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ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE OF AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL

METHOD.

such as

Objects or Substance to be examined and Questioned upon, and Oral Answers given by the

Pupils in three Stages before writing out. First, place a familiar object, or a picture of it, before the class,

Blowing Bubbles," an Umbrella, a Kite, a Chair, a Doll, or a Top; or, let one child personate the object and answer, in complete sentences, some of the following oral questions put to it by a second scholar, who stands up before the class and acts as questioner or cross-examiner. Ask other children to supply any suitable question omitted which they think suitable for eliciting a fitting reply.

In this way enthusiasm, attention, and intelligence, will be aroused and sustained even in the lower classes, where the plan may be introduced with advantage in securing answers in complete statements.

STEP I.-Oral Questions on the following:
(a) An Umbrella. (b) Father's Pipe.

(c) A Soap Bubble. 1. What are you?

12. Who made you? Where? 2. How did you get your name? 13. What is your appearance 3. Who uses you?

now? What is your size, shape, 4. What were you once? or colour? Qualities or nature ? 5. What were you like then? 14. How are you used ? By

6. Where were you obtained whom are you needed? When or found ?

are you needed? For what pur7. Of what stuff or materials

pose are you used ? are you made ?

15. Where are you kept? How 8. From what sources do you are you treated by others ? come?

16. Are you the only kind ? 9. What are your parts?

17. What value or advantage 10. Are you made, grown, or to others are you in the world? fitted together?

18. What is known of your 11. How were you fitted to- life, experience, and adventures gether, or prepared for use? of interest to these scholars ?

STEP II.--Oral Answers to some of the Questions.

1. I am an umbrella, and am used by many people, young and old. 2. I get my name from a word which means a shade.

3. My parts are a frame and a cover. My frame consists of a stick, about a yard long, wires, and a sliding metal band. At the lower end of the stick is a steel ferrule or ring. This keeps the end from wearing away when I am used in walking.

SECTION IX.
HELPFUL CLASS CRITICISM AND REVISION.

I.--The Detection, Class Criticism, Correction,

Anticipation, Prevention, and Classification of Common Faults in Structure, etc.

It is a real aid to a young composer to have a right standard of correctness ever before his mind to which to silently appeal when improving or finally revising his exercises. He is thus able to understand not only where, but how and why he has violated some vital rule in writing clearly and pleasantly. Thus many errors due to hasto and carelessness are reduced, and much labour saved the teacher. (See Chapter, “Errors in English.”)

When criticising, polishing up, commenting upon, and comparing good and bad essays, narratives, or biographies previously written in class or at home, you should ask yourself such questions as the following, and try to give sensible and satisfactory answers, and also reasons for them, e.g. varying the form, position, and length of clause, etc. :

1. Is this the best arrangement of the words? Does it look right? 2. Does it sound right, like book English, when read aloud ?

3. Where lies the fault? What does it spring from? (See Scheme and large Charts.)

4. What rule is violated in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd sentences, etc. (See Danger Signal Scheme and Exercises, pages 88-91.)

5. How can I improve it-by (1) adding, (2) subtracting, or (3) substituting a word or a phrase—which ?

6. Why does the new form, when read aloud, satisfy me?

7. How could I express it more neatly and forcibly in yet another form? Read it aloud and rearrange the explanatory words.

8. How could I say it in fewer, better, or more expressive words? (Synonyms.) E.g. By expressing a phrase or a clause in one word.

9. Why does Tom Brown's paper give more pleasure than others ? 10. Which of his sentences show better structure? Why is this ?

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Schoolmaster.-" These three books have been prepared specially for students proposing to enter the Civil Service and to enable them to do the composition paper with confidence and success. The author shows how the ideas which they have collected should be arranged and how they can be presented in the best form. There are valuable hints on common mistakes in grammar, and very clear and concise directions for punctuation and the use of capital letters. The Companion, in addition to serving as a key to the exerciser, contains a good collection of specimen essays.

As an aid to enable the student to acquire a good style, by the study of the best authors, the Civil Service Reader has been compiled. It contains selections from the works of some of our best writers of recognised repute, and the choice of extracts has been made with much care and discretion."

Journal of Education.—"These four books are sure to become popular among Civil Service candidates."

Educational News.—“We can thoroughly commend these books as excellent aids to Civil Service students."

University Correspondent. —"We can recommend both books to junior students as well as the Companion to the Civil Service Essay Writer by the same author."

Head Teacher. -" They are well arranged, and should prove of great utility to all who wish to pass the examination successfully.”

School Guardian._"Three handy little aids towards the art of essay writing.”

Educational Review (Madras). -—"These books may be very strongly recommended to students who are desirous of attaining proficiency in the art of English Composition. Furnishes very practical and valuable hints on Essay Writing. The Companion, if judiciously used, will still further materially improve the conscientious student's powers of composition. It contains materials for Essays on some dozen carefully selected subjects ; Exercises on Grammar, Diction, Synonyms, Paragraphing and Punctuation; and a few specimen Essays."

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INDEXING AND PRÉCIS WRITING

FOR CIVIL SERVICE CANDIDATES.

25. 6d..

The average

Teacher's Aid.-"Candidates for Civil Service honours, of whom not a few usually belong to the scholastic profession, will find the assistance 80 lucidly given by Mr. Jacob in the book before us upon an important branch of the examination of a very helpful nature. student, working carefully through his manual and bearing in mind the writer's rules and injunctions, should score heavily in the Indexing and Précis Writing Papers.

Educational News.—"These hints for guidance and cautions against errors are clear, terse, and judicious. The specimens and models painstakingly wrought-out are really valuable and informing. Must be useful to candidates and beneficial to the service.”

Scotsman. _“A practical and useful book.”
Glasgow Herald.—“A useful manual for Civil Service candidates. *

Head Teacher. -"Students going in for these examinations will find this book a great help.”

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