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THE COMPOUND SENTENCE
tion, as in (c), (d), (e), are called collateral clauses. The relation is cumulative. Notice the fine effect of the ellipsis of
() 'The troops had never fought so well, nor had the genius of their chief ever been so conspicuous.'
Here 'nor'=' and not,' and the relation is cumulative. Notice how 'nor' attracts the verb.
(g) 'He was diligent, therefore he succeeded.'
The word 'therefore' is strictly an adverb and does not join the clauses, which may be regarded as collateral, the conjunction 'and' being understood. When the second clause states a result or consequence of the first clause, it is sometimes said to be in illative (inferential) relation to the first. The relation is really cumulative, like that of the other examples.
(h) 1. Man is man and master of his fate.'
2. 'The water is nought and the ground barren.'
Here 'and'' and therefore,'' and consequently.'
(i) I am a true Englishman; I felt to the quick for the disgrace of England.'
I am a true Englishman, and therefore I felt, etc.
The second clause states a consequence of the first, and the ellipsis of 'and therefore' makes the statement specially energetic.
II. The opposition or contrast of what the clauses express: the disjunctive relation.
(a) Either you must get another watch, or I must get another secretary.'
The one statement is opposed to the other. This is sometimes called the alternative relation, because there is a choice between two statements.
(b) John was brave, but James was a coward.'
Here the character of John is contrasted with that of James.
New Edition. Pott 8vo. Price 2s. 6d.
ELEMENTARY LESSONS IN
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THE LATE REV. R. MORRIS, LL.D.
HENRY BRADLEY, M.A.
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THE PARTS OF SPEECH
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AN EASY METHOD OF ENGLISH ANALYSIS
H. W. HOUSEHOLD, M.A.
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Educational News." The principles are right, the method is simple, the essentials are all here, and the author has not made the mistake of overcrowding his pages. ... Teachers will do well to give Mr. Household's attempt a
Guardian." Mr. Household has done his work remarkably well, and we know of no book so well suited for schools where only so much grammar is taught to junior forms as will prepare them for the study of Latin and Greek."
SOME twelve years ago I began to search for a book on English Grammar which should be fairly correct and yet simple enough for children; but more than once I abandoned the search in despair. Meanwhile, the reasons which suggested the enquiry have remained as strong as ever. Common sense urges that the right way to learn grammar is through the mother tongue: the example of France and Germany shows that it can be done; while our too frequent failures to teach Latin in England can often be traced to the fact that our pupils have never really understood the structure of an English sentence.
It is therefore with great pleasure that I welcome Mr. Household's little book, which is a practical attempt to deal with the problem, based upon several years of varied experience. I venture to commend it to teachers mainly on three grounds. It is extremely simple and bright without being childish. The examples are easy, varied, and appropriate. And whereas the fetish of completeness has been the ruin of many grammars, Mr. Household has had the courage to omit what is not necessary for his purpose.
M. G. GLAZEBROOK.