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men called squireens, than any other part of the country I handful of hard silver was he relieved of by his dutiful son had ever lived in. To this latter class belonged the heads of Hence the dashing “ bit of blood" which carried Dick and two branches of the same family, both of whom resided in the Matt alternately over the stubbles_hence the couple of spaimmediate vicinity of my friend's house. Their names were niels and the leash of greyhounds, which bad the reputation of Peter and James Kavanagh. Peter was by many years the being the best noses or the fleetest feet in the county-hence elder of the two; his family consisted of three grown-up sons the double-barrelled “ Rigby” belonging to Dick, which was and one daughter. Peter had married in early life, and his the admiration and envy of his acquaintances. As they grew wife died in giving birth to a fifth child, which did not long up, and cared less for the anger of their father, vicious habits survive its mother. James had a large family of young chil. became more settled-looking and systematic with them. They dren. Peter's only daughter, Alice, had been brought up in drank to frightful excess whenever they had the slightest opher uncle's house in order that she might receive the educa- portunity. No one ever saw them for twenty minutes at a tion and care which a girl of her tender age, without a mo- time without having full proof that they were slaves to as ther, might expect from the kindness of her nearest female odious and disgusting a tyranny as ever the depraved tastes relative.

of human creatures created for mankind - I mean, no one ever The family of Peter Kavanagh, then, consisted of himself, saw them for so long a time without a tobacco pipe between his three sons, and a single in-door servant as housekeeper, their teeth, and surrounded by every one of the usual nastiwho was already an old woman and of indolent habits. The nesses which accompany the practice when carried to a hatehousehold of a widower in the middle and humbler ranks of ful extent; and yet, even as they were, the county could not life is rarely ordered with regularity and decorum, and Peter's boast of two manlier looking fellows than Richard and Matt was no exception to the general case. Every room had an Kavanagh when dressed for Sunday mass, which they still aspect of untidiness and discomfort. Seldom were the boards attended with a punctuality which would be more praisewor. of the floors or staircase washed or swept seldom were the thy if it sprang from anything but a motive of vanity and window panes cleansed, or the hearth-flag whitened, or the pride. Under different culture they might have become extables rubbed, or the chairs dusted. Things soiled were cellent members of society. They had still some faint prenever cleaned-things broken were never mended_things lost tensions to generosity and spirit, and many a pretty girl of were never replaced. Each of the family felt in turn the in- the neighbourhood would have trusted to her sole powers of convenience of this state of things, but one threw the blame persuasion for their reclamation. upon the other, and nothing was done to remedy the evil. Gerald Kavanagh, the youth of fifteen, was a lad of differEvery one thought it strange that such a good practical far. ent stamp. He was open-featured and open-hearted both. mer and shrewd man-of-the-world as Peter Kavanagh should He was never seen with a pipe in his mouth, or a tattered care so little about the comforts or conveniences of every-day “racing calendar” sticking out of his pocket; and while his existence_but so it was.

brothers were out upon their sporting expeditions, or amusPeter, however, had or thought he had one especial house- ing themselves in a less innocent way, it was poor Gerald's hold virtue to be proud of. Very early in life he had nar. pleasure to scamper across the fields to his uncle James's gar.' rowly escaped disgrace and ruin by severing himself from a den, and walk, or talk, or read, or play with his pretty little parcel of dissipated associates, who had led him step by step sister Alley, or romp with his pretty little cousins Bill and into all the labyrinths of premature debauchery. He receded Bess, and Peter and Dick, after school hours—the time he before it was quite too late, and the recollection of what he knew he would find most company looking out for him. Alsuffered (for he did suffer) was sufficient to make him re- ley and he were as fond as they could be of each other, and solve that his sons should never be tempted in a similar man- not the less so because they did not live entirely together. ner. The eldest of these, Richard, was now one-and-twenty, “ Absence makes the heart grow fonder," is as true a line as the second, Matthew, nineteen, and the youngest, Gerald, fif- ever was penned, whether we apply it to the lover and his teen years of age, at the time I lived near P- and they mistress, or the brother and his distant sister. Many of us, had never yet partaken of any spirituous liquor at their fa- with sighs and tears, can testify this. It was a lovely sight ther's table. That father, however, was by no means so ab- to see that affectionate boy and his fond sister sauntering stemious as he had compelled his boys to be. Every day along the borheens in the wild-strawberry season, with their since they had first learned the taste of whisky toddy had they arms around each other's necks in the intervals of their fruitbeen tantalised with the sight of the “materials” for their fa-finding, until they bade each other good-bye for another day, ther's favourite beverage. Peter Kavanagh was indeed a tem- and returned, "with lingering steps and slow,” to homes, alas, perate man, but he was not a generous man. He was not one how different! of those kind parents who cannot bear to gratify their appe- Such were these three youths when Peter Kavanagh, after tite with any delicacy, whether much or little, dear or cheap, a short illuess, died, and left his property, such as it was, to while their children are looking on with wistful eyes and wa- be equally divided between his children. tering mouths in vain expectancy. He had his reward. One I may venture to say that Richard and Matt were not sorry day the two eldest lads, Dick and Matt, were carried home for their father's loss. On the night of the grand “wake" from a neighbouring fair, stupidly drunk. It was the first they collected all the idle and profligate young men of their time they had ever been so, and the quantity they had taken acquaintance together at the house, and dreadful was the was perhaps trifling; but the father was thenceforward more depth of drunkenness to which they sank, as might be exwatchful than ever to prevent them from repeating the excess. pected. Every more prudent person present saw how it was In his usual manner to his sons Peter Kavanagh was not par. _saw that the previous restraint was about to be amply ticularly harsh, but the least evasion of his strict commands atoned for, and many a shake of the head was intended to be in respect of drink was sure to be visited with great severity. prophetic of coming calamity. How wretchedly inconsistent was this man's practice! Other On that same night-early in the night too_little Alley misdemeanours of infinitely a greater degree of moral crime perceived that all was not right with her brother Gerald. were winked at, nay encouraged, by him. The young men She had seen Richard plying him with liquor, which he at were not naturally vicious; but when they found that they first refused, but afterwards accepted-stealthily, however, could with impunity curse and swear in their father's hearing and with an abashed and crimsoning face as he met the first -when they found that even some of the graver offences reproachful glance of Alice. Gradually the temptation worked, against society could be committed without their father's re- and again and again the draught was repeated with less hesi. prehension, was it any wonder that they should soon grow ripe tation at the request of his brothers, who seemed happy in the in wickedness ? Matt and Dick, in their personal appearance, idea of making their innocent companion as guilty as themshowed every token of the accomplished village scamp-bat- selves. The devil surely has those in his clutches who find tered hats jauntily carried on one side of the head-rusty comfort and consolation in the visible abandonment of the fair shooting coats of bottle green, with an amazing plurality of and innocent to the miserable pleasures for which they have pockets-knee-breeches of once-white corduroy insufficiently sold their own souls. At length she was frightened to perbuttoned over coarse worsted stockings, and heavy brogues ceive that Gerald had grown hardy and boastful of his feat-with nails like the rivets of a steam-boiler. These were the he had asked for more whisky, and had been given it by Dick, hardiest betters of the ball-alley, the keenest lads at the rou- who, half drunk himself already, was determined to make lette-table—the deadest shots at a mark over all the country Gerald drunk for once in his life. The boy was now in the side. Plenty of money had they, and who dared to ask them condition wished for by his brother; he had slunk behind how they came by it?' Their father had lots of cash lying by, Matt's chair; Alice could see his head hanging upon one and selfish as he was, and knowing as he was, many a heavy shoulder, while his eyes were closing in the stupor of intoxi

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cation-he was about to fall to the ground. Quietly she stole They passed the church-groups of joyous children were to his side, and leaning her head upon his shoulder she whis playing in the graveyard five or six immense chesnuts pered,

towered, coeval and almost coequal with the ancient steeple, “Gerald, darling, I didn't think you would drink so much and in these there was a rookery, now in full din--the voices -why did you do it?"

of the children and the cawing of the rooks, disturbed by the Don't tell uncle James, Alley, if he hasn't seen me this sudden peal of the bells, mingled with the chime without disway, and I'll never drink so much again.”

cord to the ear. Alice's eyes glistened for a moment when "Hold up your head for another bucket, you dog," said she recognised her youthful playmates ; but she suddenly Matt, with sundry drunken hiccupings, as he heard the boy felt she could not laugh with them her heart was heavy. At speaking behind his chair, and proffering at the same time a length they stood before the door of the brothers' house. No fresh bumper. “Come, Gerald, my boy, it will do you no signs of wakefulness had it yet exhibited. barm-sorrow's dry, they say, and Lord knows but you've “Let us go in, uncle, and tell them to get up," said the blubbered enough all day for a little fellow.”

little Alice. “Matt, dear Matt, don't ask him," said Alice.

“Let them sleep it out, the scoundrels!" was the indignant Matt, however, was not to be thwarted: with a brutal cuff reply of James Kavanagh. he struck his little sister to the ground, and tried to force the They passed on to the place of worship. liquor upon Gerald's acceptance. In the attempt the glass In about an hour and a half from this time the same group fell from his hand, and Alice rose and drew her brother were on their way homewards, with hearts elevated by the softly from the room.

imposing service which they had just been witnessing. A The funeral took place, and there was another carouse more gloom was, notwithstanding, perceptible upon the face of disgraceful than the first, and another, and another, and an- James Kavanagh and of his little niece, as they walked along other ! until the week was out. When Gerald's uncle saw how in company with their happy and smiling neighbours. None completely besotted his nephews had become, he took Gerald of the three sons of Peter Kavanagh had ever before been to live with him, but not until it had become too painfully known to have absented himself from Sunday mass, and their evident that the boy had acquired a liking for the liquor which absence on that most holy day was of course a subject of had turned his two brothers into human beasts. Poor little much wonder. Alice wept over the change. There was no more reading, or “I could not have thought it possible,” said James Kavanagh playing, or wandering through the country together. He sat gravely, “ that they could become so wicked all at once-God sulky and silent in the house all day, more like a poor relation forgive them! God help them !". on charitable allowance than the joint-heir of the largest farm "Oh, uncle !" cried Alice, as they came in view of the house in the parish. But this was to have an end !

of guilt once more, “they are not up yet! See, the shutters A month had passed away since the death of Peter Kava- are still closed !” Dagh, and the zeal of the eldest heirs had by this time drunk They were now in front of the house. “Dear uncle," said up his entire stock of “mountain dew,” when in some out-of- Alice entreatingly, “ go into them-do, dear uncle, bring out the-way nook or other they discovered five gallons of malt poor Gerald to eat his Easter dinner with us.” whisky, which perhaps had lain there forgotten for twenty A thought struck James--he knocked loudly at the door. years. It was on a Saturday morning this was found, and There was no answer. Another loud knock, and a long pause; one of the Kavanaghs was heard to swear that he would never and still no sound within the house. quit it till the last drop was drained. It was to be the last Alice's little heart echoed the last unsuccessful knock_it bout before they set off for Australia, whither they intended almost said, “Wake, Gerald, with the knocking." to emigrate that very spring, having, with their uncle's con- She could endure the suspense no longer, and, running to sent on behalf of the two younger orphans, converted their the gripe at the road-side, she took up a heavy stone, with land into money for the purpose. One or two choice spirits which she battered the panels of the hall-door as long as her had been invited to join them, but these begged to be excused strength permitted her. When she was obliged to desist, her even these were appalled at the dreadful excesses of their screams might be heard afar off, and still there was no sound boon companions. Towards evening Gerald had been miss- in the house. ing from his uncle's house. James Kavanagh guessed how it James Kavanagh had dispatched one of his little boys to a was, and with little Alice in his hand repaired to the brothers' neighbouring cottage for a crow-bar. The boy quickly returned dwelling: The door was locked on the inside, and on asking with one, and James, assisted by the crowd who gathered near, for Gerald he was told that he was all safe there, with the was not long in forcing the door. saucy addition that “there wasn't any admission for any “Good people,” said he to the anxious company outside, d teetotaller." Shocked and grieved, James Kavanagh don't come in till I tell you—there's no use in further exposwent away with his dejected niece.

ing the shame of my brother's house." The next day was Easter Sunday. The festival had oc- He and Alice, with one or two particular friends, entered curred that year unusually late in the spring, and there was the hall with faltering steps, and they closed the door behind already a foretaste of summer in the air. A lovely noon it them. was when James Kavanagh, his wife, Alice, and the children, The first object which met their eyes was Peggy, the old walked out in Sunday trim to the parish chapel. The sky housekeeper, lying on the mat at the foot of the staircase, in was fretted with light silver clouds--the fields were already a trance of intoxication : she had evidently fallen down stairs green with the new growth of the grass--the hawthorn bushes in her attempt to reach the door, and had been for hours were almost visibly bursting their buds—the whin braes were perhaps insensible. Alice jumped over her, and darted up in a blaze of golden beauty—the birds, especially the red-stairs with the speed of lightning. James and his companions, breast, were chirping away with intense glee, being, in the after a vain attempt at arousing the housekeeper, slowly folglorious language of the poet Shelley,

lowed her. Many a voice of one delight !"

They entered the room which fronted them on the landing. They continued to walk on, and now the bells of the neigh- of ale and whisky, almost overpowered them. The room would

The thick stench of tobacco-smoke, mingled with the fumes bouring church struck out their Easter jubilee with such ex; have been quite dark bad it not been for the flickering remquisite sweetness as we might fancy arrested the sceptical nants of two candles, which still glared in the heated sockets purpose of the despairing Faust in Goëthe's surpassing drama, of a large old-fashioned branch candlestick. James went to when the heart-touched metaphysician exclaimed, “Oh, those deep sounds—those voices, rich and heavenly- glorious sunshine streamed into the reeking apartment, with

the window, opened the shutters, and let down the sash. The Proud bells I and do your peals already ring

the blessed air of the Sabbath. How strange_how painful To greet the joyous dawn of Easter morn?

was the paling glimmer of those expiring candles in that holy And ye, rejoicing choristers ! already

light! The three young men were lying on the floor at some Flows forth your solemn song of consolation

distance from each other, around the legs of a crazy table That song, which once from angels' lips resounding

in the centre of the room. On the table were huddled togeAround the midnight of the grave, was heard

ther the fragments of salt herrings, the parings of cheese, The pledge and proof of a new covenant."

broken glasses, half-emptied decanters, and the other usual Yes ! indeed, those bells almost distinctly said to the heart as paraphernalia of a low debauch. The whole meaning of the they swung in the soft air of that delicious noon, “ Christ our scene was taken in at a glance by James Kavanagh, as soon passover is sacrificed for us ; therefore let us keep the feast !" I as he had opened the window. He stooped over one of the





prostrate forms it was that of Richard. He turned up the

SAP IN VEGETABLES. face-great God! it was the face of a livid corpse! A smothered groan burst from James: he rushed towards the next Matt Kavanagh was dead also, quite dead and stiff! James We endeavoured in our last article to describe the principal and his friends looked at each other solemnly, and without circumstances of interest with respect to the ascending or unspeaking a word. They turned their glance simultaneously to elaborated sap. We have found that it is derived from the the place where Gerald was lying. They moved or rather aliment which consists of water and carbonic acid ; that it is tottered to the spot. There he lay, with Alice in a swoon composed of a solution of sugar and gum in water ; that it asbeside him, his eyes glazed, the skin of his face tightened over cends in the ordinary trees of this country through the wood, his nose and cheek-bones, his lips covered with viscid froth, which is situated between the bark and pith ; that the causes and his beautiful brown hair tossed backwards from his damp which elevate it are partly a vital attraction or suction exerforehead, glistening in a streak of sunshine which came full cised by the buds, and partly an endosmose, by which, in conupon it from the window. “He is alive still !” they all three sequence of its superior density, it draws in its aliment through exclaimed: "he may yet be saved !”

the spongy extremities of the roots; that its use is not only to One of them ran to the window and made a sign to the furnish materials for the descending or elaborated sap, but by neighbours to come in. The room was soon full of horrified developing the fleshy part of plants to cause the growth of spectators.

stems in length and roots in thickness. We shall now proThey parted Alice from her dying brother, and both were ceed to show the origin, the course, the composition, and the brought out into the open air as quickly as possible.

uses of the descending or elaborated sap. Amidst the cries and lamentations of the bystanders Alice The elaborated sap is formed out of the ascending sap. recovered. She sat for a while on the grass, trying to recall The place where this change takes place is in the leaves and her scattered senses. The sight of Gerald lying near her, as green parts of vegetables ; it is generally in the spring season the crowd opened to admit the air to his face with a freer that the ascending sap pushes out the buds into branches, freshness, brought the whole terrible truth to her mind. She and developes the little scales which had surrounded these orrose with difficulty, but, gathering strength with recollection, gans into leaves ; but when these leaves are formed, the sap she succeeded in breaking from the woman who had her in continues to ascend into them, and there undergoes those alcharge, and in a moment the head of Gerald was pillowed upon terations from whence the elaborated sap results. Now, these her bosom.

alterations consist in the getting rid of all superfluous water The soft cooling breeze had restored the unfortunate boy and carbonic acid, which, originally absorbed as aliment, had to a momentary consciousness. He was barely able to turn not undergone the conversion into gum and sugar during the his head towards Alice in recognition of their presence. ascent of the sap; secondly, in the acquisition of additional A faint pleasure was expressed in his glassy eyes as he did so. nutriment from the atmosphere; and, thirdly, in the conver

“Won't you speak to me, Gerald ? Won't you speak to your sion of these substances into a variety of new compounds. own Alley ”

Let us examine each of those changes to which the ascendThe boy shook with a convulsive shudder, but could not ing sap is subjected, in succession ; and, first, with respect to utter a syllable.

the disengagement of superfluous water and carbonic acid, “Don't die, dear Gerald ; don't leave poor Alley all alone in every one must have observed drops of water collected on the the world! Och, och, och !” said the little girl in the very leaves of cabbages and other vegetables, when examined early agony of childish despair, “he'll never be the same again in the morning. These are commonly supposed to be dewhe'll never speak to me again !".

drops, but are truly in great part the result of a kind of perThe boy made an effort to bring Alice's ear to his clammy spiration which is always taking place from the surface of lips; she strove to hear the almost inarticulate whisper which plants. That this is the case, can be proved by covering a hovered upon them.

cabbage-plant with a bell-glass, and placing it in a room suf“Is_uncle James-here?" gasped the dying lad ; " tell him ficiently heated to prevent the deposition of dew, when drops -I couldn't help it! Oh! Alley ! oh!".

of water will be found equally to collect upon its leaves. Gradually the groan, extorted by the last pang of disso. These drops are not observed during the day, because the lution, died away, and with it the spirit of poor Gerald temperature is then commonly so high as to evaporate them Kavanagh.

as fast as they are transuded; but the fact is, that plants acAlice perceived what had happened as soon as any of the tually give off much more water during the day than night. bystanders, but high and shrill her scream mounted over the The escape of carbonic acid is not so easily detected as that wailing which arose from the others, ere she once more sank of water; it can, however, be proved, through the resources of down in the swoon which the excess of her anguish had so chemistry: Unlike water, which is liberated both night and mercifully caused.

day, and indeed in greatest quantity during the latter period On the following day a coroner's inquest was held upon the of time, carbonic acid is found to be disengaged during the bodies of the three sons of Peter Kavanagh, in a public-house night only. As long as plants are exposed to the light of the not far distant from the scene of this fatal debauch.

A sur

sun, their green parts liberate none of this gas. pise had been afloat that poison had somehow or other We have mentioned that when the ascending sap arrives been the cause of their death, and an examination of one into the leaves, it not only throws off superfluous water and of the bodies was considered needful. I will not shock my carbonic acid, but likewise derives an additional quantity of readers with a description of the fearful chamber where this nutriment from the atmosphere. The presence of light is nemost loathsome operation was performed. The result was a cessary for this latter circumstance to take place. The nuverdict to the effect that the three Kavanaghs had died “from triment which, under the influence of sunlight, it acquires the excessive use of ardent spirits.'

from this source, is a substance named “carbon;" this subI commenced by saying I feared that this narrative might stance is a constituent of carbonic acid, which is indeed comfail in pointing a moral. It has a moral-a moral to selfish posed of carbon and oxygen ; carbonic acid is contained in the and ill-judging parents, and equally ill-judging societies, who atmosphere in the proportion of one part in a thousand ; the lay the flattering unction to their souls that coercion will green parts of plants absorb it, and under the influence of have a better effect than a fair and consistent example. Verily, light decompose it;

the carbon is retained, but the oxygen is the Spartan nobles, who exhibited the drunken slave before again liberated. We now may perceive the reason of the their children, and then placed the wine-cup within their fact mentioned in the preceding paragraph: plants give out reach, had a better knowledge of human nature than the Irish no carbonic acid during the day, because the superfluous carfather who would exorcise the demon of alcohol out of his chil bonic acid of the ascending sap becomes decomposed under dren by pledges of abstinence, or threats of punishment, the influence of light, in the same way as that which has been while, in the security of his own experience, he feels he can absorbed from the atmosphere. temperately enjoy the luxury of spirituous drink.* R. M. A great many compound products are obtained from the * From the Londonderry Standard.

vegetable kingdom. We need merely recall to the reader's recollection starch, resin, camphor, bland and aromatic oils, bitter principles, colouring matters, the acids of the grape,

the lemon, and the apple, &c. to assure him of this truth. All Fine connexions are apt to plunge you into a sea of extra- these different substances form themselves out of the sugar vagance, and then not to throw you å rope to save you from and gụm of the ascending sap, together with the carbon abdrowning

sorbed under the influence of light.

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When the ascending sap has parted with its superfluous

A CHAPTER ON MEN, water and carbonic acid, when under the influence of light it has absorbed carbon from the atmosphere, and when its constituents arrange themselves anew, so as to produce some

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IRISH PENNY JOURNAL. or all of the substances above enumerated, its name as well as

SIR—In the 12th number of your Journal you have given its functions cease : it has now become the descending or insertion to a paper tending to involve our ancient and honourelaborated sap.

able race in considerable disrepute_1 allude to an article enLet us now inquire the course which the descending sap titled "A Chapter on Curs, by a Man." Every story will pursues. We have stated in our last article, that if a liga- on investigation be found to have two sides : you have given ture be twisted tightly round a branch of one of our common publication to the one, and surely you will not, in justice, refuse trees, the portion immediately above the ligature will become to give your readers an opportunity of judging of the other. swollen, while that beneath it will retain its former thickness.

I remain, Sir, your faithful servant, If instead of a ligature we remove a circular ring of bark,

AN AGED CUR. the same phenomenon will take place: the part above this annular incision will swell out on every side. From this expe- By what means I have acquired the facility of expressing my riment we derive several important inductions. We learn from thoughts upon paper, it is not my intention to divulge. It is hence that this kind of sap descends, and moreover that the true that I have made an important discovery—that I have channel which conveys it is the bark.

gained possession of a secret which mankind would give worlds Having ascertained the course which the elaborated sap to possess; but I owe too little gratitude to any member of pursues, let us now turn our attention to its composition. the human race to be induced to part with it. I am old: This is found to vary in different plants: thus in some, bitter nearly fifteen winters have passed over my head since I first principles are the chief constituents; in others, aromatic sub- drew breath, and in the course of nature death cannot be far stances; in others it is principally resinous ; but whatever distant. My discovery shall shortly perish with me; and the may be the principal components, they may always be divided same ditch or dunghill shall witness the dissolution of both. into two groups--namely, those which are subservient to the Of my parentage I can record but little, as I remember growth of the vegetable, and those which, becoming deposited nothing whatever of my father, and my unfortunate mother in the different organs, confer on them those properties which was hanged shortly after having given me birth. Alas! my entitle them to be employed as articles of medicine or aliment recollections of her are tinged with any but pleasurable emofor animals, and by means of which different plants are in tions, for to her I owe much of the misery with which my this respect distinguished from each other. The portion of career has been chequered. Had she conducted herself with the descending sap which serves for the growth of the vege- prudence, and been satisfied to have selected a mate from table, exudes in ordinary trees between the bark and the amongst the many dogs of her own degree who solicited her wood, forming a glutinous layer which separates these organs, paw, my existence might have been passed in happy, because and is the cause of the facility with which in autumn the bark unnoticed obscurity. But no: stern destiny decreed that it can be detached from the stem : this portion is called cam- should be otherwise, and had marked me for misfortune ere bium. In palms, and other trees of warm climates, there is even I was born. Let not the reader start to hear me menno bark, and in such vegetables the nutritive part of the de- tion destiny: if he object to my opinions on this subject, he scending sap passes down through the centre of the stem. has a wide field open to him for reply in the pages of the daily

The portion of elaborated sap which becomes deposited press, which, cur though I be, I am, by virtue of the disco in the organs, and which varies more or less in every plant, very already alluded to, in the habit of reading; and he may is called the proper juice: proper vessels is the name given to rely upon it I am prepared to defend every position I advance. the reservoirs which contain the proper juices; and according Why should I not mention destiny? I am a rigid fatalist, and to the nature of their contents, the proper vessels are called well for me that I am. What else would enable me to bear milk-vessels, turpentine-vessels, vesicles of essential oil, &c. up against the scoff and scorn of man? What else would steel

In the foregoing paragraphs we have somewhat anticipated my feelings against the blows of stones, thrown by the hands the uses of the descending sap : we have found that one por- of such cowardly insensible men as he who published the phi. tion of it is destined for the nutrition of the vegetable. Now, I lippic against our race, which has called forth this reply? the same means which revealed to us the uses of the ascend- What else would console me, when the staff of the churlish ing sap, will also tell us how far the elaborated sap is concerned boor comes across my back, or when the urchin-rout attach in vegetable nutrition. In the dark no sap is elaborated, and the terrible kettle to my trembling tail? What supports me no vegetable fibre is developed. Are we not therefore justi- under such heart-rending circumstances, save the feeling that fied in supposing that vegetable fibre is formed out of this all is fixed—that such is my sad destiny, against which my elaborated sap? Again, let our readers call to their remem- barking or my struggling would avail me nought? But I brance the experiment of tying a ligature around a branch : digress—it is facts and not feelings that it is my province to in that experiment not only does a considerable swelling take record. place above the ligature, but from this swollen portion cereal My ambitious parent, infatuated with the admiration and as. roots frequently protrude. These facts afford us a clue to siduity of her numerous suitors, despised them all, and falling the uses of the descending sap, for by developing vegetable a victim to her vanity, suffered herself to be seduced from the fibre, it increases the thickness of the stem and the length of paths of propriety by a designing young pointer, who threw the roots, just as the ascending sap, by developing vegetable himself in her way, and employed every artifice, until at length flesh, lengthens the stem, and enlarges the root in diameter, he induced her to elope with him from her master's comfort

T. A. able farm-yard. For a while the guilty pair contrived to escape

detection. My unhappy mother took up her abode under a SONNET ABOUT A NOSE.

hay-stack in the neighbourhood, and for a week or two was

well and kindly treated by her gay and youthful lover, who "Tis very odd that poets should suppose

regularly saved a portion of his daily meals for her use. After There is no poetry about a nose,

a littie, however, meeting with a new and more beautiful obWhen plain as is the nose upon your face,

ject on whom to bestow his worthless affections, he abandoned A noseless face would lack poetic grace.

my mother to her own resources, and from that period she Noses have sympathy; a lover knows

saw him no more. Dreading to return to the home she had

left, and being pressed with hunger, she was compelled to Noses are always “ touched," when lips are kissing :

steal for her subsistence, and the poultry in the neighbouring And who would care to kiss, where nose was missing ?

homesteads visibly diminished in number ; while, to crown all, Why, what would be the fragrance of a rose,

my parent was brought to the straw, and became the mother And where would be our mortal means of telling

of five little ones, including myself. The additional drag which Whether a vile or wholesome odour flows

the suckling of so large a family produced, increased my proAround us, if we owned no sense of smelling?

genitor's rapacity four-fold, and the indulgence of it caused

her destruction. One day as she lay beside us, half famished, I know a nose, a nose no other knows,

and ready almost to devour her own offspring, a little pig 'Neath starry eyes, o'er ruby lips it grows ;

chanced to pass by. My mother belonged to a fierce breed, Beauty is in its form, and music in its blows !

that called the bull-terrier, and, accordingly, stimulated by the gnawings of hunger, she sprang upon the little pig, and


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had well nigh silenced it for ever, when its loud squeals brought they appear to me now. After two or three more dogs had one of the farm-servants to the spot. We were discovered, had a pull at the badger, many others refusing to face him, the unlucky pig rescued, my mother hanged to a post in the or running away when they felt his sharp teeth, on which ocbarn, and we-thrown into the horsepond. My brothers and casions they were well kicked by their owners, 1 observed an sisters all perished; but I, who was rather stronger than the unusual bustle, and was amazed at hearing my name and rest, contrived to struggle to the bank, and was found there Boxer's uttered in a very loud tone. The latter at the same some short time afterwards by a young man belonging to the time approached me and said, “ Tell you what, young'un, they're establishment, who carried me home with the intention of talking of a fight 'twixt you and me; and if so be they're in rearing me.

earnest, take care of yourself-that's all." “But, dear Oh, how grateful

. I felt to that young man, and how I Boxer," inquired I, wagging my tail in a conciliatory manner, blessed him for his kindness! But, alas! I knew little of the “why should we fight ? --surely we have no cause of quarrel ?" cruel race whose servants we are, or I should have preferred “No business of mine," answered he; "pleases my master; being left to die on the brink of the old pond. As soon as he likes to see us bite and tear each other ; great fun to him ; got me home to his father's, the lad put me into a bag, and must please him ; gr-r-r.” So indeed it was, and I, though having bound me securely with many cords, took a large pair scarcely more than a puppy, was pitted against the redoubted of blunt and rusty scissors, and proceeded to deprive me of Boxer." I was very unwilling to fight; for, besides that I my ears. Why should I weary your patience with a descrip- had no quarrel with him, I did not think I was his match, tion of the excruciating torments I suffered! Indeed, no de- and was sure of being beaten. When he seized me, however, scription could convey an adequate idea of one-tenth part of my spirit stirred within me, and I put forth all my strength the pain I endured while my ears, and then nearly the whole and determination. For nearly an hour we contested. Boxer of my tail, were slowly and mercilessly hacked away. As to at first got the better of me, and threw me down; but after the manner in which my tail was removed, it betrayed suffi- a little I discovered that his tender point was his legs; so at cient of the savage and bloodthirsty disposition of man, to give them I directed my attack, and, getting hold of one of them, me a foretaste of what I might expect at his hands—my tail obtained an advantage which I retained to the last; when, was actually gnawed asunder by his teeth!

neither being likely to prove victorious, and neither disposed When about nine months old, my master came home one to give up, we were separated. I was dreadfully cut, and my day in a great hurry, and summoning me to attend him, left wounds smarted me amazingly; but how terrible was my torthe house as abruptly as he had entered it. He bent his steps ture when my master, taking me by the neck, proceeded to to a neighbour's, where we found a crowd of men and dogs wash them with a liquid of a fiery burning nature, since known assembled, apparently intent upon some exhilarating sport, to me as spirit of turpentine. This was I believe designed to for on their countenances much glee was depicted. In a corner stop the bleeding! Such was my initiation into what men call of the room a long narrow box was placed, with a sliding door sport. I now found that I must live without a friend, for at one end. Wondering what it could contain, I stepped up every strange dog my master compelled me to attack. My to a young, bull-dog, with whom I was acquainted, and in- course was marked out. My rage was to be directed against quired of him. “Lord I how green !” exclaimed he; "why, every other animal, dog, cat, rat, badger, cow, pig, &c. a badger to be sure ; and you'll see the fun we'll have drawing except such as were the property of my owner. My occupation him, presently ;” and my friend Boxer licked his lips with was henceforth to be slaughter and bloodshed, and my existthe anticipation of a fight. I had not long to wait, when ence was hereafter to be devoted exclusively to violence. Boxer was called by his owner, who held him opposite to In scenes such as I have described passed the first three or the box by the neck, while another person raised the sliding four years of my life. My wounds were ever open, ever paindoor. Boxer was then let loose ; when, darting with excessive ful; for no sooner had one set of cuts closed, than I was forced speed into the interior, a growling and struggling was heard, into a new conflict, in which they were re-opened, and I reand in about a minute my friend reappeared, dragging forth ceived others into the bargain. At length premature old age, to view a wild beast called a badger-an animal that I until the result of the hardships I had endured, came upon me, and

now had conceived to be a very gentle, harmless creature ; I was no longer deemed serviceable for fighting. I now suf'for I at once recognised in this badger one which I had fre- fered less from wounds and cruelties ; but being regarded as

quently met in a neighbouring hedgerow when out by myself, a useless member of the household, I was treated with unfeeland with which I had begun to form a slight acquaintance. ing neglect, and receiving hardly any food at the hands of my What was the cause of this creature and Boxer being thus in- master, was driven to seek a scanty subsistence among the duced to tear each other, I could not divine. But guess my bones cast out upon the dunghill; and these, with an occaconsternation, when, Boxer having been separated from his sional crust thrown me by a good-natured stranger, were my antagonist, and the latter restored to his cage, I was dragged sole support. forward, and held in front of it, while my master patted and My master had an aged father, who lived in the house with encouraged me, saying, “ Hiss, hurroo !-good dog, shake him, and whom the neighbours conceived to have laid by a him !-hurroo !" The door was raised, and I was thrown considerable sum of money. I usually slept across the hearth forward towards it. As, however, I had no cause of quarrel in the kitchen, and was one night awakened by a cry for help with its friendly inmate, I did not, as my acquaintance Boxer in the half-choking, gurgling accents of a man under the effects had done, rush into the box; but, determining to investigate of strangulation. The sounds proceeded from the old man's the cause of the recent conflict, I entered it slowly, whimper- room. The door was open, and I darted in. The old farmer ing as I put in my head, to let my acquaintance of the hedgerow was lying half naked upon the floor: in his hand was clutched know that I came as a friend. He had, however, been so enraged a bag, and numbers of those round yellow pieces of metal so by the previous encounter, that he would not listen to my re- much coveted by the human race, and called guineas, were monstrances, but growled forth,“ Get out, you cur !” “ Don't scattered near him. A man was leaning over him, his knee be in a passion,” whimpered I;“ I come as a friend.” “ That's upon his breast, one hand upon his throat, and the other ena lie,” replied he ; "you can't be the friend of that tyrant and deavouring to drag from him the precious bag. I saw not the be mine. You are but seeking to put me off my guard;” and face of the spoiler, but perceiving only the danger of my maswith this snarling answer he flew at me and seized me by ter's old father, whom, harsh as he too had been to me, I inthe nose. This was treatment too gross to be endured, so I stinctively loved, and felt it my duty to defend, I sprang upon accordingly returned the compliment ; and conceiving that I the robber, for such I judged him, and pulled him to the should have more room to fight on the outside, I exerted all ground. The old man fainted away. A gleam of moonlight my strength, and dragged the irascible inhabitant of the box at this crisis entered the casement, and disclosed to my horriforth to light. To my utter astonishment, however, no sooner fied gaze, in the countenance of the robber whom I was throthad I re-appeared, pulling old Grey along with me, than I was tling, the features of my MASTER! In the suddenness of my seized, and my throat compressed so rudely as to give me surprise and consternation I relaxed my gripe ; and the vil. considerable pain, and indeed almost to strangle me. Fór lain who had striven to rob his father, and had raised his hand this inconvenience, however, I was amply repaid by the ca- against the person of his aged parent, sprang to his feet and resses of my master, and the plaudits of the company, both filed. I had by this time learned to understand a little of the men and dogs. Among others, Boxer walked up to me, human language ; and as the ruffian darted through the door, and growled in his usual cynical tone, “ You may come to the word damnation !" struck upon my ear. some good yet, if you'll only be quicker at your work.” I did The old man, as I have stated, had fainted. Happy for him not at this time understand the human language, and I accord that he had not recognised his assailant before my

interferingly detail my impressions as they struck me then, not as I ence, for further opportunity of recognition he had done.

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