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PARTS OF SPEECH AND THEIR USES.
In fact they are only handles to a tool, and never can
He was running past
I was sitting below
and below here answer the question where? and are therefore Adverbs.
As is so often the case in English, the same word may do the work of more than one Part of Speech.
31. Again, look at the following: (a) The train
Bristol was very
late. (6) The book table is mine. Here we want some words to join the Nouns Bristol and table to the Nouns train and book, so as to show which train and which book we are speaking of.
We have again the blade without the handle. Let us put in a handle here also : (a)
Bristol was very late.
above Now we have a complete tool.
The train (from
THE VOCATIVE USE.
Jones, come (you) here.
Jones, are you listening ? Jones is used here almost like an Interjection (see above, Section 36). It is not a part of the Statement, Question, or Command, which would not be altered in the least degree if we left out the name Jones. In fact we almost certainly should leave it out if we were quite sure that Jones would know that we were speaking to him.
This use of a Noun (and occasionally of a Pronoun) to call attention we may describe as the Vocative Use (i.e. Calling Use. Voco=I call).
In Latin we translate it by the Vocative Case.
In analysing Commands be careful not to mistake the Vocative Use of a Noun for the Subject.
Notice that it is always separated from the rest of the Sentence by a comma (,): e.g.
Soldiers, follow me. Analyse as follows: e.g.
Soldiers, follow me through the river.
By J. C. NESFIELD, M.A.
For use in Secondary Schools.
1. THE USES OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH. 6d. A general outline with a large number of exercises, showing the main
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J. C. NESFIELD, M.A., OXON
NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. Verb and Subject-Exercises 1-5; II. Verb and Object -Exercises 6-8; III. Noun and Pronoun--Exercises 9-12; IV. Noun and Adjective-Exercises 13, 14; V. Preposition and Object--Exercises 15, 16; VI. Adverb in Relation to other Words-Exercises 17, 18; VII. Verb and Complement-Exercise 19; VIII. Conjunctions—Exercise 20; IX. Interjections—Exercise 21 ; Revision of Chapters I. to IX. in the form of Question and Answer; XI. A Summing up of the Uses of the Parts of Speech as shown by Examples-Exercises 22-27; XII. How the same Word may be of more than one part of speech-Exercises 28-34.
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Schoolmistress.-"Unlike most other little books on the subject of grammar, this one consists of a large number of well-selected exercises illustrating the purpose or purposes for which each part of speech is used in making a complete sentence. It is an original and carefully compiled little treatise."
1. Either you
5. Tell me,
Excercise 20. Insert appropriate Conjunctions in the places left blank :
I must write that letter; it must be sent within the next two hours. 2. You need not leave the sun rises. 3. You must get up
the sun rises.
4. A man must do his best, he may not always succeed.
the clock has struck six. 6. I could not find out he lived. 7. I did not know far away he was, or
he started. 8. I am so vexed with you, I hardly know what to say.
9. You worked hard last year, this year you have been very lazy. 10. I wish to know you have been so lazy this year. 11. You are much more idle
you used to be.
12. Many years have passed, I last saw you.
13. I hope I shall see you again this year ; we are old friends, true friends
14. You should not give up all hope, you have failed once. 15. He who has failed once might succeed the second time, he tries hard. 16. You have neglected your work,
you were doing wrong. 17. Wait here I return. 18. I was afraid he would not recover from that sickness. 19. Take care you
15. Interjection. - Sometimes, instead of pressing our feelings by a sentence, we express them by a single word or sound, as ah! Such words or sounds are called In-ter-jec-tions.
An Interjection is a word or sound thrown into a sentence to express some feeling of the mind.
Exercise 21. Point out the Interjections in the following sentences :