Imágenes de páginas

hard-hearted people, it was neceffary that their minds should be properly impressed with the nature of rewards and punishments in this life. When a master struck out an eye or tooth of his servant, then he was obliged to

let him go free, because, in such an instance, the master exceeded the bounds prescribed by the law, and inflicted such cruelty as consistent with the di&tates of natural reason and religion.

was in






see a fhip failing in the sea. He was for a while in great amazement and surprize to see such a moving, inanimate body, and could not ima. gine of what a nature it was poslible it should be, until he perceived, by some tokens, that it was made and managed by men.

“ So (faith he) the philosophers ought to have done, if they had any doubts at the firft view of the world. Afterwards, when they should behold its determined and equal motions, and all things managed by, and established with, immutable conitancy, they ought then to understand, that there is not only fome person inhabiting this heavenly, this divine house, but also fome ruler and architect of so great a work, so noble a perform

The conclusion is so natural, that nothing less than the most egregious ftupidity could reject the force of the evidence. faith the Stoic, they secin to have very improper notions of the heavens and the earth.' And great reason the Stoic had for saying so; for so manifest a demonstration of the Deity are the motions of the heavens and earth, that if men do not acknowledge them to be fo, it argues grofs infenfibility; and if they will not fee and be convinced by them, it is as plain a fign of their prejudice and perverseness.

(To be continued.]

(Continued from page 23.] Η

AVING already shewn, that

the giving motion to such immense globes as the heavenly bodies are, must have been the work of God; we shall find a much greater demonftration thereof, if we consider, that those motions are not at random, but such as fhew infinite wisdom and skill. This will appear from the following examples. Firft, That all the planets should have their directions given them perpendicular to the radii. Secondly, That the motions and orbits of the planes should not interfere with one another, but tend one and the same way from west to caft, and lie in planets but little inclined to one another, or when inclined, that it should be


beneficially so, as shall be shown afterwards.

These, and many other instances, Thew these orbs to be the work of an omnipotent Being, as their creator, and whose wisdom still conducts them. Thus Cicero makes the Stoic argue, and prove our present point, from the shepherd at Actium, when, from the top of an hill, he happened first to


" But now,








(Continued from page 413.]



IR Isaac Newton has de..

monstrated this latter opinion by so many wonderful experiments, that it is impollible to deny the propagation of light, without being devoted to scepticism. The author of Spectacle de la Nature, has endeavoured to thew the impoflibility of the motion of light according to Sir Isaac's experiments; but his reasons given for this impoffibility are frivilous and whimsical. He wants to set Moses and Newton at variance, when they are perfectly agreed. The Abbe imagines that the sun by this time would have been exhausted, provided he had emitted such a quantity of rays or particles of light, as Sir Ilaac's syftem supposes to have proceeded from that luminary ; for he affirms that the sun is but a mere point in comparison of the quantity of light that must have issued from him during the"space of fix-thousand years. There might be some probability in the Abbe's fuppofition, provided that one part of nature was formed to supply another, and that actual experiments did not every day prove the truth of Sir Isaac's doctrine. If experiments and matters of facts convince our enles, see no reason why we should suppose that what our senses really perceive is contrary to reason, because we do not know what is the pabulum folis, or the nutriment of the fun. If it is still capable of being demonflrated by undoubted

experiments, that light really comes
and moves from the sun, and the
fun still remains the fame, all that
is necessary to be supposed is, that
the author of nature hath found a
conitant supply from that luminary,
from some source of nature, which
we have not yet discovered. Mr.

'the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites has put this matter beyond all reasonable doubt; and Sir Isaac Newton has proved clearly in his optics, that the rays of light take about seven minutes in their passage from the fun to our earth.

The Abbe Pluche has Thewed us that air is undestructible, as he calls it, or, a subitance of the sem. per idem kind; but that is as far as it is within the reach of our earth ; but how did he know, but that this invariable substance, when carried through other regions, might not become pabulum to the sun, and be a perpetual feeder to thac body of fire: Experience teaches us that fire throws out all bodies except air, but readily receives 'this body at all times; and why inay not air pass through the higher regions, and enter into the body of the sun, and receive a new character.

What the Abbe says with respect to the wind-gun, only proves that the air within, or the atmosphere, retains its elasticity, and is uncorruptible ; and it is on this account the better fitted to be the pabulum of fire, which though it may change its character, may continue to be a substantial supply to the other elements of nature.

Whatever may be in these matters, it does not appear from all the Abbe has said, that the Principia of Moses, and that of Sir Isaac Newton, are in the leait different with regard to light: Both of thefe



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writers allow light to be created by the Almighty, and to be managed by his providence; and both of them agree in fuppofing gravitating powers in this system. Sir Isaac allows the source of light to be created by God, but the rays which supply our system with illúmination to be propagated mechanically, according to certain laws of nature, established by the great Creator,

But not to pursue disputes concerning this wonderful creature, light, I shall proceed to point out some of its properties, that my readers may thereby admire the great Creator of the universe, both for favouring us with light and preserving us from several of its powers.

One blefied effect of light is, that it makes things visible to us, is the medium through which we perceive objects visible, and know how to use many of them. It is owing to light that we are enabled to behold the wonderful works of the Almighty, to learn knowledge from the things he has made ; with out this marvellous blessing of divine goodness, this world would be an inhospitable wilderness, and all that is in it lumber to us. But by means of light we see to walk, to read, and contemplate the mar vellous works of a kind and merci. ful Creator. The advantages of light are so numerous, and yet fo well known, that it would be superfluous to mention them in de tail. The pealant is in this setpect almost as wife as the philoiopher. It is howeyer by the means of light that the philosopher can see his Creator in those works that the naked eye cannot behold: he can by the help of glasses, through the medium of light, defcry worlds that were undiscovered before, and explore' syiiems that would otherwile have for ever lain concealed. By the inftrumentality of this precious creaiure men can travel by

sea and land, and bring riches and wealth from all quarters of the globe.

But there is a property in light that is most awful.

The rays of this body which render things visible are also capable of destroying the whole world. Light can produce fire of the most terrible kind: It can

even melt bodies of the most folid natures in an instant of time. It will burn wet wood in a moment, vitrity bricks and pumice stones, and dissolve earthen vessels full of water ; and plume allum, which will bear the fire of the hottest glass-houses, without alteration, is melted by rays of light, in a glass, in an instant. Yea gold, that refiits the force of com: mon fire, is foon liquified by the rays of light, converged in a burning glass. Were there not an overruling Providence to direct this wonderful body, how foon mighé it make the whole of this globe a liquid ocean of fire! Were the rays of light to unite as the rain often does, and come fro the sun in the quantity of hail, how soon would they consume the whole of this earth! What a mercy is it that our atmosphere has none of the qualities of a burning-glass to converge the rays of light, which are real particles of fire of the hottest nature ; for though all light is not fire, yet the greatest part of it, that we know, is nearly connected with it, and of the same quality.

But let us contider light in the quality of fire, or having the power of burning; how amazing is it, that the air which is full of lighĆ and fire does not scorch us to death! A!l the waters in the ocean could not quench some forts of fires, which actually exist in nature, provided they were once kindled. We fee often how dreadfully a fire burns in the midit of a watery cloud when it is pouring down in ipouts from the heavens, and did

Providence over-rule thote fires, how loon would they consume



of water.

the world! a very little application of art will convince any reasonable person that a fire may be kindled that water cannot quench. The filings of steel and sulphur, mixed together and kneaded into a dough with cold water, will in a few hours take fire ; and phosphorus will burn in the midst

But did the light come down as close to our earth as it is compacted near the sun, it would set all the waters a boiling, and melt the globe into a liquid fire. We see some sorts of fiery particles that can only be kindled by water ; such as lime-stones, which, as soon as wet, burn and turn into actual fire, but are harmless enough when kept dry. What is more than all, there is reason to believe that there is fire that will burn with or without air. There is a kind of phosphorus which if you put it in a bottle of water, a little warm, and place it in the receiver of an air pump, and exhaust all the air, will burn as well as in the open air, which shews that this fire will burn without air. What is remarkable of this sort of fire is that it will lie five or fix years under water, and when heated a little, or put in motion, will presently kindle : which shews that fire may remain in cold water unextinguished, and may be produced on all occasions. We may truly say with the apostle Peter, seeing these things are fo! what manner of persons ought we to be ? seeing all these things that are so absolutely

necessary for our happiness and enjoyment, may be so easily turned to our destruction ; we have no safety but in the favour of that God, who governs all things by his wisdom.

There is one special quality in the rays of light as they come from the sun, that they diverge, and consequently enlighten all bodies on all lides, and preserve the earth from being burnt and consumed. The disposition of rays of light to be refracted in pafling through one medium to another is of singular service kind; for to this disposition of light We ope the evening and morning twi

lights, which are of such eminent service to both man and beast. Were the light of the sun to recede from us in a moment, we should be in palpable darkness all on a sudden, which would be very disagreeable; and were the fun all in an instant to break forth upon us in the midst of darkness, it would destroy our fight in a short time. Herein is the wisdom and goodness of our Creator manifested, that he makes all things contribute to our happiness by certain laws, with out which they would be hurtful instead of being profitable.

There is another thing that pertains to light, and that is, that it can be reflected by other bodies; without this disposition all the other properties of light would be of no more fervice to us than to those that are born blind. Had not bodies the faculty of refleding light, and were not light capable of being reflected, there would arise little benefit therefrom to man. kind. It does not appear that reflected light, when collecled in a burning glass, has any heat. At least the light of the sun when reflected from the moon has no heat. For though the light is greatly encreased by means of the glais, there is no heat åt all to be found from the increase of light. This is attended with advantages to the world in general, especially in hot countries; for if the rays of the moon afforded heat like the rays of the sun, some parts of the habitable world would be burnt up,-since the descending dews of the night, by which it is moistened, would then cease to fall, and the fire of the moon would draw its vapours upwards. If the

rays of the moon were to succeed in heat to the rays and heat of the sun, it is easy to perceive how hurt. ful it would be to the health of mankind, especially, in warm climates. But providence has ordered all things well, and has, by means of the moon's transmitting by reflection a part of the sun's light, without any on his heat, given the inhabitants to enjoy the benefit of light, in the ablence of the



fun, without any injury to their health emitting particles of light ; and fomeor persons'. May we not here join with times comprehends rain, or what is the inspired writer and say, O Lord, in the clouds, or air. When the Althy works are wonderful, in wisdom mighiy said, let there be Aor, it is thou hast made them all!

not certain that he meani elementary When we confider the words of fire, or original unpropagated light. Moses, it appears evident that what it is more probable that he intended is in our version called light, is in the by that word, a body that sent forth Hebrew, racher something that sends light by means of he motion of fimiforth light. Aor may lignify any iar particles of luminous and ignething that makes things visible by ous matter.

Eliza: de BEREA.

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A DISSERTATION on our nature, but also our sins; that CONCERNING

is, in a legal sense, our guilt being CHRIST THE SAVIOUR.

transferred to him; whence we not

only read, " that the word was made HE publication of the gospel is flesh ;" but also, “ that he was made

exceeding agreeable, and per sin for us, who knew no fin; and fectly answers its original name, even, as we have it in the epistle to which fignifies good tidings. These the Galatians, that he 'was made a are the best tidings that were ever curse, that from him an eternal blessheard in any age of the world! Hap- || ing and felicity might be derived to py shepherds ! to whom this news The spotless lamb of God bore was sent down from heaven! Ye were our fins, that were devolv'd upon in this, more happy than kings, that him: by thus bearing them, he dethe wonderful nativity of the supreme | Atroyed them; and by dying for them King, begotten from eternity, that gained a complete victory over death. nativity which brought salvation to And how wonderful is the gradation the whole world, was first communi of the blessings he procured for us; cated to you, and just at the time it he not only delivered us from a prison happened. “Behold, says, the an and death,' but presents us with a gel, I bring you glad tidings of great kingdom; according to that of the joy, which shall be to all people ;

Psalmift, " Who redeemeth thee from for unto you is born this day a Sa destruction ; who crowneth thee with viour." 'And immediately a great loving kindness and tender mercies.” company of the heavenly hoft joined

But may we not, with some reason, the angel, and in your hearing tung, || suspect of the greatest part of nominal

Glory to God in the highest.” Chriftians, who commonly receive

His name was also fent down along these truths with great applause, that with him, “ His name shall be called

it may be said to them, without

any Jesus, for he shall fave his people from injustice, “ What is all this to


?" their fins.” O sweet name of Jesus, ho These privileges are truly great and ney in the mouth, melody in the ears, manifold, and indifferently directed and healing to the heart. This is to all, to whom they are preached, The Saviour, who, though we were unless they reject them, and shut the so miserable, and so juftly misera door against happiness offering to ble, yet would not suffer us

come in and this is not only the perish quite, Nor did he only put case of a great part of mankind, but



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