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CHAPTER 1. Historical Outline-Section (1) English and Cognate Languages, (2) Old English, (3) Middle English, (4) Modern English ; 2. Borrowings--Section, (1) Celtic, (2) Danish or Later Scandian, (3) Dutch, (4) Latin, (5) French, (6) Greek, (7) Modern Borrowings, Miscellaneous ; 3. Sounds and Symbols-Section (1) Alphabet, Present and Past, (2) Consonants, (3) Vowels and Diphthongs ; 4. Spellings— Section (1) History of English Spelling, (2) Summary of English Spellings ; 5. Accentuation, Syllabic Division-Section (1) Words of Native or Teutonic Origin, (2) Words of French or Latin Origin, (3) Syllabic Division ; 6. Accidence-Section (1) The Forms of Nouns, (2) The Forms of Adjectives, (3) The Forms of Pronouns, (4) The Forms of Verbs, (5) The Forms of Adverbs, (6) The Forms of Prepositions, (7) The Forms of Conjunctions ; 7. Syntax-Section (1) Syntax of Cases, (2) Syntax of Adjectives, (3) Syntax of Pronouns, (4) Syntax of Verbs, (5) The Complex Sentence ; 8. Compound Words—Section (1) Unrelated or Juxtapositional Compounds, (2) Related or Syntactical Compounds, (3) Disguised Compounds, (4) Mistaken or Apparent Com. pounds, (5) Hybrid Compounds ; 9. Teutonic Prefixes and SuffixesSection (1) Prefixes, (2) Suffixes; 10. Romanic Prefixes and SuffixesSection (1) Prefixes, (2) Suffixes; ll. Greek Prefixes and SuffixesSection (1) Prefixes, (2) Suffixes ; 12. Summary of Results in Prefixes and Suffixes ; 13. Bilingualism, Doublets, Grimm's Law, Verner's Law.

APPENDIX I. Note on Vocalic Sounds by Prof. Skeat ; II. List or Doublets.

QUESTIONS on Historical English and Derivation.

INDEX I. Of Subjects ; II. Of Selected Words and Phrases.

PRESS OPINIONS

BDUCATIONAL NEW'S.—"In the higher classes of Schools, Colleges, Seminaries, and University Extension Centres it will form an interesting, useful, and pleasant course of studies in Classical English, ancient and modern.”

EDUCATIONAL TIMES.-"In Mr. Nesfield's carefully written volume of 284 pages we have a practical introduction to historical etymology and syntax, based on good authorities (Skeat, Murray, and others), but affording ample evidence of direct deduction and comparison. It is well calculated for an advanced study of English, and is, on the whole, very clearly and systematically arranged. We may cite the chapters on 'Borrowings,' 'Sounds and Symbols,' and 'Cornpound Words' as ex

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ceptionally valuable. There is an excellent 'Note on Vocalic Sounds' contributed by Professor Skeat. Altogether, we have formed a high opinion of Mr. Nesfield's concise historical treatment of the English language."

LITBRATURB.-" The best handbook of historical English, in clearness of arrangement, avoidance of error, and in practical worth, that we have hitherto met with. The book seems destined to become the standard for universities or the higher forms of schools."

SCHOOLMISTRESS.-" It is the product of infinite research, yet its pages are everywhere lightened by the teacher's art. We shall be surprised if it does not become widely popular as a student's guide to the history of our language."

PUPIL TBACHBR.—" This book is fascinating in its fulness and simplicity. The author has done his work well, and his efforts have produced a valuable text-book for the general student, and especially suitable for the candidate preparing for the London Matriculation Examination. The excellence of the plan and illustrations, and its completeness will guarantee the success of this work."*

SCHOOLMASTER.—"Mr. Nesfield's book shows considerable knowledge of a wide and important subject, a clear view of its several parts, and great industry and skill in the treatment of each. As a book of reference and a working text-book, the volume will prove of great service to the English student. The examination questions and indexes add much to the practical utility of the book.'

TBACHERS AID.-" This is a splendid text-book for the student of English, and the subject has been treated with sufficient fulness to enable any diligent student to do credit to himself or herself in the London Matriculation Examination. Thoroughness is the distinctive feature of Mr. Nesfield's work, and this may be seen on every page. The chapter on sounds and symbols is very valuable indeed, and has been made, by the author's happy style, highly interesting. The section of the book dealing with derivation is very full, and contains information amply sufficient to meet all needs. The works of Professor Skeat, and the great dictionary of Dr. Murray, are frequently referred to, which shows that the writer has consulted the best authorities before commencing his task.”

GLASGOW HERALD." Exceedingly handy for higher school purposes. It contains a large amount of well-put information on the history of the language, and on the derivation of words."

SCOTSMAN.-" It makes a minute survey of the history of English in its philological and etymological aspects, and gives a clear and interesting exposition of the scientific principles illustrated in the growth of the language as distinguishod from its grammatical structure."

ACADEMY.-"It is pleasant to get from a Director of Public Instruction in India such a thoroughly good bit of work as this, and it is of good augury for the progress of education in that Empire. Mr. Nesfield has compressed into less than three hundred pages, a very excellent history both of the accidence and syntax of English. The great laws of sound.change, Grimm's and Verner's, are clearly ex. plained and well illustrated ; and the history of sounds in English itself is carefully traced. The chapters on prefixes and suffixes, with all their varied origins and applications, are specially full and minute. A couple of hundred questions, taken from London University Matriculation Papers, and a copious index, complete a very valuable book."

GUARDIAN._"I

-"Readers of medieval and early literature will find the book a useful companion to their texts, and students of pure philology will not refuse it an honoured place beside the works of Morris, Kellner, Swect, and Skeat.

SATURDAY REVIEW.-"Mr. J. C. Nesfield has done a useful work in his text. book of Historical English and Derivation, which is crammed full of information, but is in no sense a cram-book. He covers the whole ground with great fulness, and gives all the most recent information with regard to the history of our language. As a text-book for the higher classes his work should prove very valuable."

from their Lending Library for Teachers.

Now Ready. First and Second High School Courses (in One Vol.).

Crown 8vo. Price 45. 6d.; separately, 3s. 6d. each.

ELEMENTS OF RHETORIC

AND

ENGLISH COMPOSITION

BY

G. R. CARPENTER

PROFESSOR OF RHETORIC AND ENGLISH COMPOSITION IN COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

New York
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

LONDON : MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD.

All rights reserved.

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I. Introduction ; II. Compositions ; III. English Usage; IV.

Incorrect English; V. The Sentence; its Grammatical Structure ; VI.
Punctuation ; VII. The Sentence: its Rhetorical Structure ; VIII. The
Sentence: its Rhet cal Structure(continued); IX. Words: Vocabulary ;
X. Words: too Many; too Few; XI. Kinds of Words; XII. Para-
graphs; XIII. The Whole Composition ; XIV. Clearness ; XV. Force;

XVI. Elegance. APPENDIX I. List of Books for Home Reading; II. Words frequently misused. INDEX.

108

Elements of Rhetoric

[CHAP. VII.

and may be at any moment withdrawn by him, a kind of equality may exist among all the subjects of the despot." [Periodic.]

EXERCISE 33 In the passage quoted on pages 124-126, which sentences are loose and which periodic ?

81. How to make a Loose Sentence Periodic.—The following examples will show how simple a matter it usually is to make a loose sentence periodic :

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He had an unusually happy In spite of some grievous life, in spite of some grievous disappointments and bereavedisappointments and bereave- ments, he had an unusually ments.

happy life. He had taught himself how Though he had taught himto be idle elegantly, but he self how to be idle elegantly, had never planned how to he had never planned how earn his own living.

to earn his own living. I closed the door behind Closing the door behind me softly and sped swiftly me softly, I sped swiftly down the street.

down the street. Still he pressed forward, As he still pressed forward, waving his sword and cheer- waving his sword and cheering his soldiers to the attack, ing his soldiers to the attack, but a third shot lodged deep a third shot lodged deep within his breast.

within his breast. Abandon your plan or Either abandon your plan comply with my wishes. or comply with my wishes.

The soldier was brave and The soldier was not only he was discreet.

brave but discreet.

from their Lending Library for Teachers.

Now Ready. Extra Crown 8vo. Price 4s. 6d.

EXERCISES IN RHETORIC

AND

ENGLISH COMPOSITION

ADVANCED COURSE

BY

G. R. CARPENTER

PROFESSOR OF RHETORIC AND ENGLISH COMPOSITION

IN COLUMBIA COLLEGE

FIFTH EDITION

New York
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
LONDON : MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

EXTRACT FROM PREFACE

Two years ago I published a little book under the title of “Exercises in Rhetoric and English Composition,” with the idea of presenting in a compact form (1) such theoretical matter as it seemed to me necessary for the young student of Rhetoric to have thoroughly in mind, and (2) material for practice of all sorts in applying the principles laid down in the text. That book, which was somewhat too elementary for college use,

I have now

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