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the view of taking the crown and sovereignty of Ireland into Ironbones replied that he would not contradict so evident a his own hands; and if he does not obtain them with the free proposition, whereupon the Bodach resumed: “What it is and good will of the Irish, he threatens to distribute death proper for you to do now," said he, “is to come along with and destruction impartially among the young and old of our me southward to Mount Loocra this evening, in order that heroes ; howbeit he has challenged us to find a man able to we may make ourselves acquainted with the ground we are to surpass him in running, fighting, or wrestling, and if we can go over to-morrow on our return; and we can stop for the find such a man, then he agrees to forego his pretensions, and night on the Mount, so that we may be able to start with the to return to his own country without giving us further trou, break of day.” To this also Ironbones acceded, saying it ble; and that," said Finn, " is the history that I have for you. was a judicious speech, and that he had nothing to object to it.
“ And how do you intend to oppose the royal warrior ?" Upon this the two competitors commenced their journey, asked the giant ; * I know him well, and I know he has the and little was the delay they made until they arrived at vigour in his hand and the strength in his arm to carry every Mount Loocra in Munster. As soon as they had got thither, threat he makes into effect.”
the Bodach again addressed Ironbones, and told him that he " Why, then,” said Finn, in answer to this, “I intend to go thought their best plan would be to build a hut in the adjointo Tara of the Kings for Keelte Mac Ronan, and if I do not ing wood, that so they might be protected from the inclemency find him there, I will go to look for him at Ceis-Corann of the of the night: “ for it seems to me, O son of the King of Fenii; and it is he,” said he, whom I mean to bring with Thessaly," said he, that if we do not, we are likely to have me for the purpose of vanquishing this hero in running." a hard couch and cold quarters on this exposed hill.'
“ Alas !" said the giant, “ weak is your dependence and To this Ironbones made reply as thus : “ You may do so, feeble your champion for propping and preserving the monar. if you please, O Bodach of the Big Coat, but as for me, I am chy of Ireland; and if Keelte Mac Ronan be your Tree of Ironbones, and care not for dainty lodging ; and I am Defiance, you are already a man without a country.” mightily disinclined to give myself the trouble of building a
* It is I, then,” said Finn,“ who am sorry you should say house hereabouts only to sleep in it one night and never see so; and what to do in this extremity I cannot tell.”
it again ; howbeit, if you are desirous of employing your hands “ I will show you,” replied the gigantic man : “just do you there is nobody to cross you; you may build, and I shall stay say nothing at all but accept of me as the opponent of this here until you have finished. champion; and it may happen that I shall be able to get you “Very good,” said the Bodach, “and build I will ; but I out of your difficulty.'
shall take good care that a certain person who refuses to as“ 0,” said Finn, "" for the matter of that, it is my own no- sist me shall have no share in my sleeping-room, should I tion that you have enough to do if you can carry your big succeed in making it as comfortable as I hope to do;" and coat and drag your shoes with you one half mile of ground in with this he betook himself into the wood, and began cutting a day, without trying to rival such a hero as Ironbones in down and shaping pieces of timber with the greatest expediTalour or agility.'
tion, never ceasing until he had got together six pair of stakes “ You may have what notions you like," returned the giant, and as many of rafters, which with a sufficient quantity of but I tell you that if I am not able to give battle to this fight- | brushwood and green rushes for thatch, he carried, bound in ing hero, there never has been and there is not now a man in one load, to a convenient spot, and there set them up at once Ireland able to cope with him. But never mind, Finn Mac in regular order; and this part of his work being finished, he Coole, let not your spirits be cast down, for I will take it on again entered the wood, and carried from thence a good load myself to deliver you from the danger that presses on you." of dry green sticks, which he kindled into a fire that reached " What is your name?" demanded Finn.
from the back of the hut to the door. “ Bodach-an-Chota-Lachtna (the Churl with the Grey Coat) While the fire was blazing merrily he left the hut, and again is my name," the giant answered.
addressing his companion, said to him, “O son of the King “ Well, then,” said Finn,“ you will do well to come along of Thessaly, called by men Ironbones, are you provided with with me." So Finn turned back, and the Bodach went with provisions for the night, and have you eatables and drinkables him; but we have no account of their travels till they reached to keep you from hunger and thirst ?" Bineadar. There, when the Fians beheld the Bodach attired ་ “No, I have not,” said Ironbones proudly; " it is myself in such a fashion and trim, they were all very much surprised, that used never to be without people to provide victuals for me for they had never before seen the like of him; and they were when I wanted them,” said he. greatly overjoyed that he should make his appearance among “Well, but,” said the Bodach, “ you have not your people them at such a critical moment.
near you now, and so the best thing you can do is to come As for Ironbones, he came before Finn, and asked him if and hunt with me in the wood, and my band to you, we shall he had got the man who was to contend with him in running soon have enough of victuals for both of us.” Finn made answer that he had, and that he was present “I never practised pedestrian hunting,” said Ironbones ; among them; and thereupon he pointed out the Bodach to him." and with the like of you I never hunted at all; and I don't But as soon as Ironbones saw the Bodach, he was seized with think I shall begin now," said he, in a very dignified sort of astonishment, and his courage was damped at the sight of the way. gigantic proportions of the mighty man, but he pretended to " Then I must try my luck by myself,” said the Bodach; be only very indignant, and exclaimed, “What I do you ex. and off again he bounded into the wood, and after he had gone pect me to demean myself by engaging in a contest with such a little way he roused a herd of wild swine and pursued them an ugly, greasy, hateful-looking Bodach as that? It is my into the recesses of the wood, and there he succeeded in seself that will do no such thing!" said he; and he stepped back parating from the rest the biggest and fattest hog of the herd, and would not go near the Bodach.
which he soon ran down and carried to his hut, where he When the Bodach saw and heard this, he burst into a loud, slaughtered it, and cut it into two halves, one of which he hoarse, thunderous laugh, and said, “ Come, Ironbones, this placed at each side of the fire on a self-moving holly-spit. He will not do ; I am not the sort of person you affect to think then darted out once more, and stopped not until he reached me; and it is you that shall have proof of my assertion before the mansion of the Baron of Inchiquin, which was thirty miles to-morrow evening; so now, let me know," said he, “what distant, from whence he carried off a table and a chair, two is to be the length of the course you propose to run over, for barrels of wine, and all the bread fit for eating he could lay over the same course it is my own intention to run along with his hands on, all of which he brought to Mount Loocra in one you; and if I do not succeed in running that distance with load. When he again entered his hut, he found his hog onyou, it is a fair conclusion that you win the race, and in like tirely roasted and in nice order for mastication ; so he laid manner if I do succeed in outstripping you, then it stands to half the meat and bread on the table, and sitting down, disreason that you lose the race."
posed of them with wonderful celerity, drinking at the same " There is sense and rationality in your language,” replied time precisely one barrel of the wine, and no more, for he reIronbones, for he saw that he must submit, “and I agree to served the other, as well as the rest of the solids, for his break. what you say, but it is my wish not to have the course shorter fast in the morning. Having thus finished his supper, he or longer than three score miles."
shook a large bundle of green rushes over the floor, and lay“ Well," said the Bodach, “ that will answer me too, for it ing himself down, soon fell into a comfortable sleep, which is just three score miles from Mount Loocra in Munster to lasted until the rising of the sun next morning. Bineadar; and it will be a pleasant run for the pair of us ; but As soon as the morning was come, Ironbones, who had got if you find that I am not able to finish it before you, of course neither food nor sleep the whole night, came down from the the victory is yours."
mountain's side and a woke the Bodach, telling him that it was
time to commence their contest. The Bodach raised his head, pacious sack, which he filled with blackberries ; this he slung rubbed his eyes, and replied, "I have another hour to sleep over his shoulders, and then off he scampered for Bineadar, yet, and when I get up I have to eat half a hog and drink a greatly refreshed, and with the speed of a young buck. barrel of wine ; but as you seem to be in a hurry, you have In the meantime Finn and his troops were awaiting in great my consent to proceed on your way before me: and you may doubt and dread the result of the race, though, without knowbe sure I will follow you.” So saying, he laid his head down ing who the Bodach was, they had a certain degree of confiand fell again a-snoring; and upon seeing this, Ironbones be- dence in him; and there was a champion of the Fenians on gan the race by himself
, but he moved along heavily and the top of the Hill of Howth, who had been sent thither by dispiritedly, for he began to have great dread and many mis- Finn, and had been there from an early hour of the morning givings, by reason of the indifference with which the Bodach to see which of the competitors would make his appearance appeared to regard the issue of the contest.
first in view. When this man saw the Bodach coming over When the Bodach had slept his fill he got up, washed his the nearest eminence, with his heavy burden on his back, he hands and face, and having placed his bread and meat on the thought that to a certainty it was Ironbones whom he beheld, table, ho proceeded to devour them with great expedition, and and fled back quite terrified to Finn and the troops, telling then washed them down with his barrel of wine ; after which them Ironbones was coming up, carrying the Bodach dead he collected together all the bones of the hog and put them over his shoulders. This news at first depressed Finn and into a pocket in the skirt of his coat. Then setting out on his the troops ; but Finn by and bye exclaimed, “ I will give a suit race in company with a pure and cool breeze of wind, he trot- of armour and arms to the man who brings me better news ted on and on, nor did he ever halt on his rapid course until than that !” whereupon one of the heroes went forth, and he he had overtaken Ironbones, who with a dejected air and had not proceeded far when he espied the Bodach advancing drooping head was wending his way before him. The Bodach towards the outposts of the troops, and knowing him at a threw down the bare bones of the hog in his path, and told glance, he flew back to Finn and announced to him the glad him he was quite welcome to them, and that if he could find tidings. any pickings on them he might eat them, “for,” said he, Finn thereupon went joyfully out to meet the Bodach, who “you must surely be hungry by this time, and myself can wait speedily came up and threw down his burden, crying out until you finish your breakfast.
aloud, “I have good and famous news for all of you ; but," But Ironbone's got into a great passion on hearing this, and added he, “my hunger is great, and my desire for food presshe cried, “You ugly Bodach with the Big Coat, you greasy, ing; and I cannot tell you what has occurred until I have lubberly, uncouth tub of a man, I would
see you hanged, so eaten a very large quantity of oatmeal and blackberries. I would, before you should catch me picking such dirty com- Now, as for the latter, that is, the blackberries, I have got mon bones as these—hogs' bones, that have no meat on them them myself in this big sack, but the oatmeal I expect to be at all, and have moreover been gnawed by your own long, provided for me by you; and I hope that you will lose no ugly, boarish tusks."
time in getting it, and laying it before me, for I am weak for "0, very well," replied the Bodach, “ then we will not the want of nutriment, and my corporeal powers are beginhave any more words about them for bones ; but let me re- ning to be exhausted.' Upon hearing this Finn replied that commend to you to adopt some more rapid mode of locomo- his request should be at once attended to, and in a little space tion, if you desire to gain the crown, sovereignty, and tributes of time, accordingly, there was spread under the Bodach a of the kingdom of Ireland this turn, for if you go on at your cloth of great length and breadth, with a vast heap of oatpresent rate, it is second best that you will be after coming meal in the middle of it, into which the Bodach emptied out off, I'm thinking." And having so spoken, off he darted as all the blackberries in his bag; and having stirred the entire swift as a swallow, or a roebuck, or a blast of wind rushing mass about for some time with a long pole, he commenced down a mountain declivity on a March day, Ironbones in the eating and swallowing with much vigour and determination. meantime being about as much able to keep pace with him as He had not been long occupied in this way before he dehe was to scale the firmament ; nor did he check his own scried Ironbones coming towards the troops with his band on speed until he had proceeded thirty miles on the course. He the hilt of his sword, his eyes flaming like red coals in his then stopped for a while to eat of the blackberries which grew head, and ready to commence slaughtering all before him bein great abundance on the way, and while he was thus em- cause he had been vanquished in the contest. But he was not ployed, Ironbones came up with him and spoke to him. “Bo-fated to put his designs into execution, for when the Bodach dach,” said he,“ ten miles behind us I saw one skirt of your saw what wickedness he had in his mind, he took up a handgrey coat, and ten miles farther back again I saw another ful of the oatmeal and blackberries, and dashing it towards skirt; and it is my persuasion, and I am clearly of the opi- Ironbones with an unerring aim, it struck him so violently on nion, that you ought to return for these two skirts without the face that it sent his head spinning through the air half a more to do, and pick them up.'
mile from his body, which fell to the ground and there re“ Is it the skirts of this big coat that I have on me you mained writhing in all the agonies of its recent_separation, mean ?" asked the Bodach, looking down at his legs.
until the Bodach had concluded his meal. The Bodach then Why, to be sure it is them that I mean," answered Iron- rose up and went in quest of the head, which after a little bones.
searching about he found; and casting it from his hands with “ Well," said the Bodach, “I certainly must get my coat an unerring aim, he sent it bowling along the ground all the skirts again ; and so I will run back for them if you consent half mile back again, until coming to the body it stopped and to stop here eating blackberries until I return."
fastened itself on as well as ever, the only difference being “ What nonsense you talk !" cried Ironbones. “ I tell you that the face was now turned completely round to the back of I am decidedly resolved not to loiter on the race; and my the neck, while the back of the head was in front. fixed determination is not to eat any blackberries.”
The Bodach having accomplished this feat much to his “Then move on before me,” said the Bodach, upon which satisfaction, now grasped Ironbones firmly by the middle, Ironbones pushed onward, while the Bodach retraced his threw him to the ground, tied him hand and foot so that he steps to the different spots where the skirts of his coat were could not stir, and addressed him in these words : “O Ironlying, and having found them and tacked them to the body bones, justice has overtaken you: the sentence your own vain of the coat, he resumed his route and again overtook Iron- mind had passed on others is about to be pronounced against bones, whom he thus addressed : “ It is needful and necessary yourself; and all the liberty that I feel disposed to leave you that I should acquaint you of one thing, O Ironbones, and is the liberty of choosing what kind of death you think it most that is, that you must run at a faster rate than you have hi- agreeable to die of. What a silly notion you did get into your therto used, and keep pace with me on the rest of the course, noddle, surely, when you fancied that you, single-handed, could or else there is much likelihood and considerable probability make yourself master of the crown, sovereignty, and tributes that the victory will go against you, because I will not again of Ireland, even though there had been nobody to thwart your have to go back either for my coat-skirts or anything else;" arrogant designs but myself! But take comfort and be con. and having given his companion this warning, he set off once soled, for it shall never be said of the Fians of Ireland that more in his usual manner, nor did he stop until he reached they took mortal vengeance on a single foe without any war. the side of a hill, within ten miles of Bineadar, where he again riors to back him; and if you be a person to whom life is a de. fell a-plucking blackberries, and ate an extraordinary number sirable possession, I am willing to allow you to live, on condi. of them. When he could eat no more, his jaws being tired tion that you will solemnly swear by the sun and moon that and his stomach stuffed, he took off his great coat, and hand you will send the chief tributes of Thessaly every year to Finn ling his needle and thread, he sewed it into the form of a ca." Mac Coole here in Ireland."
With many wry faces did Ironbones at length agree to take readily be perceived that she saw not the characters that were this oath; upon which the Bodach loosed his shackles and written upon it. gave him liberty to stand up; then having conducted him “ What is to be done, ma ?" at length asked the daughter. towards the sea-shore, he made him go into the ship, to which, “ Indeed, my child, I cannot tell. The bill is fifty dollars, after turning its prow from the shore, he administered a kick and has been due, you know, for several days. I haven't got in the stern, which sent it seven miles over the waters at once. five dollars, and your bill for teaching the Miss I.eonards cannot And such was the manner in which Ironbones executed his be presented for two weeks, and then it will not amount to vain-glorious project, and in this way it was that he was sent this sum. off from the shores of Ireland, without victory, honour, or glory, “ Can't we sell something more, ma ?" suggested the and deprived of the power of ever again boasting himself to daughter. be the first man on the earth in battle or combat.
“We have sold all our plate and jewellery, and now I'm But on the return of the Bodach to the troops, the sun and sure I don't know what we can dispose of, unless it be somethe wind lighted up one side of his face and his head in such thing that we really want." a way that Finn and the Fians at once recognised him as “ What do you say to selling the sofa, ma?" Manannan Mac Lir, the Tutelary Fairy of Cruachan, who “ Well, I don't know, Florence. It don't seem right to had come to afford them his assistance in their exigency. part with it. But perhaps we can do without it. They welcomed him accordingly with all the honour that was “ It will readily bring fifty dollars, I suppose. due to him, and feasted him sumptuously for a year and a day. * Certainly. It is of the best wood and workmanship, and And these are the adventures of the Bodach an Chota- Isachtna. cost one hundred and forty dollars. Your father bought it a
short time before he died, and that is less than two years past you know."
“ I should think it would bring nearly a hundred dollars," THE BARGAIN.
said Florence, who knew nothing of auction sacrifices ; "and “What have you there, husband ?" said Mrs Courtland to that would give us enough, besides paying the quarter's rent, her thrifty and careful spouse, as the latter paused in the to keep us comfortably until some of my bills come due.” open door to give some directions to a couple of porters who That afternoon the sofa was sent, and on the next afternoon had just set something upon the pavement in front of the house. Florence went to the auctioneer's to receive the money for it.
“ Just wait a moment, and I'll tell you. Here, Henry! * Have you sold that sofa yet. sir ?" asked the timid girl, John ! bring it in here," and the two porters entered with a in a low, hesitating voice. beautiful sofa, nearly new.
“What sofa, miss?" asked the clerk, looking steadily in “Why, that is a beauty, husband! How kind you are !" her face with a bold stare. “It's second-hand, you perceive; but it's hardly soiled-no “ The sofa sent by Mrs
sir." one would know the difference."
“ When was it to have been sold ?" “It's just as good as new. What did you give for it ?". “Yesterday, sir.”
“ That's the best part of it. It is a splendid bargain. It “Oh, we haven't got the bill made out yet. You can call didn't cost a cent less than a hundred dollars. Now, what do the day after to-morrow, and we'll settle it for you." you think I got it for ?" Sixty dollars ?"
“Can't you settle it to-day, sir? We want the money paru Guess again. Fifty ?"
ticularly." “ Guess again.' “Forty-five ?"
Without replying to the timid girl's request, the clerk com. “ No. Try again."
menced throwing over the leaves of a large account-book, and “ But what did you give for it, dear ?" Why, only in a few minutes had taken off the bill of the sofa." twenty dollars !"
“Here it is-eighteen dollars and sixty cents. See if it's Well, now, that is a bargain.”
right, and then sign this receipt.” Ain't it, though? It takes me to get things cheap," con- "Ain't you mistaken, sir? It was a beautiful sofa, and tinued the prudent Mr Courtland, chuckling with delight. cost one hundred and forty dollars."
Why, how in the world did it go off so low ?" I managed “That's all it brought, miss, I assure you. Furniture sells that. It ain't every one that understands how to do these very badly now.” things.”
Florence rolled up the bills that were given her, and re“But how did you manage it, dear? I should like to know.” turned home with a heavy heart.
Why, you see, there were a great many other things there, “ It only brought eighteen dollars and sixty cents, ma," she and among the rest some dirty carpets. Before the sale I said, throwing the notes into her mother's lap, and bursting pulled over these carpets and threw them upon the sofa ; a into tears. good deal of dust fell from them, and made the sofa look fifty Heaven only knows, then, what we shall do,” said the per cent. worse than it really was. When the sale comme
menced, widow, clasping her hands together, and looking upwards. there happened to be but few persons there, and I asked the auctioneer to sell the sofa first, as I wanted to go, and would There are always two parties in the case of bargains-the bid for it if it were sold then. Few persons bid freely at the gainer and the loser ; and while the one is delighted with opening of a sale.
the advantage he has obtained, he thinks nothing of the necesWhat's bid for this splendid sofa ?' he began.
sities which have forced the other party to accept the highest I'll give you fifteen dollars for it,' said I; .it s not worth offer. But few buyers of bargains think or care about taking more than that, for it's dreadfully abused.'
this view of the subject.-- From the New York Mirror. . Fifteen dollars ! fifteen dollars ! only fifteen dollars for this beautiful sofa!' he went on; and a man next to me bid seventeen dollars. I let the auctioneer cry the last bid for a few minutes, until I saw he was likely to knock it down.
SONNET_THE DEPARTURE OF LOVE. • Twenty dollars !' said I, and that's as much as I'll go
Spirit of wordless Love, that in the lone for it.'
Bowers of the Poet's museful soul dost weave The other bidder was deceived by this as to the real value
Tissues of thought, hued like the skies of eve, of the sofa, for it did look dreadfully disfigured by the dust
Ere the last glories of the sun have shone, and dirt, and consequently the sofa was knocked off to me."
How soon-almost before our hearts have known “That was admirably done, indeed!" said Mrs Courtland, with a bland smile of satisfaction at having obtained the ele
The change-above the ruins of thy thronegant piece of furniture at so cheap a rate.
And it's so near
Whose vanished beauty we would fain retrieve a match, too, for the sofa in our front parlour."
With all Earth's thrones beside-wc stand and grieve ! This scene occurred at the residence of a merchant in this
We weep not, for the world's chill breath hath bound city, who was beginning to count his fifty thousands. Let us look at the other side of the picture.
In chains of ice the fountains of our tears, On the day previous to this sale, a widow lady with one
But ever-mourning Memory thenceforth rcars daughter, a beautiful and interesting girl about seventeen,
Her altars upon desecrated ground, were seated on a sofa in a neatly furnished parlour in Hud
And always, with a low despairful sound, son-street. The mother held in her hand a small piece of
Tolls the disastrous bell of all our years ! paper, on which her eyes were intently fixed; but it could
The rolls are taken to “the billy," a sort of preliminary spinTHE MANUFACTURE OF CLOTH.
ning-machine, sometimes worked by the water-wheel, but (as In the present limited and daily declining condition of the yet, especially in Ireland) more generally by a man called a woollen manufacture in Ireland, so few individuals in the í slubber," who is enabled by it to form from fifty to one country can be acquainted with the mode of preparing the hundred threads at a time, children being employed to stick clothing of the sheep, and altering its form so as to make it the ends of the rolls together, which is done by lapping a small suitable and fit for the clothing of man, that we deem a short portion of the tip of one on the other which lies on the billyaccount of the various processes through which it passes may sheet,” and then giving them a slight rub. The soft thick be acceptable to many of our readers.
thread which the slubber forms is made up in conical rolls or When the sheep-shearer has taken off the fleece, he ties it “cops," and is taken to the spinning-machine,
“ the mule," up in a peculiar knot, which is not opened again until the which has now quite superseded the spinning-jenny, which in wool-sorter takes it in hands. It is his business to open it, its day superseded the spinning-wheel. The wheel could and having spread the fleece upon a table, and cast his eye spin only one thread at a time: the jenny was first made to over it, he separates it into the number of sorts required, spin thirty, then forty, then fifty, sixty, seventy, and eighty the wool being of different degrees of fineness upon different threads at once, by a man's hand. By the “mule,” worked parts of the animal. The coarse qualities of fleeces, from by water, a man can now spin from five hundred to one thouwhich low descriptions of cloths, kerseys, blankets, and friezes sand threads of woollen yarn, and of cotton two or three are made, are seldom divided into more than three sorts, the thousand, at once. finer into four or five, and the finest Saxony into seven, The thread for the warp is taken from the mule to the eight, and sometimes nine. With the latter we have little to “warping-mill,” where it is prepared according to the num. do in this country, there being but one factory (that of Messrs ber of threads for the breadth of the cloth, the length Willans) where it is worked ; and we shall therefore merely arranged, and being tied up in a peculiar kind of ball, it is called follow the progress of a piece of ordinary coarse cloth, there a "warp," and is taken to the sizing shop, where it is dipped in being but little difference between it and the finest in the melted size; and having been opened, perfectly saturated, general detail : indeed very little at all, except in the addi- and wrung out gently, it is carried to the field, or stove, to be tional care and expense.
dried. The weaver then fixes it in the loom, and procures The sorted wool having been carefully examined by women, the" weft” thread, which is spun differently from the warp, and freed from straws and motes, is taken to the scouring de- and is wound upon wooden bobbins ; having wetted these in partment attached to the dye-house, where it is immersed in a water, he fixes one in his shuttle, and the threads of the warp hot ley with soap, and well scoured, after which it is washed being lifted alternately, and the shuttle shot between them, the in clean water and left to drain.
beam of the loom strikes each thread home, and in due time the It is then coloured, and either allowed to drain, or the piece is woven. A good weaver with a sound warp can weave colouring matter is wrung out, and it is again washed in in a hand-loom from six to nine yards of cloth in a day, but water until the water runs from it unsullied. The apparatus with the new power-loom he can weave twenty. in which it undergoes this process is called “the washing-box :" The cloth when taken out of the loom is examined by the one side and the bottom being of metal perforated with innu- overseer, and having been passed and dried, is taken to the merable small holes, the water has free ingress and egress,“ scouring machine," where it is submitted to the action of a whilst the wool is securely retained. Having been thoroughly strong ley, with fullers'-earth, &c., and worked by the roll. cleansed, it is taken to the drying-loft, if the weather be fine, or crs of the machine until both the oil and size have been exto the stove if it be unfavourable, and there perfectly dried. tracted; it is then washed clean with water, taken out, and From thence it is carried to the factory, and placed in the first dried. It is next transferred to the tuck-mill, where it is machine called “the willow," or more generally " the devil"- spread out, a large quantity of melted soap poured upon it, and a machine formed of five or six cylinders of different sizes, being rolled up in a peculiar manner, it is placed in the armed with steel spikes three or four inches long : the motion stock," where two huge hammers made of oak, weighing from of the cylinders being contrary, the spikes pass between each two to three cwt. each, called “stock-feet,” being raised by other, tearing the wool open if it should have clotted or got a wheel and then go, fall upon it alternately, until the into lumps. Cheviot and Scotch wools, and wools damaged soap has been forced through every part of it, and the cloth by shipwreck, must be willowed before they can be even has narrowed, or, to speak technically, “milled in,” a half scoured, in consequence of their being always matted. yard or three quarters, and shortened a fourth or fifth of its
The willow, and all the machines which shall be subse- length, when it is pronounced to be “milled.” It is then quently mentioned in this paper, are driven by the water again placed in the washing machine,” washed clean, and wheel or steam-engine-in this country almost uniformly by transferred to the “ gig-mill. The “gig” is a machine har. the former. Having been thoroughly opened by the willow, ing a large cylinder in which teasles, a vegetable production the wool is spread upon a floor and oiled, about a quart of somewhat resembling thistle tops or burs, are set, and the wet fine olive oil being the proportion to every stone weight of cloth being dragged by a set of rollers against the hooked wool. The effect of the oil is to cause the fibres of the wool spikes of the teasles, whilst the cylinder in which they are set to separate more easily upon the carding-machines, and pre- goes rapidly round in a contrary direction, a portion of the vent the too rapid wearing of the cards.
short fibres of the wool have one of their ends disengaged The next machine that takes up the work is called the and exhibited upon the surface of the cloth, forming what is teazer :" it has a greater number of cylinders than the willow, called the pile or face: this process is called “raising.” When with shorter teeth, about an inch in length, and hooked, and the piece has been sufficiently raised, it is taken to the “ some of the cylinders have coarse wire cards. Having passed ter field,” and stretched on frames called “tenters," by twice or thrice through the teazer, the wool is transferred to means of hooks, to the proper length and breadth, and it rethat part of the mill called, by way of pre-eminence, “ the mains thus until thoroughly dried, when it is carried to the machine-room,” where the great scribbling machines, or, as shearing loft,” where immense shears or machines called they are styled,"scribblers," are placed. These machines "knives" are passed over the surface, cutting all the wool on have a great number of cylinders of different sizes covered the face to an equal length. One of the improved knives can with wire cards of various degrees of fineness, so arranged do as much work as twenty hand-shearers did formerly. Hay. that they take the wool from one another, separating the ing received what is technically called a “cut” or two, it is fibres, and transferring it until it has passed quite over every returned to the gig mill to be * struck," that is, “raised," or cylinder, and is carded out at the farther end of the machine submitted to the action of the gig in a dry state, and it then (sixteen or eighteen feet from where it was put in) in a thin goes back again to the shear loft, and receives three or four flake like gauze. Having been run through two or three more cuts on the face. It is then passed to the burlers,” scribblers of various fineness, it is passed to the carding ma- women who pick out all motes that have accidentally clung to chine, or "carder," which resembles the “ scribbler," but is or become embodied in the cloth, with steel pincers having smaller, and instead of the wool falling out at the end in a very sharp points called “burling irons." flake, it is caught by a fluted cylinder of wood, which, revolv- If it is to be finished by being napped, that is, to have the ing in a semi-cylindrical box, divides and converts it into sepa- surface covered with little knots, as petershams and women's rate soft rolls, about the thickness of ordinary sash rope ; and cloaking, it is taken to the “ napping engines,” where it is these are thrown out upon a sheet of canvass stretched hori- submitted to the action of a board curiously covered with sand, zontally upon rollers, which from its slowly moving, so as to pre. so firmly attached as not to wear oft for a considerable time; vent one roll from falling upon another, is called the creeper.” | this is wedged down upon the cloth, and then set in motion,
describing small circles whilst the cloth is forcibly drawn from and if I am raised again, it is either to endure a repetition of under it by a strong roller, and thus the whole surface is co- insult, or administer to the cupidity of vagabonds. vered over with little knots; having been passed through the Though I never push myself forward, I have a face of brass, napping engine three or four times, it is returned to the shear and yet my eyes can never look you straight in the face. I loft to get one or two cuts on the back, thence again to the am fickle and changeable as the wind, yet I am a friend in napping engine, where it receives a final run or two, and is adversity, and never desert those who do not first discard me. passed to the wareroom to be measured and made up. I may be the first to leave you; but in the hour of your utmost
But if it is to be finished as a cloth, instead of the napping: necessity you will acknowledge with a sigh that I have been engine it is sent to the steam-brushing mill, where it is passed the last to desert my post. against a revolving cylinder covered with brushes and teasles I am frequently trusted, though I often betray. How many alternately, and working within a case, into which a stream petitions may have been offered up to heaven for my coming, of steam rushes constantly; thence it passes to another ma- no man living can tell, and yet I appear every where. chine nearly similar, but having brushes only. Having under- I have been in the earth, I have been in the sea, I have been gone this process for several hours, it is dried, taken again to in the air, I have been in the fire, and can endure unhurt, and the shear loft and properly cut, then carefully “burled” and with fortitude, greater extremities of heat and cold than any brushed, again to the knife," where it is "backed,” that is, mortal. All the blows in the face I have ever received have cut or shorn on the back, and then brushed again, preparatory never made me move a muscle. I have been crushed, but am to being placed in the press, in which it is arranged in neat sound and whole; and notwithstanding the contempt with folds, with thin pasteboard called “presspaper" between the which I have been treated (thanks to the present feelings of folds, and hot metal plates at intervals. The press is then the age), am more and more respected every day-sought screwed down, and after a proper lapse of time the cloth is after indeed with eagerness, though seldom long retained. taken out, the folds altered in order that every part may be I am the beloved of schoolboys, but as quickly discarded by properly pressed, and again screwed down. It then goes to them. I attend churches and chapels, fairs and markets; the brush-mill for the last time, from whence the measurer at yet though a friend and supporter of the Bible and many length gets it to make up.
pious institutions, I am a heathen in religion, nor can I parFine cloth sometimes undergoes another process called take of any thing which I buy.. Though my letters may be singeing," in which it is passed over hot cylinders; but as read by every body, I can neither read nor write. I am a our object is merely to give a general idea of the complicated proud stickler indeed in the school of aristocracy, for I never processes of the manufacture to our readers, and not to make move out of my own circle ; and with my associates, both them at once masters of the business, we do not think it ne- male and female, am often nearly squeezed to death, accord. cessary to go into very minute detail. The entire length of ing to the highest forms of fashionable usage. time occupied may be estimated at from one to nearly two I have given birth to hundreds of thousands, and with me months.
fortunes invariably expire. My existence may continue for a The machinery in the woollen factories of Ireland is cer- thousand years, nay, to the very end of time, and yet may be tainly inferior to that of our English neighbours, and the de- cut short in a moment. But if you destroy me, which it is cline of the trade renders improvement difficult, if not alto- certainly in your power to do, know that innumerable myriads gether hopeless. Power-looms for the weaving of woollen are at my back, and always ready to replace me. cloth, so generally at work at the other side of the Channel, Though committing, no offence, I am liable to transportahave been only this year introduced for the first time to this tion without even a trial, but I am always well received after country by Mr Moore, proprietor of the Milltown factory near my return from exile. A master of all languages, but speakDublin; and that Irish mechanists are not inferior to any ing none, I find my way in foreign countries without diffiothers, is evidenced by the fact that the power-looms erected culty, for, though speechless, I am eloquent enough in my own at Milltown are vastly superior to those imported, and which way. From my features and head-dress you might suppose were on the most improved construction. Whether the ex- that I belonged to some Indian tribe, but I am British and periment will have any effect in reviving this sinking business, | Irish all over, and flourish best upon my own soil. I am an remains to be seen ; but it is much to be feared that as a great ever-welcome friend to the forlorn, but am myself very poor. branch of trade it has deserted our shores altogether ; certain I have a mint of money at my back, but am not worth three it is, that the great factory at Celbridge (within ten miles of half-pence. At the moment you are reading this, you will Dubiin), which was dismantled about five years since, em- indeed be wretched if you cannot conimand my services. ployed so lately as the year 1829 more looms than are now And now, having by the unwearied diligence, talent, and (1840) at work in the whole county of Dublin, probably in influence of Mr Rowland Hill, beeu enabled to give myself up the entire province of Leinster, and yet the introduction of for the support and encouragement of the IRISH PENNY machinery could be effected much more easily in Ireland than JOURNAL, I hereby particularly enjoin it upon all my brealmost any where else, in consequence of the absence of a ma- thren more and more to patronise that excellent work. nufacturing population, whose interests might be so compromised as to make them adverse to such change, and water IRISH BRAVERY. The following instance of Irish bravery, power, so much cheaper than steam, is both abundant and un recorded in Falkner's Journal, March 18, 1760, is too remarkemployed,
N. able to be buried in oblivion :-"On Saturday last, arrived at
Youghal the ship Good Intent, belonging to Waterford, but
last from Bilboa : she was taken the Tuesday before by a ENIGMA,
French privateer off Ushant, and had on board ten or twelve
hands, her lading brandy and iron. The French took away BY P. MʻTEAGUE, ESQ.
the master (Bongar), and all the men, except five and a boy. Who or what am I, that, dwelling amongst the most humble, On Friday last, four of them (the fifth not consenting) can associate with the highest ? I am low in the scale of rank, formed a plan to surprise the nine Frenchmen who were navibut at the head of my race, and the most ancient of my tribe; gating the vessel to France, and succeeded therein. Four of the offspring and representative of want, and despised by the Frenchmen were under deck, three aloft, one at the helm, multitudes, yet of regal descent. I have the likeness of woman and the other man near him : three of the Irishmen were and man, but I am neither man nor woman. I have neither under deck, one at the helm, and the fifth hiding. One father nor mother, and I am childless. I have the appearance Brien by surprise tripped up the heels of the Frenchman at of a potentate, yet I am not a potentate, but the companion the helm, seized his pistol, and discharged it at the other, at of the lowly, and their most frequent visitor and guest. It the same instant making a signal for his three comrades is my destiny to live equally in palaces and farm-houses, below to follow his example: they assailed the Frenchmen, and jails and hovels. I am a traveller, though one who is always by getting at their broadswords soon compelled them to be obliged to journey blindfold, and sometimes bound in cords quiet ; and immediately. getting above, shut the hatches. with vulgar companions, and strictly guarded,
After a desperate cut which one of the Frenchmen received No creature undergoes greater vicissitudes. I am the on the arm in defending his head, and another a bruise by attendant of most that walk, sail, and ride. I am attached throwing the pistol at his head after it was discharged (for be to the pedestrian, yet generally kept in confinement; or missed him), those above likewise called out for quarter, and when at times liberated, exposed to the rudest scoffs and yielded up the quarterdeck to the intrepid Mr Brien. Not sports of the vulgar, who toss me up in the air, pelt me with one of these fellows could read or write; of consequence they sticks and stones, tumble me on the earth, and stamp on me; I knew not how to navigate the ship, but Brien said that as