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has been already translated into German." It was also translated into the Danish language by commodore. Effura, and was recommended to the perufal of the counts Struensee and Brandt, during their imprisonment, to convince them of the truth of the Christian religion, and were not without effect, according to the narratives of their preparations for death, by the two divines, D, Munfter and D. Hac, who were appointed to attend them in their last moments.

In the year 1756, Dr. Newton was appointed chaplain to his majesty, and made the year following a prebendary of Weitminster. At this period' he experienced the friendship of archbishop Gilbert, who on the promotion to the see of York, procured him the appointment of sub-almoner to his majesty, and afterwards gave

him one of the most valuable pieces of preferment in the church of York, the precentorfhip, which he held till he obtained a bishopric. On the 5th of September 1761, he married his fe. cond wife, Elizabeth, daughter of John lord viscount Lisburne, by a fine young woman, whom his lordship had married, and much injured. What this injury was has been thus related. Lady Lisburne, as she supposed herself io be, was one day observing to her lord, that the newspapers had announced the death of a lady Lisburne in Portugal--Who, says she, can this lady Lisburne be? She was my wife, answered my lord. Why then, replied the lady, I am not your wife, for you were the husband of ano. ther when yen married me. The fait was not to be disowned ; upon which the lady refolutely declared for a separation, and they never lived together afterwards. Her daughter married the Rev. Mr. Hand, and after his death was, with great credit, housekeeper to a noble lord. This daughter Dr.

Newton married, when a widow, at the time abovementioned, and on the eighteenth of the same month he was promoted to the fee of Brittol. The bishop, in the life of himself, and anecdotes on his friends, which make 135 pages, and are prefixed to his works, says, “ He was no great gainer by this preferment, being obliged to give up the prebend of Westminster, the precentorhip of York, the lectureThip of St. George's, and the office of sub-almoner.

In 1768 his lordship succeeded to the deanery of St. Paul's vacated by the promotion of bishop Corn. wallis to the fee of Canterbury. On this preferment, which seems to have been the summit of his wishes, he resigned, with becoming mode. ration, the living of St. Mary le Bow, which, notwithstanding, he might have held in commendam. From the time of this promotion his health became very tender and precarious, and he was often afAiated with many severe fits of illness. However, the bishop of Bristol lived long enough to survive almost all his friends; and on Thursday the fourteenth of February, 1782, he expireal, His lordship was buried on the 28th following, in the vaults under the fouth ife of St. Paul's cathedral.

As a divine, the conduct of the bishop of Bristol was regular and exemplary; but his sentiments on political subjects appear to have been weak, narrow, contracted, and not absolutely devoid of a tendency to intolerance.

Having thus given an accurate and faithful narrative of this pious, learned, and great prelate, the EDITORS of this Magazįne beg leave respectfully to inform their friends, subscribers, and their readers in general, that it is their intention to present them with more examples of our late eminent bifhops, and not to trouble theinfelves, or


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their publisher, (to whom they are much obliged for the labour and time he has freely bestowed in the first department of their plan) with painful, and fruitless enquiries, after those LIVING characters, who seem perfectly content with the satisfaction of living to themselves. We have lately received several hints from some correspondents, to whose judgment we Mall always pay a due deference, 'expressing their fentiments on this matter, and which exactly correspond with our own inclinations. On this account, and with a view of giving (which is our highest ambition) general fatisfaction, it is our intention, in future, only to present the public

with the Portraits of our present bishops, whose likenesses shall be carefully procured; being determined to undertake ONLY the memoirs of such LIVING CHARACters, who, may be pleased to fa. vour us with proper materials. At the same time, those of our friendly correspondents, who feem to have expected more under our article of modern biography, than it has been in our power to lay before them, we would request to remember, that, in general, the lives of fcholars and churchmen are too uni. form to abound with many striking incidents, and much less with ad. venture.



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FENELON, ARCHBISHOP, AND DUKE or CAMBRAY, &c. THIS great man, equally fa

mous in the Christian and in the literary world, was of an ancient and illustrious family in France. His father was Pons de Salignac, marquis of Fenelon, and his mother Louisa de la Cropte, fifter to the marquis de l'Abre. He was born at the Castle of Fenelon, in the province of Perigord, Auguft the 16th, 1651. He was educated at home under the eye

of his parents, till he was twelve years of age ; at which time he was sent to the university of Cahors. But the most happy circumstance in his education, was the care of his uncle, Anthony marquis of Fenelon ; a man of great genius, and distinguished no less for his virtue than his valour; he was so kind as to


take his nephew into his own house, at Paris, and to treat him, in all respects, as his son; and under his instructions the young man made a great progress, fufficiently disco vering the rays of that genius, which afterwards shone forth with so much fplendor. At the age

of nineteen, he preached publicly. and with great reputation at Paris; but the marquis his uncle, fearing left the young Abbé, (for fo the French call chofe young men, who designed to take, or are in orders, though they have no preferment) should appear too early in the world, and not have sufficient bal. last to weather the blaft of vanity, which too much applause would raise, persuaded him to imitate for several years the filence of Jesus Chrift.

The young man readily embraced his uncle's proposal; and dedicated himself with unwearied assiduity to such studies, and improvements, as were suited at once to his rank, and profession. At the age of twentyfour he was admitted into orders:


preferred by the archbishop of Paris; and gained so good an esteem in the office wherein he was employed, that in 1686, the king named him to be the head of those missionaries, who were sent along the coast of Saintonge and the Pais de Aunix to convert the Protestants. Military force, had been used, to this end, and much inhuman barbarity committed. But Fenelon, abhorred these perfecuting maxims, and would not undertake the miffion, without an affurance, that no soldiers should be employed.

When he had finished his mission, he returned to Paris, and was presented to the king. But so little folicitous was he after preferments, that he neither attended the court at all for two years, nor endeavoured to infinuate himself into their favour, who had the dispofal of the highest posts. Though his talents were equal to the greatest offices, he was contented to exert them, with all diligence, in the duties of that station, in which he was fixed, by instructing the new converts. His fame however daily increased; his fermons and dircourses were universally applauded; and the strength, eloquence, and piety of his performances gained the general attention. Since his death, these works have been felected and published. He himself also, about this time, published a piece, concerning “: The functions of the pastors of the church ;' which was well received by the members of his communion, and contains


excellent and useful remarks, though founded in some measure, upon a mistake respecting the choice of paftors amongst the Protestants. A treatise of his on the Education of Maids appeared too a little time before ; and these works, joined to his exemplary life, laborious exertion of himself in the duties of his function, and very eloquent preaching, procured him the honour of an appointment

to the care of the young princess education, the dukes of Burgundy and Anjou; their governor, the duke de Beauvilliers, having recommended Fenelon to the king, with. out any application of his own, or any interest on his part to procure so respectable and advantageous a poft.

He entered upon it, in 1689, and discharged it with all probity and affiduity, as the excellent pieces he wrote for the instruction and benefit of his charge, the young princes, sufficiently prove. During the time of his residence at court, he shewed the greatness of his mind, the moderation of his defires, and his freedom from that worst and most unbecoming vice of churchmen, covetousness. For he' was fix years there without any particular mark of favour, and without once asking any thing either for himself or his friends. He had learnt early to moderate his desires, and having an ardent love for the poverty of Christ, was satisfied with a little priory, which his uncle had resigned to him : vinced, as he was, that no slavery is greater than that which attends the love of riches.

The French academy however gave him an high initance of their good opinion of him ; for they chose him, unsoliciting, a member of their society in the year 1693 ; and that with particular respect ; for he was admitted in the room of the celebrated Mr. Pelisson, and of the discourse delivered on the occafion, it is said, that the greatest honour the academy could do M. Peliffon, was to chuse him for his successor ; and that in making the choice, they had considered no. thing but his own merit.

At length, in the year 1695, the king gave him the abbey of St. Vallery, and some months after the archbishopric of Cambray. The great favour he was in with the king, seemed to promise him still



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more considerable preferments; but there arose a storm, which blew too roughly for him to preserve his vessel at court, and which drove it thence for ever.

Before we speak of the imagined and generally pretended cause of this trouble, it may be proper to remark some things in his conduct, which raised, and were indeed sufficient to raise him, enemies, with the corrupt clergy.

When the king promoted him to the archbishopric, M. Fenelon, whose conscience was very scrupulous and tender, refused to accept it; fearing, he should not be able to reconcile the care of a diocese, with the duties of his preceptorthip to the princes. The kirg told him, that the education of the princes being nearly completed, he might acquit himself, by turns, of his functions as a preceptor and a prelate : while the worthy men he had under him in these posts would fill his place in his absence. He at iaft submitted to the king's pleasure; but on condition, that he night pass nine months at CamWray, and three only with the princes. Soon as he accepted the archbishopric, he resigned the abbey of St. Vallery, without asking it for any of his friends and relations; the king was surprized, and pressed him to keep it ; but he represented to his majesty, that as the revenue of the archbishopric was sufficient for him, he thought himself in the case, where a plurality of livings is against the canon. At the same time he rë. digned the priory also, which his uncle gave him. He had no idea of uniting in the same person, the archbishop, thé abbot, and the prior ; or of holding preferments, the duties of which were wholly incompatible. This uncommon geBerosity gained him a great applaufe; but it exafperated again it him several persons, whom he condemned by his example; who were

VOL. II. No. 13.

so far from intending to imitate it, that they were anxiously grasping after every appointment; and were therefore' defirous to remove, if poluble, so disagreeable an opprobrium to them, as the archbishop of Cambray. Among these was Bossuet bishop of Meaux ; a man of great learning and abilities; much indebted to the archbishop on many accounts; but, eclipsed by his superior splendor, jealousy and envy, it is to be feared, had too strong a prevalence over his mind : and he failed not to seize that occafion, and to use it with all diligence, which the archbishop himself adminiftered to the hatred of his enemies.

Madam Guyon was, at this time, much talked of in France; she preo tended to a very high and ex Ited devotion ; to a pure, but ideal, love of God, merely for its owni fake; the wrote several pieces, and amongst the reft a myftical expofition of Solomon's Song; and in short was a down right Quietist. The archbishop was suspected of favouring her. And upon the publication of his book, entitled, An Explication of the Maxims of the Saints concerning the Interior Life, he was charged with maintaining in it the fanatical and dangerous opinions of the Quietists.

In this book, it is certain, he beconies a champion for the doctrine of the contemplative life,“ the pure

and dilintereited love of God." He has divided his work into forty-five articles. In those whichi he calls the True articles, he fets down the found doctrine of

pure love; he collects the exprellions of the faints, gives their true meaning, and deterinines the fense of every word. In the articles which he ityles False, he shews, where the danger of error lies, and how far the erroneous principles may be carried under a ħew of perfection.

The idea doubtless is noble, and



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worthy the greatness of God, who ought to be served for his own fake, without any view of interest. And it is to be lamented, that the nature of man is so weak, as to be anable to arrive at such a degree of excellence. Several divines, however, in the church of Rome, have taught the very same doctrine, nay, and carried it higher than the archbishop of Cambray ; yet they were left unmoletted, while he was persecuted on this account, with the greatest 'bitterness. The author's good intention would not excuse him ; his integrity, his humility, and submiffion, and all his other virtues, were not sufficient to Item the torrent breaking in upon him. The people were exasperated against him: the ideas of perfection, which he endeavoured to raise in the minds of mankind, were, according to his enemies, nothing but herefies and chiineras; his name, in the writings of the bi. shop of Meaux, never went without the most odious epithets; and as his conduct had nothing in it, that could be taken hold of, he was put upon the same foot with Madam Guyon: and a man of the archbishop's wisdom was charged with being in the interests of an extraVigant mad woman. He was become the Niontanus of the new Priscilla! In mort ne means were left untried to ruin him ; while ho continued calm and ferene, amidst the obloquy and insults thrown upon him; and at length received with the utmolt meekness and the most perfect submission, the fentence of the pope, by which his book was condemned, and himself banished, from court, into his diocere. The archbishop received the sentence, with an uncomplaining deference to the author of it; and immediately published a nandate, to the diocese, in which he declared, that as he himself fincerely submitted to the pope's judg

. ment and condemnation, so he

hoped that his flock would do the same. A more striking instance of undissembled humility cannot easily be produced.

The bishop of Meaux, in the judgment of all mankind, ought to have refted here. And indeed if all which that prelate laboured for, was the advantage and interest of the church, he had gained his point. Rome had decided : all things gave way; his antagonist acquiefced. Charity then obliged him to forget what was past, and to give the highest commendation to the con. duct of fo prudent an enemy, if he deserves the name of an enemy, who only searches after truth. But notwithstanding this, the bishop of Meaux again attacked him, and revived the affair in the assembly of the French clergy. But the public interposed: and it would have been for the credit of that bishop, to have joined with the rest of the world, in admiring the wisdom of so submissive a prelate, whó acquired more reputation by his miffortunes, than his antagonist did by his victory:

The archbishop, according to his fentence, retired to Cambray, where he led an exemplary and divine life: and discharged, with the most religious punctuality, all the duties of his high station. He himself examined, as the chevalier Ramsay informs us, all those who were to be admitted into holy orders, and would have them propose to him the difficulties and objections they had to offer against the doctrines of religion: he used to hear them with the utmost patience, and to answer them with a fatherly kindness. He visited his diocese very diligently, and preached in all the churches of it.

In his public instructions he suited his disa courses to every capacity; speaking to the weak in an easy and familiar manner: whilft he raised his style for those, who had a more elevated genius. His sermons


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