort of a novel, in three volumes, Waverley, which you will receive by the mail of this day. It was a very old attempt of mine to embody some trails of those characters and manners peculiar to Scotland, the last remnants of which vanished during my own youth, so that few or no traces now remain. I had written great part of the first volume, and sketched other passages, when I mislaid the MS., and only found it by the merest accident as I was rummaging the drawers of an old cabinet; and I took the fancy of finishing it, which I did so fast, that the last two volumes were written in three weeks. I had a great deal of fun in the accomplishment of this task, thouglı I do not expect that it will be popular in the south, as much of the bumour, if there be any,

is local, and some of it even professional. You, however, who are


Mr Morriit had, in the spring of this year, been present at the first levee held at the Tuileries by Monsieur, (afterwards Charles X.), as representative of h's brother Louis XVIII. Mr M. had not been in Paris till that time since 1789.

an adopted Scotchman, will find some amusement in it. It has made a very strong impression here, and the good people of Edinburgh are busied in tracing the author, and in finding out'originals for the portraits it contains. In the first case, they will probably find it difficult to convict the guilty author, although he is far from escaping suspicion. Jeffrey has offered to make oath that it is mine, and another great critic has tendered his affidavit ex contrario; so that these authorilies have divided the Gude' Town. However, the thing has succeeded very well, and is thought highly or. I don't know if it has got to London yet. I intend to maintain my incognito. ' Let me know your opinion about it. I should be most happy if I could think it would amuse a painful thought at this anxious moment. I was in hopes Mrs Morrilt was getting so much better that this relapse affects me very much. Ever yours truly,

W. Scott.” “P.S.-As your conscience has very few things to answer for, you must still burthen it with the secret of the Bridal. It is spreading very rapidly, and I have one or two lillle fairy romances, which will make a second volume, and which I would wish published, but not with my name. The truth is, that this sort of muddling work amuses me, and I am something in the condition of Joseph Surface, who was embarrassed by getting himself too good a reputation ; for many things may please people well enough anonymously, which, if they have me in the title-page, would just give me that sort of ill name which precedes hangingand that would be in many respects inconvenient if I thought of again trying a grande opus.

This statement of the foregoing letter (repeated still more precisely in a following one), as to the time occupied in the composition of the second and third volumes of Waverley, recalls to my memory a trifling anecdote, which, as connected with a dear friend of my youth, whom I have not seen for many years, and may very probably never see again in this world, I shall here set down, in the hope of affording him a momentary, though not an unmixed pleasure, when he may chance to read this compilation on a distant shore--and also in the hope that my humble record may impart to some active mind in the rising generation a shadow of the influence which the reality certainly exerted upon his. Happening to pass through Edinburgh in June, 1814, I dined one day with the gentleman in question (now the Honourable William Menzies, one of the Supreme Judges at the Cape of Good Hope), whose residence was then in George Street, situated very near to, and at right angles with, North Castle Street. It was a party of very young persons, most of them, like Menzies and myself, destined for the bar of Scotland, all gay and thoughtless, enjoying the first flush of manhood, with little remembrance of the yesterdayor care of the morrow. When my companion's worthy father and uncle, after seeing two or three bottles go round, left the juveniles to themselves, the weather being hot, we adjourned to a library which had one large window looking northwards. After carousing here for an hour or more, I observed that a shade had come over the aspect of my friend, who happened to be placed immediately opposite to myself, and said something that intimated a fear of his being unwel. “No," said he, “ I shall be well enough presently, if you will only let me sit where you are, and take my chair; for there

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