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32

PARTS OF SPEECH AND THEIR USES.

In fact they are only handles to a tool, and never can
be of any use unless they are added to a blade.
NOTE. You may object that

He was running past
They were coming near

I was sitting below
do make quite good sense. That is true. But past, near,

and below here answer the question where? and are therefore Adverbs.

As is so often the case in English, the same word may do the work of more than one Part of Speech.

31. Again, look at the following: (a) The train

Bristol was very

late. (6) The book table is mine. Here we want some words to join the Nouns Bristol and table to the Nouns train and book, so as to show which train and which book we are speaking of.

We have again the blade without the handle. Let us put in a handle here also : (a)

Bristol was very late.

Ito (6)

under

below
The book beneath the table is mine.

close to
near

above Now we have a complete tool.

The train (from

on

THE VOCATIVE USE.

$7

Jones, come (you) here.
Jones, I saw your father yesterday.

Jones, are you listening ? Jones is used here almost like an Interjection (see above, Section 36). It is not a part of the Statement, Question, or Command, which would not be altered in the least degree if we left out the name Jones. In fact we almost certainly should leave it out if we were quite sure that Jones would know that we were speaking to him.

This use of a Noun (and occasionally of a Pronoun) to call attention we may describe as the Vocative Use (i.e. Calling Use. Voco=I call).

In Latin we translate it by the Vocative Case.

In analysing Commands be careful not to mistake the Vocative Use of a Noun for the Subject.

Notice that it is always separated from the rest of the Sentence by a comma (,): e.g.

Soldiers, follow me. Analyse as follows: e.g.

Soldiers, follow me through the river.

a

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OF

ENGLISH GRAMMARS

By J. C. NESFIELD, M.A.

For use in Secondary Schools.

1. THE USES OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH. 6d. A general outline with a large number of exercises, showing the main

purpose or purposes for which each part of speech is used in the construction of a sentence. For the use of students up to the age of

ten or thereabouts. 2. OUTLINES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR. ls. 6d. A short and easy guide to Accidence, Parsing, Analysis of Sentences,

Conversion of Sentences from one form to another, Sequence of Tenses, Analysis of Words, the Sounds, Symbols, and Spellings in present use, the origin and history of the chief inflections and of words in common grammatical use. With copious and carefully graded exer. cises, drawn largely from the Oxford, Cambridge, and Preceptors'

Local Examinations. 3. MANUAL OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPO

SITION. 2s. 6d. A guide to Parsing and Analysis, Composition, the Figures of Speech,

Enlargement of the Vocabulary by affixes and metaphors, the main divisions of Prose Composition, the peculiarities of Poetic diction, and an outline of the History of the Language. With copious and

carefully graded exercises. KEY TO MANUAL OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION

28. 6d. net. 4. ENGLISH GRAMMAR PAST AND PRESENT. 48. 6d. A full account of modern English Grammar, some peculiarities of Idiom

and Construction, the Origin and Growth of Engish, a History of Sounds, Symbols, Spellings, and Accents, the growth of Accidence from Anglo-Saxon and other sources, the origin and use of Prefixes and Suffixes. With appendices on Prosody, Synonyms, the Changed Meanings of Words, and other outlying subjects. With copious and carefully graded questions selected from the London Matriculation

Examinations. KEY TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR PAST AND PRESENT. 2s.6d.net. 5. HISTORICAL ENGLISH AND DERIVATION. 38. 6d. A reprint of the Historical portion of the above, with an additional

chapter on Historical Syntax, and an increased pumber of examples on Prefixes and Suffixes. With a large Collecion of questions on Historical English.

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J. C. NESFIELD, M.A., OXON
AUTHOR or “ENGLISH GRAMMAR PAST AND PRESENT,"

""HISTORICAL
ENGLISH AND DERIVATION," ETO.

London
MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED

NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. Verb and Subject-Exercises 1-5; II. Verb and Object -Exercises 6-8; III. Noun and Pronoun--Exercises 9-12; IV. Noun and Adjective-Exercises 13, 14; V. Preposition and Object--Exercises 15, 16; VI. Adverb in Relation to other Words-Exercises 17, 18; VII. Verb and Complement-Exercise 19; VIII. Conjunctions—Exercise 20; IX. Interjections—Exercise 21 ; Revision of Chapters I. to IX. in the form of Question and Answer; XI. A Summing up of the Uses of the Parts of Speech as shown by Examples-Exercises 22-27; XII. How the same Word may be of more than one part of speech-Exercises 28-34.

Educational News." That this grammar is the work of Mr. Nesfield is sufficient guarantee of its excellence. It is a collection of examples showing the purpose for which each part of speech is used in the construction of a sentence. The answers required of the pupil always demand thought, and the book should form a splendid antidote to the 'look-and-say' style of parsing and analysis."

Schoolmistress.-"Unlike most other little books on the subject of grammar, this one consists of a large number of well-selected exercises illustrating the purpose or purposes for which each part of speech is used in making a complete sentence. It is an original and carefully compiled little treatise."

IX

INTERJECTIONS

27

1. Either you

your bed

5. Tell me,

Excercise 20. Insert appropriate Conjunctions in the places left blank :

I must write that letter; it must be sent within the next two hours. 2. You need not leave the sun rises. 3. You must get up

the sun rises.

4. A man must do his best, he may not always succeed.

you can,

the clock has struck six. 6. I could not find out he lived. 7. I did not know far away he was, or

he started. 8. I am so vexed with you, I hardly know what to say.

9. You worked hard last year, this year you have been very lazy. 10. I wish to know you have been so lazy this year. 11. You are much more idle

you used to be.

12. Many years have passed, I last saw you.

13. I hope I shall see you again this year ; we are old friends, true friends

14. You should not give up all hope, you have failed once. 15. He who has failed once might succeed the second time, he tries hard. 16. You have neglected your work,

you were doing wrong. 17. Wait here I return. 18. I was afraid he would not recover from that sickness. 19. Take care you

should fall.

are scarce.

you knew

CHAPTER IX.INTERJECTIONS,

ex

15. Interjection. - Sometimes, instead of pressing our feelings by a sentence, we express them by a single word or sound, as ah! Such words or sounds are called In-ter-jec-tions.

Remember then

An Interjection is a word or sound thrown into a sentence to express some feeling of the mind.

Exercise 21. Point out the Interjections in the following sentences :

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