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70

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

EX. XXXVII

Sieben und dreißigfte Stunde. Singular. (1) N. Ich arbeite.

I work.
A. Er lobt

midh.

He praises me.
G. Er bedarf mein(er). He is in need of -me.

D. Er antwortet mir. He replies to-me. (2) N. Du wartest.

Thou waitest.
À. Ich liebe didh.

I love thee.
G. Jch gedenke dein(er). I think of-thee.
D. Ich sage dir.

I tell to-thee. (3) n. Er spielt.

He plays.
A. Du siehst thn.

You see hiin.
G. Du gedenkst sein(er).? You think of-him.
D. Du gibst ihm.

You give to-him.
n. Sie spielt.

She plays.
A. Er sieht fie.

He sees her.
G. Er gedenkt ihrer.

He thinks of-her.
D. Er giebt ihr.

He gives to-her.
n. Es spielt.

It plays.
A. Jch sehe es.

I see it.
G. Ich gedente fein(er).

I think of-it.
D. Ich gebe

ihm.

I give to-it.

Plural. (1) N. Wir arbeiten.

We work.
A. Er lobt

uns. He praises us.
G. Er bedarf unser.

He is in need of-us.
D. Er antwortet uns. He replies to-us.
(2) n. Ihr wartet (Sie warten). You wait.

A. Ich liebe euch (Sie).
G. Ich gedenke eurer(Ihrer). I think of-you.

D. Ich sage euch (Ihnen). I tell to-you. (3) n. Sie spielen.

They play.
A. Er sieht fie.

He sees them.
G. Er gedenkt ihrer.

He thinks of-them. D. Er gibt ihnen. He gives to-them. i The shorter forms mein, dein, fein, are often used in poetry and idioms. 2 Seiner can only be used in reference to persons; if referring to things, defien, desselben, davon, must be used :

Ich bin dessen gewiß. I am sure of-it.
Ich weiß nichts davon. I know nothing about-it.

I love you.

EX, XXXVII

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

71

PRACTICE:

Es ist an mir zu spielen, 1

It is my turn to play, es war an dir zu sprechen, 20. It was thy turn to speak, etc. Es schmeckt mir,

I relish it, es schmeckte dir, 2c.

You liked it, etc.

1 Cf. French :-C'est à moi à jouer, etc.

Ex. 42),

der Lenz (poet.), spring, lent. tühlen,

to cool. vergiß (Imper. of vergessen, erguiden, to refresh. to forget.

wärmen, to warm. fehlen (Dat.), to miss, to ail, wie geht's ?

how are you? to be wanting es geht mir gut, I am well. erfreuen, to rejoice. unartig, ill-bred, naughty. gar nicht, nothing at-all. dann,

then (adv.) A. 1. Vergiß mein nicht !—Ich werde dein nie vergessen. 2. Was ist Ihnen begegnet?- Ein großes Unglück ist mir begegnet. 3. Was fehlt dir, mein liebes Kind ?-Mir fehlt gar nichts. 4. Erinnerst du dich seiner noch ? — Ja, sehr wohl. 5. Geht es ihr gut?— Ja, es geht ihr sehr gut. 6. Érwartest du einen Brief von ihnen ?-Nein, sie erwarten einen von mir. 7. Willst du mir gehorchen oder nicht ?Ich will Ihnen gerne gehorchen. 8. Es fehlt ihm an Mut. 9. Jm Lenz erfreu' ich dich, Im Herbst erquicť ich dich,

Im Sommer kühl ich dich, Im Winter wärm' ich dich!

B. 1. What had happened to him ?—Nothing good (Gutes). 2. Does he remember me?- No, he does not remember you. 3. Does he expect a letter from us ?—No, he is expecting one from her. 4. That naughty child will not obey us.—Then punish him. 5. I thank them. 6. I wish you happiness and a long life.

7. It is their turn to speak. 8. What ails him ? -Nothing ails him. 9. We don't relish it at all.

C. 1. These German exercises are not difficult. 2. This bookseller has old and new books. 3. Do not forget thy old friends. 4. The true happiness of men consists in the conscientious fulfilment of their duties. 5. Two thousand five hundred and eighty-seven soldiers have returned to-day. 6. I think (believe) it is a quarter to nine. 7. He is very well.

140

PROGRESSIVE GERMAN COURSE.-II.

Nadht wurde * gesungen.

EXERCISE XX. The Impersonal Passive Voice. Only Transitive Verbs that govern the Accusative can, as a rule, be used in the Personal Passive : whilst,

(a) Intransitive Verbs, and (6) Verbs that govern the Dative of the Person, can only be used in the Impersonal Passive Voice in German Active.

Passive. (a) Man läutet um zehn Uhr Es wird um zehn Uhr zur Kirche zur Kirche.

geläutet.* They ring the bells for church at ten o'clock. Man tanzte und sang bis Es wurde bis spät spät in die Nacht.

in die Nacht

getanzt

und They danced and sang or, Bis spät in die

till late in the night. (6) Man feßt mir nach

Es wird mir nachgefekt;
They pursue me.

or, Mir wird nachgeseßt. *

I am pursued.
Man erlaubte ihm zu geben.

Es wurde ihm erlaubt zu They allowed him to go. or, Ihm wurde * geben. (cf. Fr. 'Il lui a été permis de He was allowed to go.

partir.) * If the sentence does not begin with the Verb, the gram. subj. es is omitted; as,

Um Zehn Uhr wird zur Kirche geläutet. A. 1. Es ist keinem römischen Priester erlaubt zu heiraten. 2. Wird hier deutsch gesprochen ?-Ja, hier spricht man deutsch. 3. Es ist nach Ihnen gefragt worden. 4. Murde Ihnen erlaubt zu bleiben ?-Nein, im Gegenteil, es wurde mir verboten zu bleiben. 5. Wurde er nicht schwer verwundet :-Ja, es wurde sogleich nach dem Arzt geschickt.

B. 1. The slave was pursued. 2. That is not to be expected. 3. Are you allowed to do that?—No, we are strictly forbidden to do it. 4. Do you know that you are being looked for everywhere £---No, I did not know it. 5. We were promised great things. 6. Is the new GermanEnglish dictionary already printed ?—No, but it is being printed now. 7. When will it be published !—I think it will be published in a fortnight. 8. I was ordered to translate three pages. 9. There was quarrelling and wrangling

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EXERCISE XXI. Résumé of the Cases in which the English Passive Voice is rendered by a different construction in German :

He is said (supposed) to be very

rich. It cannot be denied.

Er soll sehr reich sein. Ex. xvi.
(Il doit être...).
Es läßt sich nicht längnen.

Ex. xviii.
Er darf nicht gehen. Ex. xvii.
Es ist ihm nicht erlaubt zu gehen.

He is not allowed to go.
(Il ne lui est pas permis...).

{

Ex. xx.

I had him punished.

Id ließ ihn bestrafen. Ex. xviii. ordered him to be punished. (Je le fis punir.)

Man gesagt.

Ich lassen. That is understood.

Das versteht sich (Cela s'entend). The thunder was heard to roll. Man hörte den Donner rollen.

I have been told (On m'a dit). { w mp habe mir fagent taffen.

By the Gerundive, see pp. 123–5 What is to be done?

Was ist zu thun ? There is nothing to be gained Dabei ist nichts zu gewinnen.

by it. The physician is to (must) be

Man muß den Arzt holen lassen.

Es muß nach dem Arzt gedict sent for.

werden. What shall I be thought of ? Was wird man von mir denken?

{

Recapitulation :

1. They are said to have done their work very well. 2. The dark clouds were seen to pass over the mountains. 3. The master ordered the passive voice to be learnt by heart. 4. It could not be imagined that it was true. 5. There was nothing to be hoped for. 6. What would you be thought of, if you were to do that? 7. We are not allowed to be from home, when once the gates are shut. 8. If you were disposed to do your work well, you would be rewarded. 9. There was nobody to be found. 10. I am (supply-it) not accustomed to be treated thus.

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and Parallel English-German Syntax. Scottish Leader-“The first part of the book is occupied by parallel passages in English and German, intended to familiarise the student with the points of similarity and difference in the structure and methods of composition of the two languages; in the second part we have a series of simple English passages for translation into German without other help than is furnished by footnotes. The third part is a parallel English-German Syntax, in which numerous practical illustrations of the grammatical rules of both languages are grouped together so as to bring out their

points of identity and contrast. The principle of the book is eminently sound and scientific.'

Dublin Evening Mail—The difficulties of composition which a young learner has to encounter when left to the questionable aid which his dictionary affords him, are entirely surmounted by the author's method, the simplicity of which, we have no doubt, will cause his work to be widely used." TEACHER'S COMPANION TO “MACMILLAN'S GERMAN COMPOSI

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