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PARTS OF SPEECH AND THEIR USES.
In fact they are only handles to a tool, and never can be of any use unless they are added to a blade.
NOTE. You may object that
He was running past
They were coming near
I was sitting below
do make quite good sense. That is true.
But past, near, and
below here answer the question where? and are therefore Adverbs.
As is so often the case in English, the same word may do the work of more than one Part of Speech.
Here we want some words to join the Nouns Bristol and table to the Nouns train and book, so as to show which train and which book we are speaking of.
We have again the blade without the handle. Let us put in a handle here also:
THE VOCATIVE USE.
Jones, come (you) here.
Jones, I saw your father yesterday.
Jones is used here almost like an Interjection (see above, Section 36). It is not a part of the Statement, Question, or Command, which would not be altered in the least degree if we left out the name Jones. In fact we almost certainly should leave it out if we were quite sure that Jones would know that we were speaking to him.
This use of a Noun (and occasionally of a Pronoun) to call attention we may describe as the Vocative Use (ie. Calling Use. Voco = I call).
In Latin we translate it by the Vocative Case.
In analysing Commands be careful not to mistake the Vocative Use of a Noun for the Subject.
Notice that it is always separated from the rest of the Sentence by a comma (,): e.g.
Soldiers, follow me.
Analyse as follows: e.g.
Soldiers, follow me through the river.
BY J. C. NESFIELD, M.A.
1. THE USES OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
A general outline with a large number of exercises, showing the main purpose or purposes for which each part of speech is used in the construction of a sentence. For the use of students up to the age of ten or thereabouts.
2. OUTLINES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 1s. 6d.
A short and easy guide to Accidence, Parsing, Analysis of Sentences, Conversion of Sentences from one form toanother, Sequence of Tenses, Analysis of Words, the Sounds, Symbols, and Spellings in present the origin and history of the chief inflections and of words in common grammatical use. With copious and carefully graded exercises, drawn largely from the Oxford, Cambridge, and Preceptors' Local Examinations.
3. MANUAL OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION. 2s. 6d.
A guide to Parsing and Analysis, Composition, the Figures of Speech, Enlargement of the Vocabulary by affixes and metaphors, the main divisions of Prose Composition, the peculiarities of Poetic diction, and an outline of the History of the Language. With copious and carefully graded exercises.
KEY TO MANUAL OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION 2s. 6d. net.
4. ENGLISH GRAMMAR PAST AND PRESENT. 4s. 6d. A full account of modern English Grammar, some peculiarities of Idiom and Construction, the Origin and Growth of Engish, a History of Sounds, Symbols, Spellings, and Accents, the growth of Accidence from Anglo-Saxon and other sources, the origin and use of Prefixes and Suffixes. With appendices on Prosody, Synonyms, the Changed Meanings of Words, and other outlying subjects. With copious and carefully graded questions selected from the London Matriculation Examinations.
KEY TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR PAST AND PRESENT. 2s. 6d.net. 5. HISTORICAL ENGLISH AND DERIVATION. 3s. 6d. A reprint of the Historical portion of the above, with an additional chapter on Historical Syntax, and an increased number of examples on Prefixes and Suffixes. With a large Collecion of questions on Historical English.
AUTHOR or ENGLISH GRAMMAR PAST AND PRESENT," HISTORICAL
MACMILLAN AND CO.,
NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
CHAPTER I. Verb and Subject-Exercises 1-5; II. Verb and Object -Exercises 6-8; III. Noun and Pronoun--Exercises 9-12; IV. Noun and Adjective-Exercises 13, 14; V. Preposition and Object-Exercises 15, 16; VI. Adverb in Relation to other Words-Exercises 17, 18; VII. Verb and Complement-Exercise 19; VIII. Conjunctions-Exercise 20; IX. Interjections-Exercise 21; Revision of Chapters I. to IX. in the form of Question and Answer; XI. A Summing up of the Uses of the Parts of Speech as shown by Examples-Exercises 22-27; XII. How the same Word may be of more than one part of speech-Exercises 28-34.
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Schoolmistress.-"Unlike most other little books on the subject of grammar, this one consists of a large number of well-selected exercises illustrating the purpose or purposes for which each part of speech is used in making a complete sentence. It is an original and carefully compiled little treatise."
Insert appropriate Conjunctions in the places left
1. Either you
I must write that letter;
it must be sent within the next two hours. 2. You need not leave
the sun rises.
3. You must get up sun rises. 4. A man must do his best, always succeed. 5. Tell me,
the he may not
the clock has
struck six. 6. I could not find out
so vexed with you,
the second time,
I hardly know what to say.
7. I did
8. I am
this year you have been very lazy. you have been so lazy this year. 11. you used to be. 12. Many years saw you. 13. I hope I shall see we are old friends, true friends
you again this year; are scarce. 14. You should not give up all hope, have failed once. 15. He who has failed once might succeed he tries hard. 16. You have neglected you knew you were doing wrong. I return. 18. I was afraid not recover from that sickness. 19. Take care
15. Interjection. - Sometimes, instead of expressing our feelings by a sentence, we express them by a single word or sound, as ah! Such words or sounds are called In-ter-jec-tions.
An Interjection is a word or sound thrown into a sentence to express some feeling of the mind.
Point out the Interjections in the following sentences: