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in a fit of insanity, on a May morning, threw herself into the hostages for the performance of the treaty; in consequence lake. But we had better give the song itself :
of which, about 5000 Irish, horse and foot, laid down their Of all the fair months, that round the sun
arms and delivered up their horses, and thus terminated the In light-linked dance their circles run,
hostilities in Munster.
Smith, in his History of Kerry, tells us that a man whose
name was Hopkins, and who a few years ago was sexton of Sweet May, returns to me.
Swords, near Dublin, was present at the taking and surrender
of this place, and assisted in drawing the above-mentioned Of all the bright haunts, where daylight leaves Its lingering smile on golden eves,
vessel into the lake. The Irish,” he adds, “had a kind of Fair lake, thou'rt dearest to me;
prophecy among them, that Ross Castle could not be taken For when the last April sun grows dim,
until a ship should swim upon the lake; and the appearance Thy Naiads prepare his steed for him, Who dwells, bright lako, in thee.
of this vessel contributed not a little to intimidate the garri
son, and to hasten the capitulation. The said Hopkins lived Of all the proud steeds that ever bore
to the of one hundred and fifteen years, and died at Young plumed chiefs on sea or shore,
We have already stated that a barrack was erected in
connection with the castle in the commencement of the last My love, my chief, to me.
century, and a small garrison was kept here till a few years While, white as the sail some bark unfurls,
ago. These hideous barracks, as Sir R. C. Hoare called them, When newly launch'd, thy long mane curls,
were a dreadful eye-sore to all the lovers of the picturesque who Fair steed, as white and free;
visited the Killarney lakes; but Ireland seems no longer to And spirits, from all the lake's deep bowers, Glide o'er the blue wave scattering flowers,
require such structures, and the barrack of Ross Castle has Around my love and thee.
been some time dismantled, and its ivied walls now contri
bute to the picturesqueness of the parent fortress. P.
EDUCATION OF YOUTH.
ACTION of both mind and body ought to be so continued as
to serve as relaxation to each other. The mind of a man, still But we have been attracted by this phantom chief too long more of a child, is incapable of long perseverance in mental from our immediate subject, and we must now return to it. exertion. This is a generally acknowledged truth, to which From the historical notices of Ross Castle, as collected by I shall add one more to the same purpose, which is less known. the historian of Kerry, it will be seen that it was of old a young men, and those who are not advanced in years, if place of some strength and importance, and that its posses. healthy and of warm constitutions, are never very greatly sion was not to be acquired without expense and trouble. In his inclined to mental exertion till their bodies are to a certain description of Ross island, published in 1756, Dr Smith states degree fatigued, I do not say wholly exhausted. Till this that on it stands an ancient castle, formerly the seat of fatigue is produced, their body has a preponderance over O'Donoghoe Ross, which hath a new barrack adjoining to it. the mind, and in this case it is a truly natural want, which
This place hath been for some years past a military garrison, cannot easily be silenced. Each muscle requires exertion, having a governor appointed for it upon the establishment and the whole machine strives to employ its powers; this is Before the castle are a few dismounted iron guns, which give vulgarly called to have no sit-still flesh. If the fatigue be it something the air of a fortification. The castle had been once brought on, the call for bodily exertion is stilled; the flanked with round turrets, which together with its situation mind is no longer disturbed by it, and all its labours are rendered it a place of some strength. In the wars of 1641, facilitated. Our common mode of education pays no regard it surrendered to Ludlow, who was attended in the expedi- to this: youths appear in school to be strengthened by sleep tion by Lord Broughil and Sir Hardress Waller, and was the and food, and too frequently, alas! thrown into an unnatural last place that held out in Munster against the English par. heat and commotion. How is it possible to fix the attention liament."
under such circumstances ? The body requires action; if This surrender followed the decisive battle of Knockin- this be not allowed, it will obtain it in silence; it will act upon clashy, in the county of Cork, in 1652, fought by the Lord the passions, and, above all, the fiery temperament of youth Broughil on the English side, and the Lord Muskerry on that will influence the imagination. Thus attention slambers. of the Irish, after which the latter retreated into Ross Castle, We are barbarous when we attempt to awaken it with the and was followed thither by Ludlow, who, with 4000 foot and rod; we require from innocent children what is unnatural; 200 horse, laid siege to the castle. The subsequent proceed we inflict pain on the body to prevent its action; yet ings are thus described by Ludlow himself:
activity was bestowed on it by its creator; yet nature renoIn this expedition I was accompanied by the Lord Broughil, vates this activity every night; the mind is soon carried and Sir Hadress Waller, major-general of the foot. Being ar- away by the whirlwind of corporal energies, and lost in the rived at this place, I was informed that the enemy received con- realm of chimeras. To facilitate the contemplation of them, tinual supplies from those parts that lay on the other side, and I shall just repeat the desirable parallel between the qualities were covered with woods and mountains ; whereupon I sent a of the body and mind :-Health of body-serenity of mindparty of two thousand foot to clear those woods, and to find out hardiness-manliness of sentiment--strength and addresssome convenient place for erecting a fort, if there should be presence of mind and courage—activity of body-activity of occasion. These forces met with some opposition, but at last mind-excellence of form-mental beauty-acuteness of the they routed the enemy, killing some, and taking others pri- senses—strength of understanding.
MEDICUS. soners : the rest saved themselves by their good footmanship. Whilst this was doing, I employed that part of the army
which ANCIENT Music.— The Egyptian flute was only a cow's was with me in fortifying a deck of land, where I designed to horn with three or four holes in it, and their harp or lyre had leave a party to keep in the Irish on this side, that I might be only three strings; the Grecian lyre had only seven strings, at liberty, with the greater part of the horse and foot, to look and was very small, being held in one hand; the Jewish trumafter the enemy abroad, and to receive and convoy such boats pets, that made the walls of Jericho fall down, were only and other things necessary as the commissioners sent us by rams' horns. Their flute was the same as the Egyptian ; they
When we had received our boats, each of which was had no other instrumental music but by percussion, of which capable of containing one hundred and twenty men, I ordered the greatest boast was the psaltery, a small triangular harp one of them to be rowed about the water, in order to find out or lyre with wire strings, and struck with an iron needle or the most convenient place for landing upon the enemy; which stick ; their sacbut was something like a bagpipe; the timbrel they perceiving, thought fit, by a timely submission, to prevent was a tambourine, and the dulcimer was a horizontal harp, the danger that threatened them; and having expressed their with wire strings, and struck with a stick like the psaltery. desires to that purpose, commissioners were appointed on They had no written music; had scarcely a vowel in their both sides to treat.
language, and yet, according to Josephus, had two hundred After a fortnight's debate, says Ludlow, articles were thousand musicians playing at the dedication of the Temple o. agreed upon and ratified on both sides; and the son of the Solomon. Mozart would have died in such a concert in the Lord Muskerry and Sir Daniel O'Brien were delivered up as I greatest agonies.-Dr Burney's History of Music.
of reason or desire.
POETICAL LECTURE ON ANATOMY. like all usurpers, has in the vehemence of his achievements The following is the purport of a lecture on anatomy: the children of the rich is an exuberant overflowing, that,
anticipated the slow march of Time. Life itself, which among The lecturer is represented as taking up the human skull
, lavish it as they may, still seems inexhaustible, among those containing the brain and its appendages, with the nervous cords exposed to observation, and with “apostrophic eye” pro- tained with a struggle ; in short, they know nothing of youth
of the poor is a lean phantom, grasped at with pain and mainceeding :This is the tenement of thought,
but its feebleness and its wailing ; its bloom and its buoyancy The mansion of the mind,
being, like every other luxury, beyond their reach. To me Whose empire, as the universe,
the most painful sight in this world is a poor, that is, a desti
tute child. Whatever misery a grown-up person may be Is boundless, undefined !
plunged into a thousand suppositions are left for its palliation: "Tis vaulted, like the evening sky
they may once have been well off, or they may have been the In star-wrought grace unfurld,
artificers of their own ruin, and they may live to see better And like that very firmament,
days : but children—they can have done nothing to deserve Hangs o'er a breathing world
that the one blessing unmortgaged at the Fall, the carelessA world of thought, a world of sense,
ness of youth, should be taken from them.—Lady Bulwer.
THE DECAYED OLD GENTLEMAN,
THERE is something very touching about this character-
something in his mild tone of speech, in his polite and genFast thronging on the view.
tle demeanour, that at once engages our sympathies. We Here reason reigns, here genius dwells,
have the poor old gentleman distinctly before our mind's eye
at this moment. Let us endeavour to sketch him.
He is of middle height, well proportioned, and of rather
slender make. His clothes, though a good deal the worse The soul immortal thrives. Here, too, imperial will resides
for wear, are carefully brushed, and put on with scrupulous
neatness. His linens are clean and bright, and his neck. In regal state enshrined,
cloth, equally faultless, is adjusted with nice precision; for, In stern dominion over all,
old as he is, he has not lost, nor ever will lose, that sense of With majesty combined !
propriety which dictates a decent attention to external apMark this ! it is his messenger,
pearance. That, like electric fire,
Some sixty and odd summers have passed over the head of Swift-wing'd, the mandate beareth forth
him who is the subject of our sketch, and they have left their
usual traces behind. His hair is thin and scanty, and of the This filament, this very thread,
silvery hue of eild. His countenance is expressive at once of Hath power to shake the fraine ;
a gentle and benevolent nature, of a cultivated mind and reThat, whispering to the heart's warm core,
fined taste. He has seen much, read much, and thought To light love's genial flame.
A certain air of mild, subdued dignity-for the old And this, or this, to sense inclined,"
man, poor though he be, never for a moment forgets that Hath magic in its spell,
he is a gentleman--adds a grace to all he says and does. To waken pleasure, pain, or hope,
When in society, or when accosted by a friend, a pleasant And rapture's story tell.
smile, speaking a sincere affability, plays on his cheerful And this small cord sent to the eye,
countenance. But when alone, when there is no one present Can comprehend the whole
to demand the exercise of his politeness, the expression of that The limitless, the vast profound,
countenance subsides into a gentle melancholy. His look is Where world s unnumbered roll !
then grave and thoughtful; somewhat sad, but not morose. That, to the tongue can captivate,
There has been disappointment in his life, high hopes laid Tuis, epicures enslave,
low, and noble aspirations foiled in their aim. That, to the same makes slander rife,
Delightful it is to see the old gentleman enter a room in And this perchance a knave.
which some friends are assembled_his bow is so gracefulTuat, to the ear, oft makes the soul
his smile so cheerful_his words of greeting so pleasant to Quake 'neath the thunder's peal,
the ear. All rise, smiling, to receive him-all
hail his presence, Or to the heart, with genius warm'd,
with a quiet but heartfelt joy. Welcome, thrice welcome A dream's low tones reveal.
is he to all. His gentle manners, his exhaustless store of Concenter'd in one mass, this brain,
anecdote, all so well selected, all so neatly told. His intelliThese make man what he is,
gence and extensive information render him one of the most
delightful of companions. A welcome visitor is he at all The offspring of yon world of light,
times—a welcome addition to the family circle into which it The life and soul of this.
is his delight to drop, just in time to share in the sober, - From an American work.
social cup of tea, his favourite beverage. THE RIVER ST JOHN, IN NEW BRUNSWICK.-In this river is some vague unconnected story of an early attachment and
The old gentleman is unmarried_he is a bachelor. There there are several falls, not downwards, as in the ordinary of disappointed love, but nobody knows any of the particucourse of rivers, but upwards against the current. The lars-no one knows who the lady was, nor what were the River St John is of the size of the Rhine. It drains a large circumstances of the case; and our old friend nerer alludes portion of the province of New Brunswick. The mass of to them in the most distant manner. The history of this paswater it discharges into the Bay of Fundy is prodigious, espe- sage in his life is a secret pent up within his own breast; cially during the spring floods, when the tides rise to the height of 35, 50, and sometimes even 60 feet, above the ordi- buried within its silent precincts. But it is one over which
one that will go with him to the grave, and with him be nary level. The remakable fall of the water backwards is he often broods in the solitude of his solitary chamber, and produced by the enormous volume of water, occupying a chan- during those sleepless nights, and they are many, when renel in some places ten miles in breadth, being confined near miniscences of the past forbid the approach of forgetfulness. St John's into a breadth of 300 yards, which occasions it to
Being a bachelor, and his circumstances narrow-a small roll back impetuously in the form of a magnificent cascade.
annuity being now his only dependence-our old friend has no CHILDREN OF THE Poor.–Charles Lamb has truly and house of his own. He lives in hired lodgings-humble, but touchingly remarked, that common people's children “ are cleanly, comfortable and respectable. His landlady is a dragged up, not brought up." There is a precocity-not, "decent widow," and he has been her lodger for fifteen years. indeed, of intellect, but of prudence and worldly wisdom—in Little as he has, he has always paid her punctually, and to the them, that is truly painful. Care has usurped the empire of last farthing; and much does she esteem and respect her kind oarelessness, that legitimate monarch of a child's being ; and I and gentlemanly inmate. Regular and temperate in all his
habits, and moderate in his desires, he gives her little dren of affluence for their tenants, interchanging careless comtrouble, and even that little he is at all times anxious to ments, or looking with languid and heedless gaze upon the abridge. His cup of tea or coffee morning and evening is squalid, the impoverished, the abandoned, the degraded, that, nearly all in the way of cookery that he requires at her hands. alas ! met the eye so often as to account for, and almost Quietly, he comes in and quietly he goes out, and he never justify, the indifference displayed. does either without saying something kind or civil as he passes. “ What a collocation, not merely of the extremes of human In all things easily pleased, he expresses thanks for every condition, but of almost every interposed gradation !” thought little attention shown him, and never raises his voice in anger, I, as, sated with the multiform instances presented in the connever even in querulousness or impatience. To every one course, and half bewildered with the medley of sights and around him, without distinction of rank or worldly circum- sounds—the glittering ostentation of the glaring shops, the stances, he is all politeness, all gentleness, and all kindness. hum and tramp of the jostling crowd, the din and rattle of Who can but love and respect the decayed old gentleman! ceaseless vehicles, from the lumbering dray to the elastic car
C. riage, the oft-mingled appeal of importunate mendicants, and,
not least confounding, the sleet-laden and staggering blasts THE ITALIAN ORGAN BOY.
that met me with wild caprice at almost every corner-I gladly turned aside into a more sheltered and less frequented
street, to pursue a route of greater ease, though at the exTHE streets of a great city, whether swept by the tumultuous pense of a greater circuit. But misery in the aggregate can tide of life by day, or echoing only to the dull and solitary generally, be encountered with less disturbance than when tread of the patrol by night, are never devoid of material for submitted to in the case of solitary sufferers; and before I had interesting remark or rumination to such as are so disposed. proceeded half the length of a private and comparatively He must, indeed, be a man of sluggish sensibilities and slen- deserted street, I had more effective calls upon my charity der fancy who could traverse any of our great thoroughfares there was at that time no legal provision for the necessitouswithout finding them occasionally touched by some of the than when passing among the abounding instances of destituthousand little tales of anxiety or satisfaction, mourning or tion I had just witnessed. My stock of small change, and I merrtment, legible in brief upon the faces of the motley and must add, co-equally therewith, that of my patience too, was many.featured throng around him, or at least, by the supple- nearly exhausted, when my eye fell upon the figure of a young mental aid of a little imagination, plausibly constructed from lad, who stood indifferently sheltered from the wind under the the elements thereby supplied. There is perhaps no period projected doorway of an uninhabited house.
I had made up so well fitted for these studies of life, as it is in its private and my mind to the customary solicitation : but he seemed so abmore important aspect, as the close of one of our short and stracted as not to notice my approach, and, pitying the for. busy winter days, when the pressure of diurnal toil is removed lorn looking youth, and wondering at his forbearance, I walked from men's minds, whether its effect has been to sway them slowly past, to give him an opportunity. I found him to be from the contemplation of joy or wretchedness, and unbiassed an organ-player, for the instrument, unslung from his shoulthey are left to imprint their character on the countenance of ders, rested upon the flag at his feet, and a brief notice of his each. When does cheerfulness appear 30 undiluted as when collapsed but characteristic features showed him to be an a long winter evening's recreation spreads out before it, Italian. A shivering marmoset, partly covered by his jacket, whether spent within the mellowed glow of a happy domestic was lodged on the hollow of one arm, while the other, resting hearth, with all its easy, pure, and unsuspicious pleasures, or on his raised knee, supported his head, as, unconscious of my in the social reunion with its friendly, careless, and unclouded proximity and observation, he gazed fixedly upon the ground. gaiety? and when does wretchedness feel so blank and dismal | The sight of mute personal privation and friendless loneliness as when a weary length of dim and rayless hours gives space would at such a crisis have been influential enough to stir up for all its melancholy broodings, undiverted by occupation, whatever humanity one had, but when witnessed in a stranunmitigated by that spirit of hope which more or less mingles ger from a far land, in one, too, nurtured under the sapphire with the temperament of all by day, as if a constituent of the skies and blissful clime of Italy, and withering now by a disglad light of heaven in which we then live and move. A mal change beneath such dense and murky clouds, and such cursory reading of the countenance of each passer by will at a pitiless and scourging breeze, the demand on one's kindly this hour give the poorest physiognomist no inaccurate notion offices was irresistible, and, drawing near to the desolate lad, of the complexion of his domestic lot; and, selecting an indi- | I accompanied a small gift with a few words in his own most vidual from the homeward-wending crowd, I often form my musical and thrilling tongue. He started from his musing speculation as to the scene that awaits him, follow him in the posture as the electric syllables struck upon his ear, and, as freedom of all-privileged and all-pervading thought across he gazed with keen enthusiasm upon me, the blood mantled the threshold of his abode, conjure up the circumstances of vividly upon his chilled and weather-wrinkled cheek, while his reception, glance through the perspective of his evening with grateful but melancholy earnestness he poured out his arrangements, and, as I find them agreeable or the reverse, thanks. There was something to me unusually touching in extend or curtail my domiciliary inspection.
the aspect of the friendless young foreigner, as well as in the During a recent winter, on one of its most cheerless even- circumstances in which I found him. He had a cast of thought ings, I was thus exercising my discernment and my fancy in and maturity in his face which hardship, isolation, and selfa long homeward walk through the centre of the city, and dependence, seemed to have anticipated years in producing : mentally apportioning to each that attracted my eye the for his slender and stripling figure, and the unshaven down share of satisfaction or discomfort that lay before him—my upon his lip, bespoke him still in an early stage of youth. own mind subject to the lights and shadows, the glow and After a word or two of compassion, I passed on. But his chill, which in various degrees were suggested as the lot of dashed and disappointed look at separation followed me: my each. It was precisely the evening to lend the keenest zest conscience chid me for resting in a cold gratuity to one so to the happiness of the light-hearted, and a more poignant dejected, yet so sensitive to relief-a spring of gladness for bitterness to the misery of the unfortunate. A cold icy whom my acquaintance with his native language, it appeared, wind whistled shrilly through every narrow street and entry could so easily unseal. as I passed it, and swept more boldly down the wider spaces, He was a stranger, weary, friendless, cheerless, and necesbearing, occasionally, slanting showers of sleet, which a glance sitous—unsusceptible of those mitigations of suffering which at the dun and overcharged canopy of snow-clouds and of even the poorest experience among their own people and their smoke above showed to be but premonitory intimations of a own kindred. I was hastening to my unshared, 'tis true, but heavy and continuous fall. For the most part, all below was far, therefore, from joyless lodgings, an abundant board, a impatient motion and occupied expectation, because almost all radiant fire, a storm and snow proof apartment, furnished had a goal in view to which they hastened, the fierce incle with all the appliances of comfort which winter covets; and mency of the weather impelling alike the mirthful and the would they be diminished by the admission of this homeless, melancholy onward. The well-fed, well-defended passenger, and, from his countenance, I dare certify, guileless wanderer, with muffled neck and arms thrust to the elbow in the pockets to share for a time their influence ? No. I have it in my of his dreadnought, rubbed shoulders with the half-paralyzed power to interpose one bright spot in his life of hardship and and shivering wretch that shuffled amid the hurrying throng, privation, to suspend for a while the yearnings with which often apparently without other object than that of joining in doubtless, at this hour of dreariness and suffering, he turns the stream of fellow-creatures, whom he could resemble in in thought to the scenes of his but recent childhood in his no other way. Carriage after carriage rolled past, the chil- own lovely land, to the sunny azure skies the joyous vine.
clad hills, the playmates that even now, perhaps, at the close richest man in our community. But when his son's courtship of a bright and genial day, are clustering in merry meeting for became known to him, he forthwith fell into a rage at the the
evening song and dance, his father's cottage, his mother's notion of so imprudent a match, for he was a purse-proud caress. “ Yes, I will turn back," exclaimed 1,' “and enable man, who valued his gold above most other things, above the him, if ever he rejoin the social circle in his own ardent home, beauty and innocence of our Bianca, and the pledged affecto tell his eager listeners a trait of kindness and sympathy tion of Francesco, for whom he looked far above us humble shared in the far off frigid country of the north.” Ås con people for a more equally dowered bride. Resolute to ex. cluded, I again stood before him, as with a shiver and a sigh tinguish his folly as he called it, at once, he solemnly vowed the poor lad was about raising his organ upon his shoulder to cut him off with a carlino, if he pursued his thriftless proagain ; and, telling him that I had been in and loved the land ject; and, not assured that even this would deter him, he de. from which he came, that I was fond of its people, and of their | termined to engage, likewise, the authority of my father, music too, and wished to talk with and hear him play at lei- whose strict and unswerving character was well known to sure and in comfort by my own fireside, asked him to accom- him, and accordingly besought him to lay his prohibition upon pany me to it.
A smile of gladness lighted up his pale Bianca. My father, who would have scorned to force a thus expressive face as he gratefully declared his readiness ; and forbidden union, hurried to comply with his wishes ; and in a car passing at the moment, I hailed it, and in a few se- Bianca's obedience there was found a surer safeguard than conds, young Carlo Girardi—for that he told me was his name in Francesco's fear of poverty, as, even in defiance of his - his chattering and half perished marmoset, his muffled father's menace, he vehemently urged my sister to become music mill, and my enlivened and approving self, were rattling his, and trust to the labour of his hands for their maintenrapidly to my lodgings. I found him a fine, intelligent, un- But my father's injunctions were habitually parahacknied lad, to whose fervid heart my partial knowledge of mount; and poor Francesco, finding her hesitation not to be his native tongue secured me ready access; and, after cold overcome, soon fell into despair and declining health. He beand hunger had given way to fire and food, I experienced no came melancholy, faint-hearted, and neglectful of all his old difficulty in drawing from him an ingenuous and vivid narra- occupations; and his strange and moody habits, quenched tion of his personal story—one so singular and romantic in spirits, and fast failing strength, so wrought upon his father's its character, and so illustrative of the purest impulses of the fear and affection, that he began to think it better to make human heart, as to merit a repetition better than many a some compromise, and forego a little of his ambition rather than more highly wrought and complex tale. Cleared of the cir- endanger Francesco's life. In consequence, he intimated to cumlocution caused by his indifferent stock of English, and my father that on reflection he was disposed to forward the converted into a dialect more uniform and familiar to our marriage, provided a certain sum, which he named, was ears, it ran substantially thus:
settled upon Bianca, as it was scarcely to be expected, he “ Í come from the neighbourhood of the little village of urged, that he would give his son and the heir of all his money Montanio, at the foot of the great Appennines. My father was, to a portionles's bride. My father acknowledged his request and I pray is still, a small vine-grower and gardener, supply: to be but natural, but professed at once the insufficiency of his ing the market of Telese, and other towns within reach, with means to satisfy it without impoverishing the rest of his fruits, flowers, and vegetables. We were a family of five- family; an act which, however devoted to the happiness of my father, my dear mother, my elder and only brother his daughter, conscience would not allow him to commit. Ludovico, my beautiful and gentle sister Bianca, and myself;" Old Martolini, finding him intractable upon the point, and his tone grew touchingly tremulous, as, in connection with proposed then, that as Bianca and Francesco were still very his cottage home, he went over the old, familiar, household young, their marriage should be postponed for at least three
« Oh, that I was ever called upon to leave them to years, at the end of which time, if he were prepared to give wander, unfriended and unknown, among rough and careless her a certain portion-making a large abatement from his first strangers, to forsake all pleasant things, the gay and glad demand—it might with his consent take place. But, exaspegreen fields, the sunny hills, the sparkling mountain streams, rated at his disappointment and forced concession, he added the flowered and fruited gardens, and the ever bright and a passionate oath, that on no other terms would he hear of beautiful sky which stretched its unclouded azure overhead, the connection, even though his son Francesco were such a for this cold and shivering, this dim and misty land! But yet I fool as to pine till it brought him to his death-bed. My would do as much again, if such a call again were made upon father, balanced between his anxiety to close an arrangeme_dark shame upon me if I hesitated !_and when I return ment so beneficial to Bianca, and his sense of the hardships to them once more—and oh, may heaven grant that now I and extreme frugality it would necessarily impose upon us all shortly may !- I will look with the greater rapture upon all I during the interval, desired a short time to make his deleft, upon beauties and on blessings I then too little, far too cision. The same evening he called all of us, except my little, cared for. My father was ever kind to us when we sister, to him-declared the proposal of Francesco's fatherwere in the way of obedience to his wishes and ideas of duty, asked our opinion separately upon it-and when with one but rigid and severe to resent every error we might commit. voice we all professed our readiness, our eagerness, to undergo I have heard the elder neighbours say that in his own young any and every additional labour and privation that might days he had been wild and perverse, and entangled thereby in take a tear from our gentle Bianca's eye, or add a blush or a many troubles, and that, therefore, in affection and providence smile to her now pallid cheek and lips, he answered, “ It is for us, he was the more exact in our care and education. I was just spoken as I would have you speak, my dear wife and too young to be much in the way of following my own bent, and children: but saying is easy, doing difficult. Three years so had little opportunity of offending him; but my brother will give you many opportunities of proving this, for there Ludovico, who was hot, daring, and adventurous, was often must be much denial, frugality, and toil, brief nights and led to look for wild and irregular excitement with the roving long and busy days, to enable us to accumulate within hunters and rude shepherds from the mountains above, and the time a sum so ill proportioned to our means." Bianca his mingling in their lawless society always raised my father's was then informed of the arrangement, and smiles of reresentment, and, despite my mother's exerted influence, often kindled hope and rapture mingled with tears of grateful love brought disquiet and disunion among us. But though reck- and sensibility; and her rapidly returning bloom and gaiety less and unsettled, Ludovico was ever frank, winsome, and gilded every thing around with its own gladness, and rendered honest-hearted, which, however, could not save him from our ruder and scantier fare and more lengthened labour pleasharing in the evil fame of his companions; and though his santer at times than the merry meeting and the music, which handsome figure, open temper, and ready offices for all who we could now of course but rarely join. The impulse of afsought them, made him a favourite with the young, yet the fection for dear Bianca was strong in every heart, and this, elder looked grave and severe upon him, as one already com- with the prospect of a happy completion of our undertaking, mitted in the road to ruin. Our sister Bianca, who, not in almost changed every sacrifice into a delight. But, young our eyes only, was the sweetest and prettiest maiden within though I be, I have now lived long enough to know, that as the circle of a league, drew to herself, as she grew up, the the brightest morning sky is often overcast before the close admiring looks of all; and at our gay village festivals, at the of day, so are our most shining hopes subject to many a sowing, vintage, and noted holidays, he was a happy and cloud and chill before, if ever, they attain to their fulfilenvied youth who could oftenest engage her hand for the ta- ment." (Here poor Carlo paused for a moment in his narrarantula, or follow her voice upon the mandoline. But the one tive; and with your leave, gentle reader, I too shall rest, who paid his court with most success was Francesco, the only till I have the pleasure of meeting you again in next week's son of Marcolini the wealthy miller, who was by far the Journal.)
J. J. M.
cine--and that, in the present state of our knowledge, is not much-I must say that, as an instrument of luxury in ordi
nary use, it is unwholesome and injurious. To the physi. Repose is the remedy which nature points out to tired mor- cian it may be satisfactory to ascertain in what way, pretals when exhausted either by mental or bodily fatigue. This cisely, the injurious effect is produced ; but it may suffice is her prescription for refreshing man's animal spirits, and others to learn from experience and observation what is the enabling him to resume his labours. Stimulants are by no actual result. It is obvious that tobacco causes an excitemeans congenial with her methods or her processes. They ment of the nervous system, and thus disturbs the course of are like whip and spur to the weary steed; they may force nature; but nature never is, and never can be, disturbed with him on indeed, but it is at the expense of his constitution and impunity. To apply a stimulus to the system for which his powers. In medical science, the great art, as the doctors there is no natural demand, is to cause a waste of nervous say, is to assist nature ; and with this view, the skilful prac- energy, of which nature has need for her own legitimate purtitioner will sometimes order stimulants, and find them doubt- poses, and therefore to inflict an injury upon her, greater or less highly useful to his patient ; but their habitual use is no less according to the amount of that uncalled for expenditure. maxim of the healing art, but much rather that of the de- To keep such an unnatural stimulus in constant action, is tanstroying or disabling one, if I may use the expression. By tamount to the creation of a constitutional derangement of the way, we are sadly prone to habits, and therefore it the functions, or the introduction of an actual disease into “stands us upon,” in a most serious degree, to consider well the body; and nobody will pretend to say that this is not inthe nature and probable results of any custom before we jurious. To my simple apprehension, it is anti-hygeian pracadopt it. In this astute and intellectual age of ours it has tice with a vengeance. I am no physician, but I believe been discovered that it is much easier to abstain altogether this to be the true theory of our subject, regarded in a physiofrom a dangerous indulgence than to adhere strictly to mo- logical point of view, and it is decisive against the nicotian deration, and temperance has been superseded by teetotal- habit, however small the quantity of the article used may be. ism; and I would just add to this, by way of corollary, that People are rather indisposed to believe that an it is much easier to slide into a bad habit than to get rid sensation can be an "unwholesome" one ; but unfortunately
agreeable" of it again. But to return to our theme. The effects pro- for poor humanity, and the popularity of us sages, nothing in duced by stimulants are all agreeable for the moment. Wine
nature is more certain than the possibility of such a conjuncand opium raise men above earth and all its cares ; and so
ture. It is not only certain, but, alas, commonly known by long as the stimulant lasts, they sit as it were at the supper experience, that an agreeable thing may be unwholesome, and of the gods. Anacreon is then the only ballad-monger, and a pleasant sensation anything at all but a symptom of healthwith him each is ready to sing,
Again, people are apt to suppose that no injury is done to
their health, because they are not sensible of the wound at the Let me the balm of Bacchus drink!
moment; but this also is a notion which we must class among In this delicious hour of joy,
vulgar errors. It is a matter of demonstration, not merely Young Love shall be my goblet-boy ; Folding his little golden vest,
of hypothesis, that we may sustain most grievous injury of With cinctures, round his snowy breast;
which we are not instantly sensible ; nay, that so long a time Himself shall hover by my side,
may elapse after the impression has been imparted, that we And minister the racy tide!
become unable to trace the effect to its cause ; and yet the reBut when the influence of the spell is over, immediately they lation of cause and effect stands sure, however ignorant or sink down as much below the level of ordinary mortals, as unconscious we may be of it. As an illustration of this posithey were before raised above it. For a delightful exhilaration tion, I shall mention a case which came under my own obserof body and mind, they now experience a sad reverse, in which vation. I was once acquainted with a gentleman, who at they find much more pleasing music in the prudent advice of eighty years of age was what would be called a stout, healthy the apothecary, than in all the Odes of Anacreon. The cry old fellow. He was certainly of a most robust constitution, is not then,
and had never addicted himself to any habit “ calculated to Let us drain the nectar'd bowl,
shorten life,” as they say at the Insurance Offices, saving and Let us raise the song of soul-&c. But,
excepting that of taking snuff. Well, it has been said to me, Let us drain the saline dose,
“See how your anti-nicotian theory is set at defiance by this Let's expel these humours gross.
hearty old fellow. If tobacco be a slow poison, it must be, Now, though poets have favoured us with many a canto on as was said of tea, very slow indeed, or how should we have the raptures inspired by flowing bowls and sparkling goblets, such an exemplary octogenarian as this, 'o'er all its ills victhey have rarely condescended to give us one line, if it were torious ?'. He has been taking snuff all his life, and yet, you only by way of note, on the state of the stomach" on the perceive, is nothing the worse for it.” Now, I did not permorning after one of those "nights and suppers of the gods.". ceive any such thing, but was well aware that the conSuch a detail indeed was never intended for the divine art of trary was the case. I was of opinion, and am now fully poesy. It is a job not at all calculated for the lover of agreeable convinced of the fact, that he suffered extremely, nay, infiction, and hence the world hears little on the subject. Those tensely, from the habit, without himself or others being at all after-reckonings are nevertheless serious, though unpalatable aware of it. I do not speak of a nose and face perpetually things. Pleasure here acts much like a tavern host, who re- begrimed with snuff-of a waistcoat and inexpressibles emmembers most accurately all the good things he provides, browned and powdered all over with it—of the expenditure of though his guests are both apt and willing to forget them. pocket-handkerchiefs, and waste of time in nose-blowingEvery item is carefully put down, and must be paid for. I everlasting sneezing and coughing, &c.: such matters are shall only say, that fortunate is he who takes warning in mere trifles in the estimate of your professed snuff-takers ; time. I'might moralise on this theme in good set phrase, but I do speak of an habitual depression of spirits, and frebut the ground has been so well and so frequently beaten by quently an access of the most miserable melancholy, to which others, that I forbear. With respect to such articles as this gentleman was subject, and which I attribute to his in. opium and spirits, the "spirit of the age," as I have al- veterate habit of snuff-taking, and to no other cause. He ready intimated, runs quite in an opposite direction to that would complain bitterly of his wretchedness on those occasions, of indulgence; and it is wisely considered that as those who and ascribe it to the skyey influences--the humidity of our can be temperate in the use of such ticklish commodities climate, the fogs, and I know not what besides ; but it was must owe a great deal to a happy temperament of constitu- nothing but “the snuff.”. Such intelligence would have tion, and be few in number, whilst the greater part of mankind doubtless been very unwelcome ; for this very snuff-this are not so felicitously moulded, the rule of teetotalism, viz., actual fons et origo malorum, ay, more snuff"_was his entire abstinence, is on the whole the safest and best. But most favourite remedy and consolation under these distressthere is one article in our pharmacopeia of stimulants, uponing visitations ! So much for our ignorance of causes. which there seems to be some difference of opinion, and with The late Doctor Adam Clarke was a great enemy to the regard to which I should wish to record my humble opinion. tobacco leaf, and published a strong paper in condemnation I to the
. high ground upon the subject.
the subject compels me to pronounce an unfavourable sentence no doubt-if destroying the constitution, and vilely squander. on this article. Whatever value it may possess as a media ing away the time and money which God has given for other