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enlarged and made more advanced in character, until it represents, to my mind, a body of instruction in Rhetoric suitable for the first semester or the first two terms of the Freshman year. If any other teacher should chance to make use of my work, he will perhaps be helped by noticing several peculiarities which it shows. First, I have said very little about "style.” What a Freshman needs most of all is to write correctly, clearly, and with some vigour. Attempts to lay stress on individuality of style or on the element of beauty in the pupil's writing should, I think, be deferred until later in the course. Second, I have treated Rhetoric as an art, not as a science. The other point of view is natural and reasonable, but, it seems to me, appropriate only for more advanced students than those for whom I intend this book. Third, I have attempted to broaden the pupil's interest in the art of expression by making an occasional use of Latin, French, and German illustrations. Fourth, I have endeavoured throughout, not to expound the various principles on which I think the art of Rhetoric rests, but to propose a series of questions and problems which the instructor and his pupils may together discuss and solve.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE
SCHEME OF SUBJECT-MATTER
CHAPTER I. The Art of Rhetoric; How Rhetoric may be Studied;

Standards and Authorities; Exercise I.-II. Method Proposed ;
Words : Barbarisms; Improprieties; Exercise II.-III. Words :
Vocabulary ; Exercises III.-IV. Words : Too Many ; Too Few ;
Exercise IV.-V. Long Words versus Short Words ; Anglo-Saxon
Words versus Latin Words; Simple Words versus Fine Writing ;
Euphemisms ; Definite Words ; Exercise V.-VI. -Sentences :
Punctuation ; Solecisms; Exercise VI.–VII. Sentences : Long and
Short; Periodicand Loose; Balanced. Exercise VII.–VIII. Sentences:
Unity; Exercise VIII.-IX. Sentences : Emphasis and Coherence ;
Exercise IX.-X. Paragraphs: Unity, Emphasis, and Coherence ;
Exercise X.-XI. The Whole Composition: Unity, Emphasis, and
Coherence; Exercise XI.-XII. Qualities of Style : Clearness ;
Exercise XII.-XIII. Qualities of Style: Force; Exercise XIII. -

XIV. Qualities of Style : Elegance ; Exercise XIV.
DIRECTIONS FOR WRITING THEMES
ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGNS USED IN CORRECTING THEMES
INDEX TO THE SUBJECT-MATTER
INDEX TO THE PASSAGES QUOTED

From Education."-"G. R. Carpenter, Professor of Rhetoric and English Composition in Columbia College, has prepared a work under the title of 'Exercises in Rhetoric and English Composition,' in which not so much the science of rhetoric is mapped out and defined as the practical workings of the art are furnished to the student with just enough of the principles to guide him aright. The author gives an abundance of exercises for the student to study and analyze, and this is the very best kind of help. The scheme of the subject-matter is somewhat unique and novel, but it is comprehensive and lucid. The book is almost exclusively confined to consideration of the elements of style, - words, sentences, paragraphs, whole compositions, Other than students in college will find this a very serviceable and suggestive book to read and consult.”

CHAP. IX.

x.]

Coherence

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intending to purchase to allow us the privilege of trying on a pair ; to see and feel this Shoe upon the foot, is to make a customer for us. (Unnecessary changes of construction.]

(d) Henry Smith, attorney for the Merrimac valley navigation company, stated in behalf of that company the objections to the proposed buoy, and the construction of a fender pier was strenuously advocated by him. (Unnecessary change of subject.]

EXERCISE IX. I. Notice, in the following extract from the preface to Arnold's “Essays in Criticism,” the arrangement of words, phrases, and clauses by which emphasis is secured :

“And yet, after all, I cannot but think that the Saturday Review has here, for once, fallen a victim to an idea,-a beautiful but deluding idea, and that the British nation has not yet, so entirely as the reviewer seems to imagine, found the last word of its philosophy. No, we are all seekers still! Seekers often make mistakes, and I wish mine to redound to my own discredit only, and not to touch Oxford. Beautiful city! so venerable, so lovely, so unravaged by the fierce intellectual life of our century, so serene!

“There are our young barbarians, all at play!' “And yet, steeped in sentiment as she lies, spreading her gardens to the moonlight, and whispering from her towers the last enchantments of the Middle Age, who will deny that Oxford, by her ineffable charm, keeps ever calling us nearer to the true goal of all of us, to the ideal, to perfection,—to beauty, in a word, which is only truth seen from

Words ; XII. Letter-Writing ; XIII. Reproduction, Abstract,
Summary, Abridgment; XIV. Narration and Description ; XV.
Exposition and Argument; Index.

PRESS OPINIONS.

Spectator. -"We especially welcome this little handbook. The author's remarks on punctuation strike us as being particularly sound.

Punctuation is, as the author points out, merely a system of signalling, necessary as much for smoothness as for anything, and should not degenerate into a practice at once violent and exasperating. This little book has been the easier to read for the many delightful passages which are scattered through it from the best prose writers. If rules and technicalities are to be taught, it is as well that they should be illustrated in a manner that is pleasant and memorable.”

Guardian.-"His method of instruction is analytical rather than dogmatic; his reasoning is logical and his conclusions generally sound; his rules are practical and his examples interesting.

The book is suggestive, brightly written, exceedingly well got up, and should be constantly in the hand of every teacher of literature and composition.”

Educational News.—“The book is full of usefully suggestive matter, and will be found helpful to both teacher and student. The chapters on punctuation, on well-knit sentences, and on mastery of a writing vocabulary, are especially noteworthy. Numerous exercises and examples are given throughout. We have pleasure in recommending it as the best junior text-book on the principles of composition that has come under our notice.”

Scotsman. -“ The book is a thoroughly practical school book, and the instruction it conveys will not only enable those who profit by it to avoid the ordinary pitfalls of the English language, but will also help them in writing correctly, vigorously, and clearly.”

Glasgow Herald.—The freshness of its method and the copiousness of its exercises and illustrations cannot fail to supply a good many useful wrinkles to British teachers.”

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Word-Building

Transcription and Composition

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AUTHOR OF ENGLISH COMPOSITION AND HOW TO TEACH IT," AND THE

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