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continued all along to furnish the society at Oxford with proper subjects by election. It was first committed to the care of a master and under-master only: in. the year 1382, it was placed under the superior government of a warden. This was the whole society that made their formal entrance into it as above-mentioned. Till the col. lege was erected, they were pro. : vided with lodgings in the parish of St. John upon the Hill. The first nomination of Fellows was made by the founder, on the 20th c. Decem. ber, 1394. He nominated five only, though he had at that time determined the number to ten. But the chapel was not yet quite finished; nor was it dedicated nor confecrated till the middle of the next year : soon after which we may Suppose that the full number of fel. lows, and of all other members. designed to bear a more particnlar relation to the service of it, was compleated by him. The whole fociety consists of a warden, feventy poor scholars, to be instructed in grammatical learning"; ten fecular priests perpetual fellows, : three priests chaplains, threc clerks, and fixteen chorifters : and for the instruction of the scholars, a school. master, and an under - master or uther.
" The statutes which he gave to his college at Winchester, and which are referred to in the charter of foundation, are, as it were, the counter-part of those of his college at Oxford; he amended, improved, and enlarged the former, by the same steps as he had done the latter; and he gave the last edition, and received the oaths of the feveral members of the society to the observance of them, by his commissaries appointed for that parpose, September 9, 1400. In this case he had no occafion to make a particular provision in constitut ing a visitor of his college ;, the
situation of it coincided with his design, and he left it under the or. dinary jurisdiction of the diocefan, the bishop of Winchefter."
These noble foundations were worthy of a prelate famous for his piety, charity, and munificence. During the troubles of the reign of Richard II. our bishop behaved with such discretion and integrity, that he was equally esteemed by both parties. The lords in the opposition proposed him as one of the council of government; and in the year 1389, the king appointed him high - Chancellor of England. In 1391, he resigned the seals, nor does he appear to have had arry concern in the revolution that ensued. He had been blessed with an excel. lent constitution, and an uncommon share of health. It is not to be wondered, that old age, and continued labour in conjunction, thould bring upon him those infirmities which are the usual consequences of each of them separately; and that he should be obliged at last to have recourse to ease and retirement. In the latter part of his life, he expended a considerable sum is repairing and beautifying the cathe dral at Winchester. He built also, at that place, an oratory or chapel. He died at South Waltham, on the 27th day of September, 1404, after having been thirty years bishop of Winchester. Dr. Lowth gives us the articles of his will at length. We must not omit to mention some instances of our bifhip's munif. cence.
At his first entrance upon the bishopric of Winchester, he remitted to his poor tenants certain ac. knowledgements, usually paid and due by custom, to the amount of 5021. is. 7d. He paid for his te. nants three several times, the subfidies granted to the king by parliament.
In the year 1377, out of his mere good will and liberality, he dif
In this way
most impaffable, he repaired and amended, making causeways, and building bridges at a a vaft ex
He repaired a great number of churches of his diocese, which were gone to decay: and moreover fur. nished them, not only in a decent, but even in a splendid manner, with books, veitinents, . chalices, and other ornaments. he bestowed 13 silver chalices, and 100 pair of vestments ; so that the articles of this kind, few in comparison, which we find in his will, were only intended by way of fupplement, to what he had done in his life-time; that such of the churches of his patronage, which he had not had occasion to confider before as objects of his liberality, might not however seem to be wholly neglected by him.
Besides all this, he purchased estates to the value of two hundred
in addition to the demetne lands of the bishopric of Winchester, that he might leave there memorials of his munificence in every
kind. Though the other ornaments of his oratory are deftroyed, yet his monument remains there intire and unhurt to this day. It is of white marble, of elegant workmanship, with his effigies in his pontifical robes lying along upon it; and on a plate of brass running round the edge of the upper table of it, is the following infcription in Latin verse of the stile of that age.
charged the whole dabis of the prior and convent of Selborne, to the amount of one hundred and ten marks. Cn which account the prior · and convent voluntarily engaged for
the celebration of two mafles a day, by two canons of the convent for ten years, for the bishop's welfare, if he should live so long; and, for his roul, if he hould die before the expiration of that term.
From the time of his being made bishop of Winchester, he abun. dantly provided for a certain number of poor, twenty-four at the least every day, not only feeding, but also diftributing money among them, to supply their necessities of
He continually employed his friends, and thofe that attended upon him, to seek out the properest objects of his charity ; to search af. ter those whose modesty would not yield to their distresses, nor suffer them to apply for relief; to go to. the houses of the sick and needy, and 'to inform themselves particularly of their several calamities and his beneficence administered largely to all their wants. He fup. ported the infrin, he relieved the distressed, he fed the hungry, and, he clothed the naked. To the
friars of the orders subsisting on charity, he was always very liberal. His hofpitality, was large, constant, and universal : his house was open to all, and fre, quented by the rich and great, in proportion as it was crowded by the poor and indigent.
He was ever attentive and com. paffionate to such as were imprifoned for debt : he enquired into their circumstances, compounded with their creditors, and procured their release. In this ar:icle of charity he expended three thouland marks.
The roads between London and Winchester, and many other places, when they were very bad, and al
inarks a year,
Wilhelmus di&tus Wykeham jacet hic nece
victus : Iftius ecclesiæ presul, reparavit eamque, Largus erat, dapifer; probac hoc cuin divite
pauper : Confiliis pariter regni fuerat bene dexter.' Hunc docet effe piurn fundacio Collegiorum : Oxonie primum itat, Winconieque fecun
duin. Jugiter orciis, tumulum quicunque videtis Pro cantis meritis ut sit tibi vita perennis.".
Lie the Remains of
BISHOP of WINCHESTER ; The Cathedral of which he repaired.
Generous, and Bountiful,
Of His HOSPITALITY,
In the State He governed with equal Counsels;
In the Church He gave Proof of his Piety, By, founding several Colleges, And charitable Institutions :
That Eternal Life
Merit. *** A poetical translation is re. quested of our Correspondents.
CHRISTIAN, JEWISH, AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES.
good reasons to believe) had fe. cretly embraced Christianity, tho' upon Gnostic principles. There are some who number among the Christians, Julia Mammea, the mo. ther of this prince; as likewise the emperor Philip of Arabia. However, without all controversy, it is çertain, that the number of the churches amazingly increased throughout the world, which became insensibly filled with Chriftians.
The church government continued upon the same footing it was in the preceding age, and its foundacions became more firmly established. The authority of the bi. shops particularly gained ground: the number of the clergy were greatly increased in the more large and distinguished places.
They immediately instituted the order of readers, to which they added soon after, the other orders, which gave rise to the distinction of fuperior and inferior clergy. These last orders were those of Subdeacons, Acolythes, Exorcists, and Door-keepers. These officers were at first only in some particu. lar churches, but afterwards they
HE persecutions in this cen
tury were more violent than ever ; notwithstanding which, Christianity daily increased and prospered.' The throne, indeed, was from time to time filled with emperors, who were very well inclined to the doctrine of the Christians, or who at least openly favoured their cause. Such was Se. Werus Alexander, who (as we have
were introduced into all, any ways considerable.
No law as yet subfifted in the church, which imposed celibacy on the clergy. There were, indeed, many fruitless attempts made for that purpose; they answered this end, that those who voluntarily continued single, were held by all in great veneration. Nothing then seemed more agreeable to the gospel perfection, than to preserve unspotted the flower of virginity; it was but seldom, that any who had entered into holy orders, afterwards married; but those who had been so before, remained with their wives without any scandal: At least, the history of this time makes mention of many bishops and priests who had wives and chil. dren. But they begun from this period to have women, whom they called Subintroductæ, to live with them, without being connected with them by any other tye than that of friendship, as we are assured from those who followed this cuftoni.
Some new rites were now added to those in use before. Baptism was preceded by exorcisms, in or. der to free the perion who was to be consecrated, in the name of the Holy Trinity, from the power of impure spirits. After baptifm, those who had received the sacra. ment were cloathed in white garments, which they wore for seven days. But the most remarkable abuse was, that they admitted infants to the holy supper. The faithful of this
had commonly buildings appropriated solely for their worlip, as Christian and Pagan writers equally allow. Some of the learned maintain, that they offered incense to the divinity ; but it is very difficult to establish this assertion.
Public scandals multiplied on all fides, particularly from the apoftates, who in great perfecutions denied their Saviour, The church
then thought proper to add new regulations, which increased the sea verity of its discipline. This was not, however, equally rigorous in all places, and in certain cases they knew how to soften it. To the pub. lic confeffion of fins, which the finner made in the face of the church, they now added another, upon account of the persecution of Decius, which the offender was to make to the priest alone. Penitence was distinguished at this time by those who presided in the church, into four degrees.
In the first, the penitents were to remain for a certain time without the door of the church. After that, they were admitted to the hearing the word of God. They were then allowed to join in certain prayers, but kneeling, while the rest stood.' The third degree allowed them to partake of the prayers of the faithful, ftill remaining excluded from the ‘holy communion.
When they pasfed' all these three degrees, they received the peace of the church, were admitted to the holy table, and reinstated in all the privileges of the faithful.
There were in the Greek church, notwithstanding the violence of the persecutions, many divines who were the great lights and ornaments of the age. The most celebrated of whom were Hippolytus, bishop of Porto, in Italy, or, as some fay, metropolitan of Arabia; Gregory of Cesarea, to whom they attributed those miracles, which gave him the name of Thaumaturgus: Methodius, bihop of Tyre, in Phænicia ; and Archelaus, bishop of Cascar in Mesopotamia, who particularly distinguished himself by the dispute he had with the He. retics. Some of the writings of all those whom we have mentioned are still extant; but' the fame of these pious men was almost eclipsed by the celebrated Origen, who did lo much honour to the school of Alex
and the divinity of the Son, they thought it neceflary to explain in a more diftin& manner these myfte. ries; and in doing this, they borrowed variety of terms from the Pagan philosophy; but the misfortune was, that they mixed these philosophical notions with revealed truths; and made sacred things the object of school disputations, Upon this account, the doctrines of Christ's divinity, and that of the Holy Spirit, were proposed and treated of in a manner by no means exact, or agreeable to the analogy of faith,
[ To be continued.]
andria, by the incredibie number and great value of his works, thoagh he made more noise during his life, and since his death, by Some particular circumstances which happened to him.
Among those whose writings are lost, but whose memory deserve refpect, we may number Jalius the African, to whom chronology is much indebted; and Denys, of Alexandria, one of the most famous divines of his time. The apologists, then much wanted, were very numerous ; the name or one i. e. Macarius Magnes, would have been intirely forgot, had not some of his works been taken notice of by some learned men of our time.
The person, the most diftinguished in the Latin church, was without dispute St. Cyprian, bishop of the church of Carthage, and martyr, of whose piety, and other excellent qualities, we may judge from his writings. A bishop of Rome, named Cornelius, was in great friendship with St. Cyprian, whose holy life, and pure doctrine ferved greatly to edify the church. He had the glory of suffering martyrdom. Minutius Felix, a Roman advocate, wrote an extremely elegant work, in the form of a dialogue, in defence of Chri. ftianity. Arnobius deseryes the fome elogium, though we must own, that he was much happier in refuting the idolatry of the Gentiles, than in explaining or eitablishing the true religion. This is a remark that may be applied to almost all the writers of the primitive church.
The doctrine believed and professed in this century, was in the general conformable to that of the two preceding. If there was any difference, it was only in the manner or method of explaining the truths of religion, to which they applied with more care and art than they had done before. As there had arole fome disputes respecting the Trinity of persons in the Deity,
WESTMINSTER-ABBEY. (Continued from page 200.] N the east fide of the door of
St. Erasmus's chapel is a monument erected to the memory of Jane, daughter and coheiress of Sir John Poultncy, and wife to Sir Cleppelby Crew, Knt, who died on the 2d of December 1639, in the 29th year of her age.
The next is a new monument erected to the memory of William Pulteney, earl of Bath. Above is a medallion of the earl, in the center a large urn with the arms of the family, and on each side of it are the figures of Wisdom and Poetry. In the front of the monument is the following inscription : " Erect. ed to the memory of Wm. Pulteney earl of Bath, by his brother the Hon. Harry Pulteney, general of his majesty's forces, 1764. Ob. July 7, 1764. Æt. 81."
Adjoining to this is a very handsome monument erected to the me. mory of admiral Holmes. He is represented in a Roman warlike habit, with his right hand resting OR a cannon mounted on a carriage. Behind is an anchor, a flag-staff, and other naval decorations. Under which is the following inscription: