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Fear’st thou that, Antonio ? Boy,-[To V10LA.]—thou hast said to me a thouAnt. How have you made division of yourself ?
sand times, An apple cleft in two is not more twin
Thou never should'st love woman like to me. Than these two creatures. Which is Sebastian ? Vio. And all those sayings will I over-swear, Oli. Most wonderful !
And all those swearings keep as true in soul,
That severs day from night.
Give me thy hand; Whom the blind waves and surges have devour'd. And let me see thee in thy woman's weeds. [To V10LA.]—Of charity, what kin are you to me? Vio. The captain, that did bring me first on shore, What countryman? what name? what parentage ? Hath my maid's garments: he, upon some action,
Vio. Of Messaline : Sebastian was my father; Is now in durance at Malvolio's suit, Such a Sebastian was my brother too,
A gentleman, and follower of my lady's. So went he suited to his watery tomb.
Oli. He shall enlarge him. — Fetch Malvolio If spirits can assume both form and suit,
hither:You come to fright us.
And yet, alas, now I remember me, Seb.
A spirit I am indeed; They say, poor gentleman, he's much distract. But am in that dimension grossly clad,
A most extracting frenzy of mine own Which from the womb I did participate.
From my remembrance clearly banish'd his.Were you a woman, as the rest goes even, I should my tears let fall upon your cheek,
Re-enter Clown, wilh a letter. And say—thrice welcome, drowned Viola !
How does he, sirrah? Vio. My father had a mole upon his brow.
Clo. Truly, madam, he holds Belzebub at the Seb. And so had mine.
stave's end, as well as a man in his case may do. Vio. And died that day, when Viola from her
He has here writ a letter to you: I should have birth Had number'd thirteen years.
given it you to-day morning; but as a madman's Seb. O! that record is lively in my soul.
epistles are no gospels, so it skills not much when He finished, indeed, his mortal act
they are delivered.
Oli. Open it, and read it. That day that made my sister thirteen years.
Clo. Look then to be well edified, when the fool Vio. If nothing lets to make us happy both,
delivers the madman:-[Reads.]—"By the Lord, But this my masculine usurp'd attire,
madam," Do not embrace me, till each circumstance
Oli. How now! art thou mad ? Of place, time, fortune, do cohere, and jump,
Clo. No, madam, I do but read madness: an your That I am Viola : which to confirm,
ladyship will have it as it ought to be, you must I'll bring you to a captain in this town,
allow vox. Where lie my maiden weeds : by whose gentle help
Oli. Priythee, read i' thy right wits. I was preserv'd to serve this noble count.
Clo. So I do, madonna; but to read his right wits, All the occurrence of my fortune since
is to read thus: therefore perpend, my princess, and Hath been between this lady, and this lord. Seb. So comes it, lady,-[To Olivia.]-you
give ear. have been mistook ;
Oli. Read it you, sirrah.
[T. FABIAN But nature to her bias drew in that.
Fab. [Reads.] “By the Lord, madam, you You would have been contracted to a maid,
wrong me, and the world shall know it: though you Nor are you therein, by my life, deceiv'd:
have put me into darkness, and given your drunken You are betroth'd both to a maid and man.
cousin rule over me, yet have I the benefit of my Duke. Be not amaz’d; right noble is his blood.- senses as well as your ladyship. I have your own If this be so, as yet the glass seems true,
letter that induced me to the semblance I put on: I shall have share in this most happy wreck. with the which I doubt not but to do myself mucli
right, or you much shame. Think of me as you Fab.
Good madam, hear me speak; please. I leave my duty a little unthought of, and And let no quarrel, nor po brawl to come, speak out of my injury.
Taint the condition of this present hour, “ The madly-used Malvolio."
Which I have wonder'd at. In hope it shall not,
Most freely I confess, myself, and 'Toby, Oli. Did he write this?
Set this device against Malvolio here, Clo. Ay, madam.
Upon some stubborn and uncourteous parts Duke. This savours not much of distraction. We had conceiv'd
against him. Maria writ Oli. See him deliver'd, Fabian: bring him hither. The letter at Sir Toby's great importance ;
In recompense whereof, he hath married her. My lord, so please you, these things further thought How with a sportful malice it was follow'd, on,
May rather pluck on laughter than revenge,
If that the injuries be justly weigh’d,
Oli. Alas, poor fool, how have they baffled thee! Duke. Madam, I am most apt t' embrace your Clo. Why, some are born great, some achieve offer.
greatness, and some have greatness thrown upon [To V10LA.) Your master quits you; and, for your them.” I was one, sir, in this interlude; one sir service done him,
Topas, sir ; but that's all one.—"By the Lord, fool, So much against the mettle of your sex,
I am not mad;"—But do you remember? “Madam, So far beneath your soft and tender breeding, why laugh you at such a barren rascal ? an you And since you call’d me master for so long, smile not, he's gagg’d :" And thus the whirligig of Here is my hand: you shall from this time be time brings in his revenges. Your master's mistress.
Mal. I'll be revenged on the whole pack of you. Oli. A sister :—you are she.
[Exit. Re-enter Fabian, with Malvolio.
Oli. He hath been most notoriously abus’d.
Duke. Pursue him, and entreat him to a peace. Duke. Is this the madman?
He hath not told us of the captain yet; Oli.
Ay, my lord, this same. When that is known and golden time convents, How now, Malvolio?
A solemn combination shall be made Mal. Madam, you have done me wrong, Of our dear souls :—mean time, sweet sister, Notorious wrong.
We will not part from hence.—Cesario, come; Oli. Have I, Malvolio ? no.
For so you shall be, while you are a man, Mal. Lady, you have. Pray you, peruse that But when in other habits you are seen, letter:
Orsino's mistress, and his fancy's queen. [Exeunt. You must not now deny it is your hand, Write from it, if you can, in hand, or phrase;
CLOWN SINGS. Or say, 'tis not your seal, nor your invention :
When that I was and a little tiny boy, You can say none of this. Well
, grant it then,
With hey, ho, the wind and the rain, And tell me, in the modesty of honour,
A foolish thing was but a loy,
For the rain it raineth every day.
But when I came to man's estate,
With hey, ho, the wind and the rain, And, acting this in an obedient hope,
'Gainst knaves and thieves men shut their gate, Why have you suffer'd me to be imprison’d,
For the rain it raineth every day.
But when I came, alas! to wive,
With hey, ho, the wind and the rain, Oli. Alas! Malvolio, this is not my writing,
By swaggering could I never thrive, Though, I confess, much like the character;
For the rain it raineth every day. But, out of question, 'tis Maria's hand :
But when I came unto my bed, And now I do bethink me, it was she
With hey, ho, the wind and the rain, First told me thou wast mad; then cam'st in smiling,
With toss-pots still had drunken head,
For the rain it raineth every day.
But that's all one, our play is done,
And we'll strive to please you every day.
ACT I.-SCENE I.
and startling. But let us consider whether Shakespeare
was most likely to have written sound or south, which “- it had a DYING FALL"-By 'fall' is meant ca
involves the question of which is the better word. dence, (from cado,) a musical term, signifying the close
Stevens tells us that the thought might have been bor. of a passage or phrase, and which commonly includes
rowed from Sidney's - Arcadia,' (book i.,) and he quotes the transition from a dissonant to a consonant sound; or,
a part of the passage. We must look, however, at the in the language of Lord Bacon, (Sylva Sylvarum,) context. Sidney writes, “Her breath is more sweet * the falling
from a discord to a concord, which maketh than a gentle south-west wind, which comes creeping great sweetnesse in musicke.' Milton, in Comus,'
over flowery fields and shadowed waters in the extreme uses the word in the same sense as Shakespeare; and heat of summer.' The comparison is here direct. The Pope, in his Ode to St. Cecilia's Day, has dying
sweet breath of Urania is more sweet than the gentle fall.' Dying' probably means a diminution of sound,
south-west wind. Sidney adds, “and yet is nothing, technically expressed diminuendo."-Knight.
compared to the honey-flowing speech that breath doth “ – like the sweet south”—I have, not without hesi
carry.' The music of the speech is not here compared tation, retained in the text Pope's beautiful and inge with the music of the wind—the notion of fragrance is nious conjectural reading. The original has, “ the sweet
alone conveyed. If in the passage of the text we read sound that breathes," etc. ; which cannot well be denied
south instead of sound, the conclusion of the sentence, to be possibly the word used by one so bold in the ap- Stealing, and giving odour,' rests upon the mind; and plication of poetical language as Shakespeare. Rowe,
the comparison becomes an indirect one between the startled at the boldness of it, suggested wind for sound; harmony of the dying fall and the odour of the breeze but Pope, presuming a very natural typographical error,
that had passed over a bank of violets. This, we think, (sound for south,) offered a new and beautiful thought, is not what the Poet meant. He desired to compare which has been approved by the commentators, except
one sound with another sound. Milton had probably Douce and Knight. The latter retains the old reading this passage in view when he wroteand thus maintains it :
Now gentle gales, “ – like the sweet sound—To those who are familiar
Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispense with the well-known text
Native perfumes, and whisper whence they stole
Those balmy spoils. 0! it came o'er my car like the sweet south
The image in Milton, as well as in Shakespeare, com. the restoration of the word sound will appear strange || bines the notion of sound as well as fragrance. In
Shakespeare, the sound that breathes'—the soft mur
They say she hath abjur'd the sight, mur of the breeze playing amid beds of flowers—is put
And company of men. first, because of the dying fall of the exquisite harmo- The alteration, making "sight” and “company” change ny; but in Milton the . perfumes' of the .gentle gales' || places, was by Hanmer; and it is for the better, both in are more prominent than the whisper'-because the metre and sense. Olivia has abjured not only the “com. image is complete in itself, unconnected with what pre- pany,” but even the “sight" of men. Knight adheres cedes. Further, Shakespeare has nowhere else made to the older reading. the soath an odour-breathing wind; his other representations are directly contrary. In As You Like It, Rosa
"as TALL a man"-i. e. As valiant a man. You foolish shepherd, wherefore do you follow her, Like foggy south, puffing with wind and rain?
tall a man" is used here by Sir Toby with more than In ROMEO AND JULIET, we have the dew-dropping
the usual license of the word. He was pleased with south.' In CYMBELINE, “the south-fog rot him.' We
the equivoque, and banters upon the diminutive stature prefer, therefore, on all accounts, to hold to the original
of poor Sir Andrew, and his utter want of courage. text."
- the viol-DE-GAMBOYS”— Meaning, of course, the * — what validity"-i. e. Value.
viol-di-gambo-an instrument then much in use. "— my desires, like fell and cruel hounds"-" This
“- a coystril"_"Coystril" was a term applied to image evidently alludes to the story of Actæon, by
certain menial servants, formerly the usual attendants which Shakespeare seems to think men cautioned upon the body-guard of the monarch. Hollingshed against too great familiarity with forbidden beauty.
thus designates the unwarlike followers of an army. A Actæon, who saw Diana naked, and was torn in pieces
"coystril,' or kestrel, in falconry, (says Nares,) is someby his hounds, represents a man, who, indulging his
times wrongly used for the name of a worthless, mon. eyes, or his imagination, with the view of a woman he grel kind of hawk. cannot gain, has his heart torn with incessant longing. - like a PARISH-Top"—The “parish-top" was a An interpretation far more elegant and natural than that large top, formerly kept in each village, for the peasants of Sir Francis Bacon, who, in his “Wisdom of the An- to whip, by way of exercise and amusement. cients,' supposes this story to warn us against inquiring into the secrets of princes, by showing that those who
Castiliano vulgo"-Warburton supposed that know that which for reasons of state should be con
“vulgo" should be printed collo, and that Maria was to cealed, will be detected and destroyed by their own
put on a Castilian, or grave countenance, on the approach servants.”—Johnson.
of Sir Andrew. Hall, in his “Satires," describes his
man of forms as making “a Spanish face." This is - kill'd the Flock"-Sir P. Sidney, in his “ Arca- doubtless the allusion ; but Sir Toby blunders in his dia," (1590,) as Stevens observes, has a similar expres- Spanish, as he has just done in his “ viol-de-gamboys." sion—" the flock of unspeakable virtues;” meaning, of “ The old copy reads, Castiliano vulgo. Warburton course, the assemblage of them. Collier adds that this proposed reading, Castiliano colto. In English, Put passage occurs in the “ Arcadia" just below one already on your Castilian countenance'-i. e. grave serious quoted, respecting “the sweet south"-a confirmation looks. I have no doubt that Warburton was right, for of that reading.
that reading is required by the context, and Castiliano “(Her sweet perfections,)”—“Stevens thus explains oulgo has no meaning. But I have met with a passage in this passage:— Liver, brain, and heart are admitted, in
Hall's • Satires' which, I think, places it beyond a poetry, as the residence of passions, judgment, and sen
doubt:timents. These are what Shakespeare calls her sweet
he can kiss his hand in gree, perfections.' This is doubtless a mistaken interpreta
And with good grace bow it below the knee,
Or make a Spanish face with fawning cheer, tion. The phrase ought probably to be, “Her sweet With th' Iland conge like a cavalier, perfection. The filling of the sovereign throne' with And shake his head, and cringe his neck and side, etc. one self king' is the perfection of Olivia's merits-ac
The Spaniards were in high estimation for courtesy cording to the ancient doctrine that a woman was not
though the natural gravity of the national conntenance complete till her union with a • self king.' In Lord
was thought to be a cloak for villany. The Castiliano Berners's translation of “ Froissart,' there is a sentence
volto was in direct opposition to the viso sciolto, which which glances at the same opinion. The rich Berthoult
the noble Roman told Sir Henry Wootton would go of Malines is desirous to marry his daughter to the noble
safe over the world. Castiliano oulgo, besides its want Earl of Guerles; and he thus communes with himself:
of connection or meaning in this place, could hardly * Howbeit, I will answer these messengers that their
have been a proverbial phrase, when we remember that coming pleaseth me greatly, and that my daughter should
Castile is the noblest part of Spain."-SINGER. be happy if she might come to so great a perfection as
This is probably enough the meaning intended; to be conjoined in marriage with the Earl of Guerles.'”
but this edition has not deviated from the old reading, KNIGHT.
because it looks as if the author meant that Sir Toby “ — with one SELF KING"— Many editors adopt a read- shonld make an accidental or intentional blunder-just ing of the second folio, self-same, as improving the as he does as to the viol-de-gamboys, using of choice the metre. But all dramatic metre is modified by empha-vulgar corruption. sis. Here the sense leads to a strong emphasis on one, “Accost, Sir Andrew'Sir Andrew did not underand the line thus read does not halt in its metre. “Self”
stand the word “accost;" and since the time of Dry. seems used for self-same, as in LEAR—“I am made of
den, who employs it, the use of it in this sense is rare. that self metal as my sister," etc.; and elsewhere.
Sir Toby afterwards explains it, “ front her, board her,"
etc. “Accost" is from the French accoster, and means, SCENE II.
strictly, to come side by side, and more generally to " — THOSE poor number"-Shakespeare uses “ num- approach. ber” as the plural: this was a peculiarity of antique bring your hand to the BUTTERY-BAR"-The phraseology, which, unless we choose to modernize him
"buttery" was the place from which meat and drink throughout, we have no right to alter (with Malone and were formerly delivered. To have a dry hand was for. others) to that.
merly considered a symptom of debility, as Stevens - she hath abjur'd the COMPANY,
shows, by various quotations. And sight of men."
"— mistress Mall's picture"-The name of this In all the old copies the passage stands as follows :- woman was Mary Frith. She was in the habit of wear.
ing men's clothes, and obtained extraordinary celebrity Warburton would read pleasing, and Hanmer substitutes in connection with many low characters of the time. learning; but Johnson's interpretation seems to be the Her picture might be curtained, either because it was
The Clown means to say, that unless Olivia considered indecent, or simply, as sir Toby says, to pre- lied she could not " speak well of fools ;" consequently, serve it from the dust. Her death occurred in 1659, he prays Mercury to endue her with “ leasing," or lying. and in 1662 her“ Life and Death" was published. John Day, the dramatist, wrote a tract upon her “mad pranks,”
“ – like a sheriff's POST"-The posts at the doors which was entered at Stationers' Hall in August, 1610;
of sheriffs, on which originally proclamations and pla. but it is not known to bave been printed. Possibly,
cards were exhibited, are very often mentioned in writers her “ Life and Death" (1662) was only Day's tract with
of the time. additions. All the known particulars regarding her “ – as a squash is before 'tis a PEASCOD"— The have been collected by the Rev. Mr. Dyce, in his intro- vegetable, familiarly known to us under the name of duction to Decker's and Middleton's comedy, the squash,” was not known in England in James the “Roaring Girl," (1611,) which has a wood-cut of the
First's reign; and the term meant only an unripe pod heroine upon the title-page.
of peas. It is thus used again in the Winter's Tale. “ – A GALLIARD"-A lively dance. “A lighter and " — a copling when 'lis almost an apPLE"-A"cod. more stirring kind of dancing than the pavan,” says ling" (according to Mr. Gifford) means an involucrum, Morley, a contemporary of Shakespeare; who adds- or kell, and was used by our old writers for that early “ The Italians make their galliards plain, and frame dit- state of vegetation, when the fruit, after shaking off the ties to them, which, in their mascaradoes, they sing and blossom, began to assume a globular and determinate dance, and manie times without any instruments.' shape. Mr. Nares says, a “codling" was a young raw "- a CORASTO" (courante)—A quick dance, as the
apple, fit for nothing without dressing: and that it is so word indicates, and for two persons, according to Mer
named because it was chiefly eaten when coddled, or senne, (“Harmonie Universelle,” 1686.) Morley de
scalded-codlings being particularly so used when unscribes it as “ traversing and running, as our country- | apples.”
ripe. Florio interprets—“Mele cotte ; quodlings, boiled dance, but hath twice as much in a strain."
very COMPTIBLE"_" Comptible" is accountable; “ – a SINK-A-PACE"—i. e. Cinque-pace" the name and here seems to mean subject to, or sensitive of, “ the of a dance, (says Sir John Hawkins,) the measures least sinister usage." whereof are regulated by the number five.” In an old Italian work, " Il Ballerino," (1581,) this dance is de
“- I am to hull here"-Viola follows up Maria's scribed as consisting of four steps and a cadence; and, sea-phrase, and tells her that she is to lie there a little according to Sir Jolin Davis, in his poem on “Dancing”—
longer. To “ hull" is to remain “driven to and fro by
the waves," as it is expressed in a passage in Philemon Five was the number of the music's feet, Which still the dance did with tive paces mcet.
Holland's “ Translation of Pliny," (1601.) “- a DAMASK-COLOURED STOCK"_" Dam'd coloured
“— beauty truly BLENT"-i. e. Blended. So, in the stock," or stocking, is the reading of the original edi.
MERCHANT OF VENICE, we have, tions. Pope altered it to "flame-coloured,” which is
Where every something, being blent together,
Turns to a wild of nothing. the common reading.. We have preferred Knight's reading, both because it is nearer to the old copy, and “ – leave the world no copy"-Shakespeare has extherefore more likely to have been misprinted, and pressed the same thought in his Ninth, Eleventh, and because “damask-coloured” is a phrase used by Dray- Thirteenth Sonnets." ton, in the same age; and in this play we have damask cheek.
“ – loyal cantons”—“Cantons” was the old English
word for canto. Heywood, in his “Great Britain's “ Taurus ? that's sides and heart" –" Alluding to the Troy," (1609,) calls the seventeen divisions of his poem medical astrology still preserved in almanacks, which “ cantons." refers the affections of particular parts of the body to the predominance of particular constellations.”—Jous
“ I am no fee'd Post"-I am no paid messenger.
PEEVISH messenger"-Another in.
stance, out of many, to prove that in the time of ShakeSCENE IV.
speare, and earlier, “peevish" did not mean petulant, “ – a BARFUL strife”-i. e. A struggle on my part
or testy, but silly, or foolish. In this place Olivia may
wish Malvolio not to perceive that she takes any interest full of bars, or impediments.
about so insignificant a person as “ the county's man." SCENE V.
" - ourselves we do not owe”-i.e. Own, as in many
other places. The meaning, as Malone remarks, is“ Enter Maria, and Clown"— The Clown in this “we are not our own masters." play, as well as in All's WELL THAT Ends Well, is the domestic fool, or jester. In As You Like It, he is
ACT II.-SCENE I. the court-fool All three wore “ motley."
“ – ESTIMABLE wonder"-"Shakespeare often con“— fear no colours"—Maria explains the saying in
founds the active and passive adjectives. “Estimable one way-it was born in the wars ; referring to the
wonder' is esteeming wonder, or wonder and esteem. colours of an enemy. It probably meant-I fear no de
The meaning is, that he could not venture to think so ceptions. Holofernes says, “I do fear colourable colours.”
highly as others of his sister.”—Johnson. (Love's Labour's Lost, act iv. scene 2.)
Thus Milton uses "unexpressive" notes, for unexpressyour GASKINS fall"'—"Gaskins" were large ible, in his “ Hymn on the Nativity.” breeches, or hose. Maria puns upon the word “ points,”
“ If you will not murder me for my love, let me be which were the tags at the ends of strings, used to fasten or sustain the dress, before the common use of buttons.
your servant”—“ These words are uttered by Antonio
to Sebastian, whom he has saved from drowning. The “ – CUCULLUS NON FACIT MONACHUM"-" The cowl commentators offer no explanation of them; but we think does not constitute the monk.”
that they have a latent meaning, and that they allude to
a superstition of which Sir Walter Scott has made such “ – Mercury endue thee with LEASING"_The sense admirable use in the Pirate.' Our readers will rememis not very clear. Johnson says that it is, “May Mer- ber that, when Mordaunt has rescued Cleveland from cury teach thee to lie, since thou liest in favour of fools." the breach of the sea,' and is endeavouring to restore