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ONE's purpose in learning a language is fourfold :

1. To understand the spoken language.
2. To speak fluently.
3. To read easily.

4. To write correctly. To obtain the best results it is desirable to allow the pupils to see the spelling only after they have heard, understood, and repeated the sounds. Then, but only then, should they read, and afterwards write, the exercise.

This is how the work should proceed to give satisfactory results

1. Learning Exercises are divided in steps of five or six sentences each.

1. The teacher reads the first step slowly in English.
2. He next states the first sentence in English, and then

teaches orally each French word of the sentence, com

mencing with the basic word (generally the verb). 3. This sentence must be repeated three or four times.

Details are necessary to help the student in forming a clear picture—the teacher can help a great deal

by gestures. 4. The pupil is then allowed to repeat the sentence. 5. Each sentence of the step should be taught in the

same manner. 6. Finally the teacher repeats the whole step at least

four times, previously calling out the basic word of

each sentence in English, to recall the picture. 7. Now the pupils repeat the whole step, and, should

they hesitate, the teacher may help them with a gesture likely to recall the action.



Each step in the exercise to be treated in the same


When the exercise is finished (in about thirty minutes), the teacher repeats the whole exercise once through, and then the students repeat the whole exercise of twenty to twentyfive sentences (without having yet seen the spelling).

2. Reading Now that the exercise has been learnt by the ear and repeated, the students open their books. The teacher reads one sentence and the students repeat from their books; and thus through the exercise, sentence by sentence. Then the teacher reads slowly through the whole exercise alone; and lastly the pupils read the whole exercise alone.

3. Writing The pupils write the exercise at home in a different form of the verb (past, future, etc.) as directed. (Pupils anxious to do good work copy the exercise once, and then, to make sure that they know the exercise by heart, they write it from memory in order to test their spelling.)

Grammar The rules and examples set for each lesson must be read twice by the teacher in French and the French learnt by the student as home-lesson.

Verbs Only one tense of the verb should be learnt in one lesson; but it must be learnt thoroughly. Here again, the teacher should teach the pronunciation thoroughly before the students learn the verbs. While learning the verbs, the pupil should always endeavour to have present in his mind (1) the action being performed, (2) the time when the action is performed, (3) the person performing the action. Otherwise it is mere (

parrot work.

Remarks about Health, the Weather, Meals, etc.

Ten minutes should be devoted (beginning of lesson) to the oral teaching of these sentences which must aiso be written and learnt by the pupils at home.




9. The neuter gender does not exist in French. A French

noun is either masculine or feminine. (The gender of nouns is to be learnt by the practice of conversation ; by the ear, and not by the eye.)

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FORMATION OF THE PLURAL 10. General Rule.-- The plural of nouns is formed by adding

s to the singular:
the boy
the girl

the pencil the slate
the boys
the girls
the pencils

the slates
There are numerous exceptions to that general rule ;

we give the principal ones :-
11. (1) Nouns ending in s, x, x remain unchanged :
the son
the voice
the nose

the walnut
the sons
the voices
the noses

the walnuts, etc. 12. (2) Nouns ending in au, eu, eu, ou take x: the hat

the vow

the cabbage the hats

the vows

the cabbages

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the game
the games

13. (2a) The following nouns follow the general rule :

the landeau | the nail | the cuckoo | the cheat | the madman

the halter the hole | the halfpenny | the bolt 14. (3) Nouns ending in al or ail change al or ail into

aux :

the canal 1 the horse 1 the work | the coral, etc. 15. (3a) A few nouns ending in al or in ail follow the

general rule and take s for the plural: ball

carnival 1 jackal | treat

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Le genre neutre n'existe pas en français. Un nom français est ou masculin ou féminin. (Le genre des noms doit être appris par la pratique de la conversation ; par l'oreille et non par les yeux.)

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le nez

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le jeu

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FORMATION DU PLURIEL Règle générale.---On forme le pluriel des noms on ajoutant s au singulier : le garçon la fille le crayon

ľ ardoise les garçons les filles les crayons

les ardoises Il y a de nombreuses exceptions à cette règle générale ; nous donnons les principales :

(1) Les noms se terminant en s, x, z restent invariables : le fils la voix

la noix les fils les voix les nez

les noix, etc. (2) Les noms se terminant en au, eu, ou, ou prennent X: le chapeau

le vou

le chou les chapeaux les jeux les veux

les choux (2 bis) Les noms suivants suivent la règle générale : le landeau le clou le coucou le filou le fou les landeaus les clous

les coucous

les filous les fous le licou

le trou
le sou

le verrou
les licous
les trous
les sous

les verrous (3) Les noms se terminant en al ou ail changent al qu ail en aux :

le canal le cheval le travail le corail les canaux les chevaux les travaux les coraux, etc. (3 bis) Quelques noms se terminant

se terminant en al ou en ail suivent la règle générale et prennent s au pluriel :

un carnaval
un chacal

un régal
des bals des carnavals des chacals
un détail un éventail un gouvernail un portail
des détails des éventails des gouvernails des portails

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un bal

des régals





My book and that of my brother | My pen and that of my sister My pencils and those of my My oranges and those of my friend

cousin Here are two books; take this one Here are two pens; take this one and give me that one

and give me that one

INDEFINITE FORM (when no noun is expressed)

Take this and leave that

75. he is, she is, it is, they are are expressed in French

by c'est or ce sont before a noun, pronoun, or
it is I

it is they
he is my brother

they are my sisters they are the best children in the school

it is wo

it is you



to whom
from whom

of whom
of what
to what
(where) in which

I know that man who is singing
You know the child to whom I was speaking
From whom have you received all this

money ?
A lady whom you know has come
The gentleman of whom you speak is here
Of what were you speaking this morning?
Pray, what are you thinking of ?
This is the house in which I live

77. which (m.s.)

which (f.s.)
which (
which (

The arm-chair in which you are
Which of these pens will you have ?
Which of these pencils are the best ?
Which of these pens are the best ?

78. The words le, la, les of the above pronouns are of course

subject to the same modifications as the article, and become du, de la, des or au, à la, aux, according to the sense.

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