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AMERICA'S GREAT NATURAL B.:IDGES

159

40. America's Great Natural Bridges. 1. The Natural Bridge of Virginia is a natural arch of rock two hundred feet high and about ninety feet wide at the top, crossing over a little stream flowing into the James River.

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2. The story of this bridge, with its roadway over the top, and the number of names carved on its rocky sides, and how George Washington, the first President, when a boy, climbed up at fearful hazard, and carved his name higher than the rest, has been told number

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MACMILLAN'S

Geographical Series

EDITED BY

SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, F.R.S.

DIRECTOR GENERAL OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE UNITED KINGDOM

London
MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED

NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

The Teaching of Geography

A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK FOR THE

USE OF TEACHERS

BY

SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, F.R.S.

CONTENTS CHAPTER I. Introductory ; II. General Principles ; III. General Principles (Continued); IV. Appliances in Geographical Teaching ; V. The Elementary Stage of Geographical Teaching; VI.—Elementary Ideas of Time; VII. The Surroundings of School, Out-of-Door ing; VIII. Physical Geography of the School Locality; IX. Physical Geography of the School Locality (Continued); X. Political Geography of the School Locality; XI. Relation of the School Locality to the rest of the Country, and of the Country to the rest of the Earth; XII. More Advanced Geographical Teaching, General Observations; XIII. Mathematical Geography; XIV. The Physical Geography of a Region; XV. The Political and Historical Geography of a Country; XVI. Special Geographical Work of the Higher Forms.

The aim of this volume is to advocate the claims of Geography as an educational discipline of a high order, and to show how these claims may be practically recognised by teachers.

PRESS OPINIONS Times—"The book is written with Mr. Geikie's well-known fluency and eloquence, and will be read with profit and pleasure by any one. Nothing, in our estimation, could be more satisfactory, or calculated to lead to more profitable results, than the suggestions contained in the introductory chapters of the subject. : .. Mr. Geikie's volume, as a whole, lifts Geography into a new atmosphere. If his suggestions are faithfully followed in all our schools, the result could not but be of the highest benefit to education all round. It ought to be welcomed with open arms by all friends of real education."

Journal of Education—"This simple and unpretentious handbook for teachers serves as a fitting introduction to a new geographical series projected and edited by the same author. Such a series, the scope of which is indirectly indicated in this volume, is greatly needed something less arid and formal than the tabular statements of the old-fashioned geographies, and more methodical and systematic than the modern Geographical Readers. And no fitter editor for such a series could have been chosen. Not only bas Dr. Geikie a wide and profound knowledge of his subject, but he has grasped the first principles of pedagogics, -that knowledge profiteth little or nothing unless it is gained in the right way, by observation and induction, and so becomes a living germ of future growth, not a store of raw material. This principle is the keynote of the handbook, and its various applications are admirably worked out, especially in the earlier stages.

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AN ELEMENTARY CLASS-BOOK

OF GENERAL GEOGRAPHY

BY

H. R. MILL, D.Sc., F.R.S.E.

LIBRARIAN OF THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY

London
MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED

NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. Geography in General ; 2. Physical Geography; 3. Distribution of Living Creatures ; 4. The Continent of Eurasia ; 5 The British Islands ; 6. North-Western Europe ; 7. South-Western Europe ; 8. Central Europe ; 9. Southern Europe and Western Asia; 10. Eastern Europe and Northern Asia; 11. Southern Asia ; 12. Eastern Asia ; 13. The Commonwealth of Australia ; 14. The States of Australia ; 15. Islands of the Pacific Ocean; 16. The Continent of North America ; 17. Arctic America ; 18. The Dominion of Canada; 19. Southern North America ; 20. Central America and West Indies ; 21. The Continent of South America ; 22. Western Countries of South America ; 23. Eastern Countries of South America; 24. Northern Countries of South America; 25. The Continent of Africa ; 26. Countries of Northern Africa; 27. Countries of Central Africa; 28. Countries of Southern Africa ; 29. The Antartic Regions.

PRESS OPINIONS Journal of Education-"We can recommend it to teachers as a valuable help.”

Guardian—"The descriptive portions of the work are excellently written and arranged, and give a better idea of the configuration of the continents, and of the history, political divisions, industries, customs, and habits of the peoples who inhabit them, than any other school text-book which has come beneath our notice.”

School Guardian-"A painstaking piece of work, and the pupil who simply reads it through two or three times will have a truer and more real idea of the earth he lives on than if he had crammed himself up for half-a-dozen examinations. . . . We cordially commend his book to the notice of teachers generally."

Educational News—“To those whose aim is to acquire intelligent ideas of the people, the governments, the natural products, the industries of different countries, the book will prove as interesting as it is instructive."

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SOUTHERN ASIA

CHAP

273. Krakatoa.-In Sunda Strait, between Sumatra and Java, Krakatoa, an islet consisting of one volcano, was shattered by the greatest volcanic explosion ever known in August 1883, and the dust of it was blown through the air all round the world, giving rise everywhere to sunsets of great beauty for several months.

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Fig. 11.-A SCENE IN JAVA, SHOWING A RIVER VALLEY, PALM-TREES,

AND ACTIVE VOLCANO.

274. JAVA, crowded with volcanoes, which rise above the most gorgeous tropical forests, alive with brilliant birds and insects, is the wealthiest of the Dutch East Indies. An old crater, named the Guevo Upas or Poison Vale, in one of the forests, exhales carbonic acid gas, and the margin is said to be strewn with skeletons of beasts and men that went too near the deadly hollow. Most of the hot low-lying land is laid out

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