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CHAP. XXV

THE METHOD OF ANALYSIS

97

Exercise 27.

Pick out the Adverb-clause or clauses in the following. Show what word or phrase is qualified by every such clause, and what Adverbial relation is denoted thereby :

1. He will succeed, because he has worked hard. 2. Men engage in some work, that they may earn a living. 3. He threatened to beat him, unless he confessed. 4. He was always honest, although he was poor. 5. This is not true, so far as I can tell. 6. He likes you as much as I do. 7. He tried for a long time before he succeeded. 8. Let us go to bed, as it is now late. 9. He walked with care, lest he should stumble. 10. I agree to this, provided you sign your name. 11. Though he punish me, yet will I trust in him. 12. He returned home, after he had finished the work. 13. Prove a friend, before you trust him. 14. When the cat's away, the mice play. 15. He persevered so steadily, tnat he suc led at last. 16. I will let off this man, who has been well punished already. 17. He sees very well, considering that he is sixty years of age. 18. I gave him a prize, that he might work harder next year.

19. They deserted their former associate, who had become poor and unfortunate.

20. As the tree falls, so will it lie.
21. Ever since we left the house, it has not ceased raining.

22. I should be glad to lend you that money, if I had as much in my own pocket. 23. Murder, though it have no tongue, will yet speak. 24. Unless you leave the house at once, I will send for a policeman.

25. A jackal, while prowling about the suburbs of a town, slipped into an indigo tank; and not being able to get out he laid himself down, so that he might be taken for dead.

26. Ambassadors were sent from Sparta, who should sue for peace.

CHAPTER XXV.—THE METHOD OF ANALYSIS.

119. Form of Analysis.—The following form will be sufficient for the purposes of this chapter. The fourth example is a Complex sentence; the other three are Simple sentences :

A man convinced against his will is of the same opinion still.
He made himself mean and of no reputation.

The second master of the school has been teaching my sons Euclid sinoe Thursday last.

Whom the gods love die young.

Now Ready. Globe 8vo.

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MANUAL OF ENGLISH

GRAMMAR & COMPOSITION

IN FIVE PARTS

I.-PARSING AND ANALYSIS II. -COMPOSITION: FORCE AND PROPRIETY OF DICTION III.-ENLARGEMENT OF VOCABULARY:

FIGURES OF SPEECH

IV.-PROSE AND POETRY

V.-HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE

BY

J. C. NESFIELD, M.A.
AUTHOR OF "ENGLISH GRAMMAR PAST AND PRESENT,"

" " HISTORICAL
ENGLISH AND DERIVATION,” ETO.

London
MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED

NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

PART 1.-PARSING AND ANALYSIS.

CHAPTER 1. Analysis in Outline ; 2. The Parts of Speech in Outline : Phrases --(1) The Parts of Speech, (2) Classification of Phrases ; 3. Nouns—(1) The kinds of Nouns, (2) Gender, (3) Number, (4) Case ; 4. Adjectives—(1) The kinds of Adjectives, (2) The Two Uses of Adjectives, (3) Comparison of Adjectives ; 5. Pronouns — (1) Personal Pronouns, (2) Demonstrative Pronouns, (3) Relative or Conjunctive Pronouns, (4) Interrogative Pronouns ; 6. Verbs—(1) The kinds of Verbs, (2) Transitive Verbs, (3) Intransitive Verbs, (4) Auxiliary Verbs, (5) Active and Passive Voices, (6) Complete Conjugation of a Verb in the Finite Moods, (7) Indicative Mood, (8) Iinperative Mood, (9) Subjunctive Mood, (10) Infinitive Mood, (11) Participles, (12) Gerunds and Verbal Nouns, (13) The Strong and Weak Conjugations, (14) Defective, Irregular, and Impersonal Verbs ; 7. Adverbs—(1) The Functions of Adverbs, (2) The kinds of Adverbs, (3) Comparison of Adverbs, (4) Verbs compounded with Adverbs, (5) The Two Uses of Adverbs; 8. Prepositions ; 9. Conjunctions-(1) Co-ordinative Conjunctions, (2) Subordinative Conjunctions; 10. Interjections ; 11. The Same Word as Different Parts of Speech ; 12. Syntax and Parsing ; 13. Analysis in Detail-(1) Sentences Simple, Compound, and Complex, (2) Scheme of Analysis in Detail, (3) Degrees of Subordination. Examples in Parsing and Analysis. Examples in Direct and Indirect Narration,

PART II.-COMPOSITION: FORCE AND PROPRIETY

OF DICTION.

CHAPTER 14. Punctuation, or the Right Use of Stops ; 15. The Normal Order of Words ; 16. Inversion of the Normal Order : Emphasis ; 17. Structure of Sentences ; 18. Purity of Diction; 19. Propriety of Diction --(1) Common Errors in the Use of Common Words, (2) Words used in Wrong Senses or Wrong Connections ; 20. Perspicuity or Clearness of Diction–(1) Grammatical Precautions, (2) The Obscure, (3) The Double Meaning ; 21. Simplicity or Ease of Diction; 22. Brevity or Terseness of Diction ; 23. Elegance of Diction.

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PART III.-ENLARGEMENT OF VOCABULARY:

FIGURES OF SPEECH.

CHAPTER 24. Enlargement by Composition—(1) Unrelated or Juxtapositional Compounds, (2) Related or Syntactical Compounds; 25. Enlargement by Prefixes and Suffixes (1) Teutonic Prefixes, (2) Teutonic Suffixes, (3) Romanic Prefixes, (4) Romanic Suffixes, (5) Greek Prefixes, (6) Greek Suffixes, (7) Some General Results, with Questions ; 26. Figures of Rhetoric ; 27. Enlargement of Vocabulary by Metaphor and Metonymy.

:

CHAPTER 28. Main Divisions of Prose Composition—-(1) Classification according to Matter, (2) Classification according to Form ; 29. Prosody

0 and Poetic Diction (1) Prosody, (2) Poetic Diction ; 30. Main Divisions of Poetry.

PART V.-HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE. CHAPTER 31. General Outline of the Growth of English--(1) English and Cognate Languages, (2) Old English, (3) Middle English, (4) Modern English ; 32. Borrowings—(1) Celtic, (2) Danish or Later Scandian, (3) Dutch, (4) Latin, (5) French, (6) Greek, (7) Modern Borrowings ; Miscellaneous ; 33. Notes on Affixes and Accidence-(1) Origin of Teutonic Affixes, (2) Noun Forms, (3) Adjective Forms, (4) Pronoun Forms, (5) Verb Forms; Index of Subjects and Selected Words.

OPINIONS.

4 HEAD MASTER writes :"It meets fully the needs of all ordinary students. The arrangement and treatment are unique, adequate, and scholarly. I intend introducing it at once.'

A ABAD TEACHER writes :"I have carefully examined Nesfield's Manual of Bnglish Grammar and Composition with special reference to its use by Pupil Teachers, and I am exceedingly pleased with it. It is an ideal book for teachers. It is clear, simple, and comprehensive.”

4 HBAD MASTER writes :—"It is completely up to date, and one of the very best books I have ever seen on the subject."

A HEAD MASTER writes :-"I have carefully examined the book, and am convinced that a better manual in English Grammar for Pupil Teachers and the King's Scholarship Examination cannot be found. The sections on 'Propriety of Diction' and 'Enlargement of Vocabulary by Metaphor and Metonymy'are especially valuable features. I hope to adopt the work in this centre as soon as possible, and intend also to recommend it to my Certificate Students.

ONE OF H.M. INSPECTORS writes :-"I shall have much pleasure in recommending it, when consulted-as the best book I know for Pupil Teachers and Candidates for the First Year's Certificate Examination."

BOARD TRACHBR.-" This scholarly and well-written work is the product of much thought and of a nice discrimination. It will prove of the greatest service to young students, and, indeed, to all lovers of our Mother-Tongue.”

SCHOOL WORLD.-"Deserves to be widely used.” GUARDIAN.-"The whole of Mr. Nesfield's work is stamped with the impress of individual thought, and with the earnest desire to remove those absurdities of grammatical classification and terminology which are the despair of the teacher and one of the chief drawbacks to the attainment of English grammar and literature of that high place in the school curriculum which should naturally be its due."

BDUCATIONAL TIMBS.—"It is very carefully written; the illustrations are numerous and well chosen, and there are plenty of exercises. LITERATURB._"The book is one that should be of great service."

a

238

ENLARGEMENT OF VOCABULARY

PART III

daughter to an indigent man of merit, or to a worthless man of wealth, replied: "I would prefer a man without wealth to

wealth without a man."-Spectator, No. 372. Antithesis should not be sacrificed to brevity. Compare the following, and see which of the two is the more pointed :(a) The posthumous fame of Buddha is far greater than what

accrued to him during his life. (6) The fame which has gathered round the name of Buddha since

his death far exceeds that which accrued to him during his life. Observe that in (6) not only is one clause balanced against another, but the Present Perfect tense “has gathered” is contrasted with the Past Indefinite “accrued."

355. Epigram: lit. an inscription (a Greek word, wpigramma), the name given by the Greeks to a short piece of verse inscribed on a public monument. Brevity is still one of the distinguishing marks of epigram. But the word has been made to denote any kind of pointed saying, and especially one in which the words appear to be contrasted, or at least to contain some kind of incongruity. It is therefore based upon the perception of difference, and is closely allied to Antithesis.

“The epigram is an apparent contradiction in language, which, by causing a temporary shock, rouses our attention to some important meaning underneath” (Bain).

The child is father to the man.-Proverb.
By merit raised to that bad eminence.—MILTON.
Language is the art of concealing thought.-ROCHEFOUCAULD.
Natural beauty, when unadorned, is adorned the most.-

THOMSON.
Conspicuous by its absence.—DISRAELI.
In the midst of life we are in death.-Proverb.
He lived a life of active idleness.
'Tis all thy business, business how to shun.- POPE.
Art lies in concealing art.---Latin Proverb.
Fame is the spur that the clear spirit doth raise
(That last infirmity of noble minds)
To scorn delights and live laborious days.-Milton.
Ambition first sprung from your blest abodes,
The glorious fault of angels and of gods.-POPE.
He who lives without folly is not so wise as he imagines. -

Proverb. Affected simplicity is refined artfulness.-. Proverb. A workless workman (a man seeking for work and not finding it). To damn with faint praise. Indecision is sometimes a decisive kind of action.—Review of

Reviews. Another such victory, and we are undone. — Saying of Pyrrhus, Beware the fury of a patient man.-DRYDEN.

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