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* Why, why not? I hope there was nothing particular in proposals in his exculpatory letter ; at least, one to the folthe letter. I thought".

lowing purport was found in her room next morning :"Oh, you odious blundering wretch !” she exclaimed, inter- “ Dearest Lucy- So you have not forgotten me! It is needrupting him, and bursting into tears; "it was nothing but an less to say I know you to be the writer of the sweet valentine innocent, harmless valentine; and now look at all the mischief I received last week. It has awakened new hopes in meyou have put into it.”

hopes that I have ventured here to put to the test. In a word, It was with a sorrowing heart that Charley wended his way will you be mine?—if so, we have nothing to hope from your homeward that evening, after enduring such a mortifying dis mother. We must elope this night, and I shall accordingly covery, and the disagreeable consequences entailed thereon, have a carriage in readiness near your door until morning. and putting in extreme jeopardy his chance of the incensed Pray excuse the bearer all his mistakes, and this last partiLucy, and her very desirable three thousand appurtenances ; cularly.--Ever your own

E. F.” but as he passed the little inn where temporary sojourners in The dowager recognised the initials, but all the rest was B. - were made as comfortable as the nature of the circum- heathen Greek to her.“ Oh, Lucy! Lucy!" she exclaimed, in stances would permit, he caught a glimpse of the figure of a the bitterness of her grief,“ did I ever think I was rearing man standing in the hall, closely muftled and enveloped in you up to see you make a man of the house, at last, out of an that most successful of all disguises, which a gentleman can attorney's skip!"

A. M'C. assume, a rough pee-jacket. Could it be? it was decidedly like him ; but what could bring him there ? Nay, by Jove! it was the identical Mr Edward Fitzgerald himself, arrived, WHY DO ROOTS GROW DOWNWARDS, AND most unaccountably, at the very nick of time, to explain to

STEMS TOWARDS THE HEAVENS ? Lucy how inadvertently her name had been alluded to, and thus get him out of the scrape. Led by this gleam of hope, he hurried up to the stranger, and eagerly claimed his recognition It cannot have escaped the observation of the most inatby seizing his band without ceremony, and welcoming him to tentive, the tendencies which roots have generally to descend B

into the ground, and which stems have as commonly to grow “Down about business, I presume?” quoth Charley. upwards towards the sky; yet the very commonness of these ' No--yes-exactly,” stammered the surprised new-comer. things may have prevented their obtaining the attention that

Egad, you can do my business at all events,” continued they merit; for it must be acknowledged, that to a mind Charley. I suppose you know by this time what a cursed directed to them they appear, however frequent their ocmistake I made the other day about Miss Bindon's letter. currence, not the less difficult to explain. It is sufficiently Oh, you may laugh; but faith it has been no laughing matter hard to comprehend why roots and stems should grow in to me. However, you can set all to rights, if you choose, by different directions, the one downwards, and the other upwriting a few lines, saying how it occurred, and that it was wards; but when we add to these the constant manner in quite an accident, and all that. Do now, like a good fellow, which the darker surface of a leaf is turned upwards, and and I'll just run back with it, and make my peace.'

the part of a flower painted with the most gorgeous colours • You mean," observed Fitzgerald, “ that I should write to is directed always towards the light, the subject becomes Miss Bindon. My dear fellow, I shall be delighted; but of more interesting, and the more vexatious ought to be our course you'll deliver it under the rose. It would'nt be the ignorance: and, then, there are phenomena, produced by unthing, you know, to let the old lady into the secret;” and usual circumstances, calculated to puzzle us still further, laughing heartily, and displaying the most laudable alacrity to and increase our bewilderment. Such are the manner in extricate Charley from his dilemma, he led the way into the which a geranium, growing at a window, bends its stems parlour, and having procured writing materials, sat down, and leaves towards the glass ; the manner in which a potato wrote a few hurried lines, which he said would fully explain plant, growing in a cellar into which the light is admitted by the whole occurrence and set it in a proper light, sealed his a single chink, will acquire a most unusual height, and follow note, and delivered it to the anxious swain for whose behoof a most devious and uncommon track to reach that ray of he had penned it, and who hastened away with his prize so which it appears enamoured; and the mode in which a root quickly, that before the ink was dry, he placed it in the re- will descend, along the face of a bare rock, an extraordinary luctant hands of the still pouting Lucy. “There !” exclaimed distance, in order to arrive at some spring or stream. These he, triumphantly ; " since you won't believe me, maybe you'll are objects well worthy of contemplation. A remarkable believe that. Now, pray don't throw it into the fire," con- example of one of the facts just alluded to occurred many tinued he, as a very unambiguous motion of the young lady years ago in the tower of an old cathedral in England : a seemed to imply was her intention ; "only read it, and if that potato plant grew to the height of between thirty and forty don't satisfy you, I'll say you're hard to be pleased, and that's feet, to get at the glimmering light of a partially closed all.”

window. Moved by this powerful appeal, Lucy cast her eye on the The final causes of many of these facts are easy to combillet ; a strange sort of emotion passed across her face, and prehend: the reason why a root grows down into the earth, she abruptly broke the seal, and proceeded to peruse the con. is for the purpose of obtaining that sustenance which is netents, while Charley applied himself, with equal zeal, to the cessary for the growth of the plant of which it is a part; perusal of her countenance. In it he could read, first, sur- and stems grow upwards, and towards the light, because the prise, extreme and undisguised ; secondly, confusion; and influence of this element is necessary for the elaboration of lastly, something undefinable, which at all events was not the sap; as a result of which process, stems grow in thickdispleasure, for she concluded by looking fixedly at him for a ness, roots in length, flowers are developed, and the proper moment or two, and then yielding to a most unladylike fit of juices of vegetables become formed. We are likewise not laughter.

without the means of explaining the proximate cause of one "Well, Lucy, is all right ?" asked Charley, delighted at this of these phenomena, for we have shown in our articles on demonstration.

Vegetable Sap that it is by the ascending sap that stems “ All, all,” she responded. " Why, Charley, you must be grow in length, and that, when light is excluded, no other canonized for your punctuality in the delivery of letters. But sap can be formed; this causes the ascending sap to accuremember, not a word to mamma-mum, Charley. And now mulate under such circumstances, and, consequently, in the be off, lest she should come down, and ask what brought you dark, stems may be expected to acquire an enormous and back.'

very disproportionate length: thus we are enabled to under“ But, Lucy," interrupted the ardent lover, “now that's all stand why the potato, in the instance mentioned, should settled, I think you might”

grow to so great a height. But admitting this explanation, “ Well, here-take it—anything to get rid of you." how much seems incomprehensible in these common and too “Oh, Lucy! Lucy!”

frequently neglected phenomena! We shall endeavour, in Next morning terrible was the hubbub in the household of this and the following articles, to explain the manner in which Mrs Bindon. Miss Lucy was nowhere to be had ; in fact, these curious things occur. had eloped with a gentleman who had arrived at the inn the One might imagine that the reason why roots grow into evening before, though by what means she could have com- the earth, and stems grow out of it, is on account of the municated with him, or he with her, must, as the story-books former being attracted, and the latter repelled, by the masay, for ever remain a mystery, unless we are to suppose the terials of which that carth is composed; or, on the other gentleman had the audacity to make Charley the bearer of his hand, by the stems being attracted, and roots repelled, by



atmospheric air. But such cannot be the case; for if seeds be the Sap: we have found that when light is present, the sap made to germinate in the lower stratum of earth placed in a becomes elaborated in the green parts of plants; and the box furnished with holes in the bottom, the roots will descend use of this elaborated sap is, by developing vegetable fibre, to into the air through those holes, while the stems will ascend into increase the thickness of stems, and the length of roots. the earth. In å similar manner, it might and has been While the ascending sap, by forming vegetable flesh, length. thought that roots are attracted, and stems repelled, by the ens the stems, and makes the root thick, the directions of moisture of the earth ; but a seed made to germinate between the different parts of plants, by the agency of light, must be two moist sponges will protrude its root downwards, and its in obedience to these functions. stem upwards, without reference to the liquid in its vicinity. We are now in a condition to comprehend the cause of some This explanation is therefore equally inadmissible. There are phenomena. A geranium (Pelargonium) stem, placed at a some who explain these, as well as all other things occurring window, curves towards the light: this takes place, because in living beings, by the mysterious principle of life ; but we the portion of stem nearest the window elaborates most sap: only admit the existence of this principle, because there are consequently, in this portion most vegetable fibre is formed. some phenomena incapable of being accounted for by the or- The portion away from the light, on the contrary, has most dinary laws that rule the universe, and that are common to ascending sap, which forms fleshy tissue, and lengthens the all matter ; and it is therefore unphilosophical to ascribe any stem ; the half of the stem remote from the light is therefore effects to its operation, until they are found to be inexplicable longer, that next the window is shorter ; the former is fleshy by those ordinary laws. But we shall find tiat the facts in and elastic, the latter is rigid and fibrous. Need we be surquestion do not in a great measure belong to these exceptions. prised, then, that the short, rigid, and fibrous portion should

The particular directions of stems and roots are produced draw down the long, fleshy, and elastic part, and curve it by a combination of causes : if an onion plant, exposed to day towards the light ?-it is but the bending of a bow, by the light, be laid horizontally on the ground, the extremities of agency of its string. the stem and roots will in the course of a few hours turn But why do roots curve away from the light ? Neither is themselves in their natural directions, the one upwards, and this difficult to understand. Roots do not elaborate the sap, the other downwards ; if a similar plant be placed in a dark nor form vegetable fibre of their own: what vegetable fibre cellar, to which no light has access, the same things will take they contain is pushed down through them from the stem : place; but that which happens in a few hours, in the one in- more of this vegetable fibre will force its way downwards, stance, will require as many days in the other; and thus we from the part of the stem nearest the light, than from that learn that in the production of these effects two causes ope- which is most remote: two forces of unequal intensity will rate : first, the light ; and, secondly, some other principle dis- push downwards, through opposite portions of the root ; tinct from light. It will occur to the reader that the ab- the greater pressure may be expected to overcome the sorption of water from the earth, by the most depending part lesser, and in obedience to this, the root will curve away from of the plant, and its evaporation above, might, by swelling the light. the lower portion and contracting the upper, produce the up- We have now endeavoured to demonstrate the manner in ward curving of the stem ; to obviate this objection, the plant which light operates in causing the directions of stems and was placed in water, where no evaporation could occur, and roots: but it will be recollected that there is another princiabsorption must take place equally over the whole surface; ple, less powerful but more universal, which shares in the and still it was found that the same things happened. production of these effects. The consideration of this will Light, therefore, is most powerfully intluential in producing form the subject of our rext article.

J. A. the particular directions of the parts of plants ; but there is another principle, distinct from light, which acts in effecting the same phenomena in a minor degree, but not the less ab- CAROLAN THE HARPER.-Respecting the origin of Carosolutely and even more generally. Let our readers bear in lan's fine air of “ Bumper Squire Jones,” we have heard a mind the existence of this principle, which will form the sub- different account from that given on O'Neill's authority. It ject of a future article. For the present, we will examine the

was told us by our lamented friend, the late Dean of St Paimanner in which light operates in promoting the directions of trick's, as the tradition preserved in his family, and was to stems and roots. We have before binted that the tendency of the organs of or great grand-uncle of the dean, happened to be enjoying to

the following effect : Carolan and Baron Dawson, the grand vegetables towards the light, bears a direct relation to the gether, with others, the hospitalities of Squire Jones at Modepth and brilliancy of their colours ; roots which are usually neyglass, and slept in rooms adjacent to each other. The destitute of colouring matter grow away from the light : the bard, being called upon by the company to compose a song or upper surfaces of leaves are always the inost deeply coloured;

tune in honour of their host, undertook to comply with their and in those erect leaves which are equally exposed to light, request, and on retiring to his apartment, took his harp with both surfaces are similariy coloured ; if the outer surface of a him, and under the inspiration of copious libations of his faflower be richly tinted, it is pendent ; in erect flowers, on the vourite liquor, not only produced the melody now known as contrary, the internal surface is always the most brilliantly painted; and in some cases the direction of the flower and words to it." While the bard was thus employed, however,

Bumper Squire Jones,", but also very indifferent English fruit is different, connected with similar conditions. But in the judge was not idle. Being possessed of a fine musical all these instances we have reason to believe that the organ ear as well as of considerable poetical talents, he not only is not directed towards the light, because it is highly colour- fixed the melody on his memory, but actually wrote the noble ed ; but that it is highly coloured, because it is presented to

song now incorporated with it before he retired to rest. The the light. In plants growing in the dark, all the organs are result may be anticipated. At breakfast on the following colourless; it is only when exposed to the light that they morning, when Carolan sang and played his composition, acquire their various hues. Even the extremities of the roots Baron Dawson, to the astonishment of all present, and of have been found in a singular experiment of Dutrochet's the bard in particular, stoutly denied the claim of Carolan to to acquire a green colour by exposure to the influence of light. the melody, charged him with audacious piracy, both musical

Is this tendency of the coloured parts of plants, to turn and poetical, and, to prove the fact, sang the melody to his towards the light, due to an attraction exerted by this agent, own words amidst the joyous shouts of approbation of all his or is it produced by a peculiarity of growth determined hearers,-the enraged bard excepted, who vented his execrathrough its influence? A curious experiment has settled this tions on the judge in curses both loud and deep.—Dublin question: A leaf, attached by its footstalk to a pivot, was so

University Magazine. arranged that it could freely turn in every direction : under these circumstances, its under surface was exposed to light.

The two most precious things on this side the grave are If an attraction existed between the most deeply coloured

our reputation and our life. But it is to be lamented, that portion and the light, the leaf might be expected to revolve the most contemptible whisper may deprive us of the one, on its pivot, in obedience to this attraction but instead, the and the weakest weapon of the other. A wise man, therefootstalk took on a spiral or corkscrew growth, by means of fore, will be more anxious to deserve a fair name than to which the upper portion became in time presented to the light. possess it, and this will teach him so to live as not to be Now, this experiment sufficiently showed that the manner in afraid to die.-Colton. which light acts, is by its influence over vegetable growth. But what is the influence of light over vegetable growth? Printed and published every Saturday by Guns and Cameron, at the Office

of the General Advertiser, No. 6, Church Lane, College Green, Dublin. We have already answered this question in our articles on Sold by <!! Booksellers,

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The Castle of Monea, or Castletown-Monea-properly Magh From Pynnar's Survey of Ulster, made in 1618-19, it apan fhiaidh, i.e. the plain of the deer-is situated in the parish pears that this proportion had at that time passed into the of 'Devinish, county of Fermanagh, and about five miles north- possession of Malcolm Hamilton (who was afterwards archwest of Enniskillen. Like the Castle of Tully, in the same bishop of Cashel), by whom the castle was erected, though county, of which we gave a view in a recent number, this the bawn, as prescribed by the conditions, was not added till castle affords a good example of the class of castellated resi- some years later. He says, dences erected on the great plantation of Ulster by the British and Scottish undertakers, in obedience to the fourth article Upon this proportion there is a strong castle of lime and concerning the English and Scottish undertakers, who “are to stone, being fifty-four feet long and twenty feet broad, but plant their portions with English and inland-Scottish tenants," hath no bawn unto it, nor any other defence for the succourwhich was imposed upon them by “ the orders and conditions to ing or relieving of his tenants." be observed by the undertakers upon the distribution and plantation of the escheated lands in Ulster," in 1608. By this arti

From an inquisition taken at Monea in 1630, we find, howcle it was provided that every undertaker of the greatest castle, which was fifty feet in height, was surrounded by a wall

ever, that this want was soon after supplied, and that the proportion of two thousand acres shall, within two years after nine feet in height and three hundred in circuit. the date of his letters patent, build thereupon a castle, with a

The Malcolm Hamilton noticed by Pynnar as possessor of strong court or bawn about it ; and every undertaker of the second or middle proportion of fifteen hundred acres shall the rectory of Devenish, which he retained in commendam with

“the middle proportion of Dirrinefogher,” subsequently held within the same time build a stone or brick house thereupon; his archbishopric till his death in 1629. The proportion of Dirwith a strong court or bawn about it. And of the least proportion of one thousand acres shall within

the rinefogher, however, with its castle, was escheated to the crown

in 1630 ; and shortly after, the old chapel of Monea was consame time make thereupon a strong court or bawn at least ; and all the said undertakers shall cause their tenants to build verted into a parish church, the original church being inconhouses for themselves and their families, near the principal veniently situated on an island of Lough Erne.

Monea Castle served as a chief place of refuge to the castle, house, or bawn, for their matual defence

English and Scottish settlers of the vicinity during the restrength," &c.

Such was the origin of most of the castles and villages now bellion of 1641, and, like the Castle of Tully, it has its tales of existing in the six escheated counties of Ulster-historical horror recorded in story ; but we shall not uselessly drag memorials of a vast political movement—and among the rest them to light. The village of Monea is an inconsiderable this

of Monea, which was the castle of the middle proportion one, but there are several gentlemen's seats in its neighbourof Dirrinefogher, of which Sir Robert Hamilton was the hood, and the scenery around it is of great richness and beauty. first patentee,







ON THE SUBJUGATION OF ANIMALS BY MEANS slumber, while he succeeded in possessing himself of the

hoard which by bis cunning and bravery he had so fairly won; OF CHARMS, INCANTATIONS, OR DRUGS.

in other words, charming the snake and possessing himself of the spoil.

Having thus glanced at the antiquity and wide spread of ON SERPENT-CHARMING, AS PRACTISED BY THE

serpent-charming, I shall proceed to lay before you a short

description of the mode in which the spell is cast over the Many of my readers will doubtless recollect that in a paper animals by the modern jugglers of Arabia and India. “ Animal Taming,” which appeared some weeks back in

Of all the Indian serpents, next to the Cobra Minelle, the the pages of this Journal, I alluded slightly to the charming Cobra Capella, or hooded snake (Coluber Naja), called in of animals, or taming them by spells or drugs. It is now my India the “Naig,” and also“ spectacle snake," is the most vepurpose to enter more fully upon this subject, and present my nomous. It derives its names of hooded and spectacle snake readers with a brief notice of what I have been able to glean from a fold of skin resembling a hood near the head, which it respecting it, as well from the published accounts of remark- possesses a power of enlarging or contracting at pleasure; able travellers, as from oral descriptions received from per- and in the centre of this hood are seen, when it is distended, sonal friends of my own, who had opportunities of being eye black and white markings, bearing no distant or fanciful likewitnesses to many of the practices to which I refer.

ness to a pair of spectacles. The mode of charming, or, at all The most remarkable, and also the most ancient descrip-events, all that is to be seen or understood by the spectators, tion of animal-charming with which we are acquainted, is that consists in the juggler playing upon a fute or fite near the which consists in calling the venomous serpents from their hole which a snake has been seen to enter, or which his em

les, quelling their fury, and allaying their irritation, by ployers have otherwise reason to suppose the reptile inhabits. means of certain charms, amongst which music stands forth in The serpent will presently put forth his head, a portion of his the most prominent position, though, whether it really is worthy body will shortly follow, and in a few minutes he will creep of the first place as an actual agent, or is only thus put for- forth from his retreat, and, approaching the musician, rear ward to cover that on which the true secret depends, is by himself on his tail, and by moving his head and neck up and no means perfectly clear.

down or from side to side, keep tolerably accurate time to the Even in scripture we find the practice of serpent-charming tune with which his ears are ravished. noticed, and by no means as a novelty; in the 58th Psalın we

After having played for a short period, and apparently are told that the wicked are like the “ deaf adder that stop- soothed the reptile into a state of dreamy unconsciousness peth her ear, which hearkeneth not unto the voice of the of all that is passing, save only the harmony which delights charmer, charm he never so wisely!” And in the book of him, the juggler will gradually bring himself within grasp of Jeremiah, chap. viii, the disobedient people are thus threat the snake, and by a sudden snatch seize him by the tail, and ened_“Behold, I will send serpents, cockatrices, among you, hold him out at arms' length. On the cessation of the music, which will not be charmed.These are two very remarkable and on finding himself thus roughly assailed, the reptile bepassages, and I think we may, without going too far, set

comes fearfully enraged, and exerts all his energies to turn down as snake-charmers the Égyptian magi who contended upwards, and bite the arm of his aggressor. His efforts are against Moses and Aaron before the court of the proud and however fruitless ; while held in that position, he is utterly vacillating Pharaoh, striving to imitate by their juggling incapable of doing any injury; and is, after having been held tricks the wondrous miracles which Moses wrought by the thus for a few minutes before the gaze of the admiring crowd, immediate aid of God himself. The feat of changing their dropped into a basket ready to receive him, and laid aside sticks into serpents, for instance, is one of every-day perform- until the juggler has leisure and privacy to complete the subance in India, which a friend of mine has assured me he many jugation which his wonder-working melody had begun. times saw himself, and which has not been satisfactorily ex

When charmed serpents are exhibited dancing to the plained by any one.

sound of music, the spectators should not crowd too closely The serpent has long been an object of extreme veneration around the seat of the juggler, for, no matter how well trained to the natives of Hindostan, and has indeed, from the they may be, there is great danger attending the cessation of very earliest ages, been selected by many nations as an object the sweet sounds; and if from any cause the flute or fife sudof worship ; why, I cannot explain, unless it originated in a denly stops or is checked, it not unfrequently happens that the superstitious perversion of the elevation of the brazen serpent snake will spring upon some one of the company, and bite him. in the wilderness by Moses. In India the serpent is not, I think that it will not be amiss if I quote the description of however, altogether regarded as a deity-merely as a demon Indian snake-charming, furnished by a gentleman in the Hoor genius : and the office usually supposed to be peculiar to nourable Company's civil service at Madras, to the writer, these creatures is that of guardians. This is perhaps one of who vouches for its veracity :the most widely spread notions respecting the serpent that we “ One morning,” says he, “as I sat at breakfast, I heard a are acquainted with. Herodotus mentions the sacred ser- loud noise and shouting among my palankeen bearers, On pents which guarded the citadel of Athens, and which he inquiry I learned that they had seen a large hooded snake (or states to have been fed monthly with cakes of honey; and Cobra Capella), and were trying to kill it. I immediately adds, that these serpents being sacred, were harmless, and went out, and saw the snake climbing up a very high green would not hurt men. A dragon was said to have guarded mound, whence it escaped into a hole in an old wall of an the golden fleece (or, as some think, a scaly serpent), and ancient fortification. The men were armed with their sticks, protected the gardens of the Hesperides-a singular coinci- which they always carry in their hands, and had attempted in dence, as it is of gardens principally that the Indians conceive vain to kill the reptile, which had eluded their pursuit, and in the serpent to be the guardian.

his hole he had coiled himself up secure, while we could see Medea charmed the dragon by the melody of her voice, his bright eyes shining. I had often desired to ascertain the Ilerodotus mentions snakes being soothed by harmony; and truth of the report as to the effect of music upon snakes : Virgil, in the Æneid, says (translated by Dryden),

I therefore inquired for a snake catcher. I was told there was “ His wand and holy words the viper's rage

no person of the kind in the village, but, after a little inquiry And venom'd wound of serpents could assuage."

I heard there was one in a village distant three miles. I Even our own island, although serpents do not exist in it, accordingly sent for him, keeping a strict watch over the a blessing for which, if we are to put faith in legendary lore, snake, which never attempted to escape whilst we his enewe have to thank St Patrick-has numberless legends and mies were in sight. . About an hour elapsed, when my messentales of crocks of treasure at the bottom of deep, deep lakes, ger returned, bringing the snake catcher. This man wore no or in dark and gloomy caves, in inaccessible and rocky moun covering on his head, nor any on his person, excepting a tains, guarded by a fierce and wakeful snake, a sleepless ser

small piece of cloth round his loins : he had in his hands two pent, whose eyes are never closed, and who never for a second baskets, one containing tame snakes, one empty: these and ahated of his watchful care of the treasure-crock, of which his musical pipe were the only things he had with him. I he had originally been appointed guardian ;* and, further, we

made the snake catcher leave his two baskets on the ground at are told how the daring and inventive genius of the son of some distance, while he ascended the mound with his pipe Erin has often found out a mode of putting a “cometheron

alone. He began to play: at the sound of the music the the “big sarpint, the villain,” and haply closing his eyes in snake came gradually and slowly out of his hole. When he

was entirely within reach, the snake catcher seized him dex. * See numerous legends of the "Peisté,"

terously by the tail, and held him thus at arms' length,



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whilst the enraged snake darted his head in all directions, may grumble at public affairs; his eyes are always open to but in vain : thus suspended, he has not the power to round look for abominations; he is always pricking up his ears to himself so as to seize hold of his tormentor. He exhausted detect discords, and snuffing up the air to find stinks. Can himself in vain exertions, when the snake catcher descended you insult an Englishman more than by telling him he has the bank, dropped him into the empty basket, and closed the nothing to grumble at? Can you by any possibility inflict a lid: he then began to play, and after a short time raised the greater injury upon him than by convincing him he has no lid of the basket, when the snake darted about wildly, and occasion to grumble ? Break his head, and he will forget it; attempted to escape; the lid was shut down again quickly, the pick his pocket, and he will forgive it, but deprive him of his music always playing. This was repeated two or three times ; | privilege of grumbling, you more than kill him—you expaand in a very short interval, the lid being raised, the snake sat triate him. But the beauty of it is, you cannot inflict this on his tail, opened his hood, and danced quite as quietly as the injury on him ; you cannot by all the logic ever invented, or tame snakes in the other basket, nor did he again attempt to by all the arguments that ever were uttered, convince an escape. This, having witnessed it with my own eyes, I can Englishman that he has nothing to grumble at; for if you assert az a fact."

were to do so, he would grumble at you so long as he lived I particularly request the attention of my readers to the for disturbing his old associations. Grumbling is a pleasure foregoing account, as, from the circumstance of its having which we all enjoy more or less, but none, or but few, enjoy been furnished by an eye-witness, and a man whose public it in all the perfection and completeness of which it is capable. station and known character were sufficient to command belief If we were to take a little more pains, we should find, that in his veracity, it will prove serviceable to me by and bye, having no occasion to grumble, we should have cause to when I shall endeavour to disprove the ridiculous assertions grumble at everything. But we grow insensible to a great of Abbé Dubois* and others, who hold that serpent-charming many annoyances, and accustomed to a great many evils, and is a mere imposition, and assert, certainly without a shade of think nothing of them. What a tremendous noise there is in warranty for so doing, that the serpents are in these cases the city, of carts, coaches, drays, waggons, barrel-organs, always previously tamed, and deprived of their poison bags and fish-women, and all manner of abominations, of which they in fangs, when they are let loose in certain situations for the the city take scarcely any notice at all! How badly are all purpose of being artfully caught again, and represented as matters in government and administration conducted? What wild snakes, subdued by the charms of their pipe. I shall, very bad bread do the bakers make! What very bad meat however, say no more at present of Dubois, Denon, or others do the butchers kill! In a word, what is there in the whole who are sceptical on this subject, but shall leave the refuta- compass of existence that is good? What is there in human tion of their fanciful opinions to another opportunity--my character that is as it should be? Are we not justified in present purpose being the establishment of facts, ere I venture grumbling at everything that is in heaven above, or ir, the to advance a theory.

earth beneath, or in the waters under the earth ? In fact, I shall therefore conclude my present paper, and in my gentle reader, is the world formed or governed half so well as next, besides adducing many other important facts relative to you or I could form or govern it ?-From a newspaper. serpent-charming, shall endeavour to throw some light upon the real mode by which it is effected.

H. D. R.

VULGARITY. * Description of the People of India, p. 469.

The very essence of vulgarity, after all, consists merely in one error-in taking manners, actions, words, opinions,

on trust from others, without examining one's own feelGRUMBLING. ings, or weighing the merits of the case.

It is coarseness If it be no part of the English constitution, it is certainly part or shallowness of taste, arising from want of individual refineof the constitution of Englishmen to grumble. They cannot ment, together with the confidence and presumption inspired help it, even if they tried ; not that they ever do try, quite by example and numbers. It may be defined to be a prostithe reverse, but they could not help grumbling if they tried tution of the mind or body to ape the more or less obvious deever so much. A true-born Englishman is born grumbling. fects of others, because by so doing we shall secure the sufHe grumbles at the light, because it dazzles his eyes, and he frages of those we associate with. To affect a gesture, an grumbles at the darkness, because it takes away the light. opinion, a phrase, because it is the rage with a large number Hie grumbles when he is hungry, because he wants to eat; he of persons, or to hold it in abhorrence because another set of grumbles when he is full, because he can eat no more. He persons very little, if at all, better informed, cry it down to grumbles at the winter, because it is cold; he grumbles at distinguish themselves from the former, is in either case equal the summer, because it is hot; and he grumbles at spring and vulgarity and absurdity. A thing is not vulgar merely beautumn, because they are neither hot nor cold. He grumbles cause it is common. It is common to breathe, to see, to feel, at the past, because it is gone; he grumbles at the future, to live. Nothing is vulgar that is natural, spontaneous, unbecause it is not come; and he grumbles at the present, be- avoidable. Grossness is not vulgarity, ignorance is not vulcause it is neither the past nor the future. He grumbles at garity, awkwardness is not vulgarity; but all these become law, because it restrains him ; and he grumbles at liberty, vulgar when they are affected and shown off on the authority because it does not restrain others. He grumbles at all the of others, or to fall in with the fashion or the company we elements-fire, water, earth, and air. He grumbles at fire, keep. Caliban is coarse enough, but surely he is not vulgar. because it is so dear; at water, because it is so foul ; at the We might as well spurn the clod under our feet, and call it earth, in all its combinations of mud, dust, bricks, and sand; vulgar. Cobbett is coarse enough, but he is not vulgar. He and at the air, in all its conditions of hot or cold, wet or dry. | does not belong to the herd. Nothing real, nothing original, All the world seems as if it were made for nothing else than can be vulgar; but I should think an imitator of Cobbett á to plague Englishmen, and set them a-grumbling. The Eng. vulgar man. Simplicity is not vulgarity ; but the looking to lishman must grumble at nature for its rudeness, and at art imitation or affectation of any sort for distinction is. A Cockfor its innovation; at what is old, because he is tired of it ; ney is a vulgar character, whose imagination cannot wander and at what is new, because he is not used to it. He grumbles beyond the suburbs of the metropolis. An aristocrat, also, at everything that is to be grumbled at; and when there is who is always thinking of the High Street, Edinburgh, is vulnothing to grumble at, he grumbles at that. Grumbling gar. We want a name for this last character. An opinion cleaves to him in all the departments of life ; when he is well, is often vulgar that is stewed in the rank breath of the rabhe grumbles at the cook ; and when he is ill, he grumbles at ble ; but it is not a bit purer or more refined for having passed the doctor and nurse. He grumbles in his amusements, and through the well-cleansed teeth of a whole court. The inhehe grumbles in his devotion; at the theatres he grumbles at rent vulgarity lies in the having no other feeling on any subthe players, and at church he grubles at the parson. He ject than the crude, blind, headlong, gregarious notion cannot for the life of him enjoy a day's pleasure without acquired by sympathy with the mixed multitude, or with grumbling. He grumbles at his enemies, and he grumbles at a fastidious minority, who are just as insensible to the real his friends. He grumbles at all the animal creation, at truth, and as indifferent to every thing but their own frihorses when he rides on them, at dogs when he shoots with volous pretensions. The upper are not wiser than the lower them, at birds when he misses them, at pigs when they squeak, orders, because they resolve to differ from them. The at asses when they bray, at geese when they cackle, and at fashionable have the advantage of the unfashionable in nopeacocks when they scream. lle is always on the look-out for thing but the fashion. The true vulgar are the persons something to grunnble at; he reads the newspapers, that he / who have a horrible dread of daring to differ from their

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