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purposes, may be termed sinful. I have observed some whole time you meet, or like the story of the Cosmogony in the families, and very poor opes too, who have used tobacco in all Vicar of Wakefield. It is a tune played on a barrel-organ. possible ways, and some of them for more than half a century. It is a common vehicle of discourse into which people get and Now, suppose the whole family, consisting of four, five, or are set down when they please, without any pains or trouble six, to have used but Is. 6d. worth a-week, then, in the mere to themselves. Neither is it professional pedantry or trading article of tobacco, nearly £200 sterling is totally and irre- quackery: it has no excuse. The man has no more to do coverably lost in the course of fifty years, Were all the with the question which he saddles on all his hearers than you attending expenses, such as appropriate implements, neglect have. This is what makes the matter hopeless. If a farmer of business, and other concomitants, taken into account, pro- talks to you about his pigs or his poultry, or a physician about bably four times the sum would be too small an estimate." his patients, or a lawyer about his briefs, or a merchant about

Captain Scott, in his interesting work “Rambles in Egypt stock, or an author about himself, you know how to acand Candia," says

count for this ; it is a common infirmity; you have a laugh “ All the Arab race are addicted to the use of the pipe, and at his expense, and there is no more to be said. But here is to this pernicious habit may be traced the origin of most of a man who goes out of his way to be absurd, and is trouble. their vices, and a great proportion of their misery." And some by a romantic effort of generosity. You cannot say to again, in a note, he observes——“ Nothing tends so much him, “All this may be interesting to you, but I have no conas the pernicious and universal habit of smoking to retard all cern in it;" you cannot put him off in that way. He has got improvement amongst the natives of the East, producing possession of a subject which is of universal and paramount habitual indolence, and occasioning an irreparable loss of interest, and on that plea may hold you by the button as long time." He calls it elsewhere the predominant vice of as he chooses. His delight is to harangne on what nowise Mahomedanism.” Now, with such warning and such ex- regards himself; how then can you refuse to listen to what amples before me, I own that I cannot contemplate the possi- as little amuses you? The business admits of no delay. The bility of my countrymen becoming a nation of smokers, question stands first on the order of the day-takes precewithout the utmost pain. I would wish to put all parties, but dence in its own right of every other question. Any other especially the young, on their guard against the insidious and topic, grave or gay, is looked upon in the light of imperti. seductive approaches of the habit. The elegant pipe, the nence, and sent to Coventry. Business is an interruption to splendid snuff-box, and all the curious conveniences of tube, it, pleasure a digression from it. As Cicero says of study, it light, tobacco-pouch, and so on, are so many lures to the follows the man into the country, it stays with him at home ; unwary; and many, by simply nibbling at these captivating it sits with him at breakfast, and goes out with him to dinner. baits, have been gradually led on, and at last turned into It is like a part of his dress, of the costume of his person, confirmed consumers. There is a temptation in the furniture without which he would be at a loss what to do. If he meets of our fashionable snuff and cigar shops— " divans," as they you in the street, he accosts you with it as a form of salutaare called, which it is hard to resist. It would seem almost tion; if you see him at his own house, it is supposed you worth while" to "consume," for the sake of encompassing one- come upon that. If you happen to remark, “it is a fine day," self with such beautiful toys; but I class all such resorts in the or “the town is full," it is considered as a temporary comsame category with the gin-palaces of London. Look to the promise of the question ; you are suspected of not going the end-observe what a confirmed habit of snuffing or smoking whole length of the principle. Is not this a species of sober is—how wasteful, how enervating, how every way pernicious madness more provoking than the real ? Has not the thenThe tyranny of it is dreadful. No man knows it thoroughly retical enthusiast his mind as much warped, as much enslaved but he who has once been its slave. The craving of the nose by one idea, as the acknowledged lunatic, only that the for once accustomed to be fed, for snuff-of the throat and mer has no lucid intervals ? If you see a visionary of this fauces once seasoned to the use, for smoke-and of the class going along the street, you can tell as well what he is teeth and gums once used to be drawn, for the reiterate thinking of and will say next as the man that fancies himself chew-oh, it is dreadful!—and I say there is no remedy a tea-pot or the Czar of Muscovy. The one is as inaccessible against the evil but teetotalism.

to reason as the other : if the one raves, the other dotes ! I have said nothing on those popular stimulants, tea and -Hazlitt's Table-Talk. coffee, for, as generally used, I think they are both innocent, COMFORTABLE CIRCUMSTANCES FAVOUR FORESIGHT.as they are certainly agreeable beverages. Let not my fair It is a most remarkable fact, totally at variance with what countrywomen, however, when they indulge in the "cup that might a priori be expected, but confirmed by the universal cheers but not inebriates"-I mean the Howqua, or any other experience of mankind, that the dominion of reason over the tea-mixtnre—aim at celebrity for preparing it over strong ; passions, the habit of foresight, and the power of forming a for in this state, like other stimulants that we have been con- systematic plan for the conduct of life, are just in proportion sidering, I have no doubt that it is bad for weak nerves. to the degree in which the danger of immediate or the pressure

F. of actual suffering has been removed from mankind. The

savage who has no stock whatever for his support—who is in PEOPLE WITH ONE IDEA.–There are people who have but the chase or his herds were to fail is totally regardless of the

danger of immediate starvation, if his wonted supplies from one idea : at least if they have more, they keep it a secret, for future in every part of the world ; while the rich man, whose they never talk but of one subject. There is Major C-; subsistence and affluence are almost beyond the reach of he has but one idea, or subject of discourse, Parliamentary chance, is incessantly in disquietude about the manner in Reform. Now, Parliamentary Reform is (as far as I know) which his subsequent life is to be spent. The certain prospect a very good thing, a very good idea, and a very good subject of instant death to himself and all that are dear to him, from to talk about ; but why should it be the only one? To hear the occurrence of a probable event, is unable to draw the atthe worthy and gallant Major resume his favourite topic is tention of the one from the enjoyments of the moment; while like law-business, or a person who has a suit in Chancery the slight and improbable chance of a diminution in the smallgoing on. Nothing can be attended to, nothing can be talked est articles of future comfort, renders the other indifferent to of but that. Now it is getting on, now again it is standing the means of present enjoyment which are within his reach.still ; at one time the Master has promised to pass judgment Alison's Principles of Population. by a certain day, at another he has put it off again, and called for more papers ; and both are equally reasons for speaking praise that is delightful. An artist,

for instance, how tired

APPRECIATION.- After all, it is appreciation rather than of it. Like the piece of pack-thread in the barrister's hands, he must

be of hearing his pictures called " beautiful, exquihe turns and twists it all ways, and cannot proceed a step site !"_of being told for the one hundredth time that he has without it. Some schoolboys cannot read but in their own book ; and the man of one idea cannot converse out of nis surpassed himself; but let any one point out to him one of own subject. Conversation it is not, but a sort of recital of his own thoughts on the canvass, which he supposed likely to the preamble of a bill, or a collection of grave arguments for escape the general eye, and how grateful it is? a man's being of opinion with himself. It would be well if Printed and published every Saturday by Gunn and CAMERON, at the office there was any thing of character, any thing of eccentricity in of the General Advertiser, No. 6, Church Lane, College Green, Dublin.all tbis ; but that is not the case. It is a political homily per- Agents :—R. GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley, Paternoster Row, London ; sonified, a walking common-place we have to encounter and

SIMMs and DINHAM, Exchange Street, Manchester ; C. Davies, North

John Street, Liverpool; Slocombe & SIMMs, Leeds; FRASER and listen to. It is just as if a man was to insist on your hearing

CRAWFORD, George Street, Edinburgh; and David ROBERTSON, Tronhim go through the fifth chapter of the Book of Judges every gate, Glasgow

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HOLY-CROSS ABBEY, COUNTY OF TIPPERARY. In a recent number of our Journal we led our readers to the named, as late as the year 1182, at which time it was banks of that beautiful river,

richly endowed with lands for its support by its founder. " The gentle Suire, that, making way

These grants were confirmed in 1186, by King John, then By sweet Clonmel, adorns rich Waterford;"

Lord of Ireland, who further ordered that the monks of this and we now return to it with pleasure to notice another of the abbey should enjoy all chartered liberties and freedoms, as beautiful architectural remains of antiquity seated on its appears from the following record of the 20th Edward I. banks--the celebrated Abbey of the Holy Cross. This noble A.D. 1320 :monastic ruin is situated in the barony of Eliogarty, county “ EDWARD, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Tipperary, three miles from Thurles, on the road to Cashel, of Ireland, Duke of Aquitain, to all to whom these presents and seven miles north-east of the latter.

shall come, greeting. Know ye that brother Thomas, Abbot The origin as well as the name of this celebrated monastery of the Church of Mary of the Holy Cross, near Cashel, came is derived from a piece of the holy cross for which it was into our Chancery of Ireland the day after the feast of Mierected as a fitting depository. This relic, covered with gold chael the Archangel, in the 13th year of our reign, at Cashel, and ornamented with precious stones, was, as O'Halloran and exhibited in our said Chancery a certain charter, not states, but without naming his authority, a present from Pope cancelled, nor in any respect vitiated, under the seal of John, Pascal II, in 1110, to Murtogh O'Brien, monarch of Ireland, formerly Lord of Ireland and Earl of Morton, in these words: and grandson to Brian Boru,who determined to found a monas- John, Lord of Ireland and Earl of Morton, to all justices, tery in its honour, but did not live to complete it. But, however barons, &c., as well French as English, Welsh and Irish, true this account may be as to the gift of the relic, there is and all other liege men of Ireland, greeting. Know ye, that, every reason to doubt it as far as the date of the foundation for the love of God, and for the salvation of my own and the of the monastery is concerned, which, as appears from the souls of my predecessors and successors, I have granted and original charter still in existence, was founded by Donald given, and by these presents do grant and give, to God and O'Brien, King of Limerick, the son of the Murtogh above the blessed Mary of the Holy Cross, and to the Cistertian

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CONCLUSION.

1

Monks serving God there, in free, pure, and perpetual alms, this church we may observe generally, that they are of very the under-written lands, as fully and freely as Domuald elegant taste of design. O'Brien, King of Lymberick, gave and granted, and by this Thus much of the abbey church itself; but of the ruins of charter confirmed to the Cistertian Monks of the Holy Cross; the cloisters, which are of meaner architecture, and of all the to wit : Kelkaterlamunu, Ballydubal, Ballyidugin, Bally other edifices appertaining to a monastic establishment of this girryr, Ballymyoletobin, and Ballytheloth, Gardath, Ballas- grandeur, though in a tolerable state of preservation, it would chelagh, Ballythougal et Ithologin. These lands I have be tedious to the general reader to give a detailed account, given for the salvation of my soul, and those of my predeces- nor would our present space permit it. Neither can we de. sors and successors, and for the souls of my soldiers who lie scribe what is of higher interest, the magnificent monumental there, to enjoy peaceably, with all liberties and free customs, remains for which this abbey is so eminently distinguished. without any secular exactions in fields, ways, forests, fisher. But we shall return to the subject in a future number, and in ies, &c. I have also granted that they shall be free from all the mean time we shall only add, that this abbey is well worthy mulets in my courts, for what cause soever they shall be the attention of the antiquary and arcbitectural student, and amerced, and also free of all toll whatever; they shall sell or that to the pleasure tourist of cultivated tastes it is of the buy, for their own use, throughout my land of Normandy, most delightful interest.

P. England, Wales, and Ireland ; and that their lands be not put in plevine.-Witnesses, a Bishop of Ferns ; John de Courcy, de Angulo, Riddel, Chancellor, and David of Wales.'

THE ITALIAN ORGAN BOY. It appears also that in 1233 the above charter of King John was confirmed by King Henry III, who took this monastery into his protection, which protection he again renewed CARLO having recovered himself, proceeded as follows :in 1234; and that it was again confirmed by King Richard “ In the thus light-hearted and unmurmuring though tedious II. in 1395, and that in 1414, James Earl of Ormond, and the and toilsome accumulation of the fund that was to purchase Lord Deputy Thomas le Botiller or Butler, prior of St station and happiness for Bianca, the first of the three years John of Jerusalem, further granted the protection of the sped prosperously past. Francesco—for old Marcolini, concrown to this house.

fiding in the integrity and industry of my father to fulfil the Thus protected and fostered by royalty, the Abbey of the conditional arrangement, laid no restraint upon him—was our Holy Cross became one of the most magnificent and wealthy almost daily visitor, and not rarely a cheerful assistant in the in the kingdom, and its mitred abbot was styled Earl of Holy lighter labours of our garden, in tending our rich parterres, Cross, the lands belonging to the abbey constituting an earl- our fig-trees, and our vines. One serious drawback on our dom. He was also a baron of parliament, and usually vicar- happiness—the first flush of devotion to Bianca over-we general of the Cistertian order in Ireland. The abbey was soon experienced. Ludovico, though at times he worked originally a daughter of the Abbey of Maig, or Monaster- harder and longer than the rest, and rejected the occasional Noiagh, in the county of Limerick, and was subjected to cheap indulgences my father permitted, had unfortunately that of Furnes in Lancashire by the Abbot of Clarevaux, in a been so entangled with his lawless and loose-living com. general chapter of the order in 1249. After the dissolution of panions, that after a while he was again seduced by them the monasteries in Ireland, Holy Cross Abbey with its appur- into scenes of profligate amusement and disgraceful licence. tenances was granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1563 to Gerald It mischanced that near the close of the year, the very day Earl of Ormond, in capite, at the annual rent of £15, 10s. 4d.; before the great fair of Telese, to which we had long looked and we believe this constitutes at present the estate, by pur- forward as likely to swell our savings much, our father met chase, of a worthy and deeply learned fellow of Trinity Col- with an accident which disabled him from going to it. The lege, namely, Dr Wall.

cart, laden with our richest and choicest garden produce, my As a monastic ruin, the Abbey of Holy Cross ranks in mother's eggs and poultry, and Bianca's contribution of nosepopular esteem as one of the first, if not the very first, in gays, needlework, and straw plaits, was in his unfitness Ireland. But though many of its architectural features are necessarily entrusted to the charge of Ludovico. At the fair of remarkable beauty, it is perhaps as a whole scarcely de he unfortunately fell in with some of his low-principled assoserving of so high a character; and its effect upon the mind ciates, who seduced him into a gambling booth, where soon, is greatly diminished by the cabins and other objects of a infected with the excitement of play, he hazarded a small mean character by which it is nearly surrounded. Like sum, which by an evil chance was returned to him threefold. most monastic structures of considerable importance, its Inflamed by the casy acquisition, he thought with rapture general form is that of a cross, consisting of a nave, chancel, how mueh readier a way this was for a lucky fellow, as he and transept, with a lofty square belfry at the intersection of appeared to be, to make his money, than by the slow and the cross : but it is distinguished from other structures of the dull and difficult returns of labour, and almost anticipated his kind in having in both of its transepts two distinct chapels returning home that night with Bianca's fortune in his pocket, beautifully groined_a feature which imparts much interest and an immediate abridgement, in consequence, of the weary and picturesqueness to the general effect. Between two of postponement of her wedding. He risked a higher sum with these chapels and the south transept there is a double row of success, another with disappointment, and so on with varying three pointed arches, supported by twisted pillars, each distant fortune, till a friendly neighbour, who had heard where he was, about two feet four inches from the other, and having a simi- came in and forced him with difficulty from the fatal fascinalar pointed arch in front. The object of this singular feature tion. He had been at the table but a short time, and had lost has given rise to much conjecture, but the more rational but little, which, to escape detection, he replaced by a loan; opinion seems to be, that it was designed as a resting place but he was inspired with a passion for play, which, whenfor the dead bodies of the monks and other persons previous ever an occasion was afforded, he eagerly indulged. But not. to interment in the abbey, or its cemetery. In addition to withstanding this, and the occasional losses and anxious this, the interior of the church has another very unique evasions to which it exposed us, our efforts flourished, and and remarkable feature, namely, that the choir arch is our reserved earnings increased apace. Never before had we not placed. as usual beneath the tower, but thirty feet in gathered such abundant returns from our garden and few advance of it, thus making the choir of greater length by four- fields, for never before had we tended them with half the care. teen feet than the nave, which is but fifty-eight feet long, the Our sales were quick as our produce was luxuriant, and entire length of the church being one hundred and thirty feet. before half the allotted period had expired, Bianca's purse This peculiarity appears, however, to be an after-thought, was by the half more valuable than we had ventured to expect. and not the design of the original architect, which was evi- At this time my father was induced by my mother's influence dently to limit, as usual, the length of the choir to the arch and representations to try and bring the suspense and postin front of the tower, and the second arch is unquestionably ponement of the nuptials to a close, by borrowing on security of more modern construction. The steeple rests on four what would complete the stipulated sum, and engage old beautifully groined arches, the supporters of which are con- Marcolini's consent to an immediate union. This was acnected in the centre by a great variety of ogives passing dia- cordingly done, the necessary sum furnished by a money-lender, gonally from their angles; and the roof of the choir, as well Marcolini's approval obtained, a day fixed, our festive arrangeas those of the side chapels, is similarly enriched. The nave ments made, and all was light and merriment. But, alas and appears to have been of meaner architecture, and has lost its alas! a cruel blow was in wait to dash to pieces our fond roof; but it has aisles formed by four pointed arches on each and joyous schemes, just as they seemed to approach reality, side, and which lead into the transepts. Of the windows in One morning, as by sunrise my father was going to the

garden-it was to decorate a bridal arbour which we had who could so basely forget every lesson of honesty he was constructed for the occasion—I heard from him, as he passed taught from his childhood, who could plunder his poor sister through the inner room, a cry of astonishment and dismay, of what we have painfully earned for her by the sweat of our and hurrying in, found him gazing in horror upon an open and, brows, and doom her to hopelessness and life-long loneliness, alas, empty box-it was the one in which Bianca's long to feed his own vile profligacy, would not scruple to dip his hoarded dower had been kept ! All was gone—the hardly hand in blood, ay, in the blood of his household, for their inhe. gathered earnings, the borrowed money, and with it all our ritance. We are not safe with such a one. Away to your mirthful plans and sparkling expectations ; and, though a brigand comrades of the hills-lead the villain life you incline grave, strong-minded man, he was for the time quite crushed to-do what you will--but never cross this threshold again ! and broken by the shock. Carlo,' said he, we are ruined, My mother and Bianca, roused by the noise, now hurried fearutterly undone. Villains have plundered us : your sister's fully into the room, and a glance at Ludovico's horror-struck heart will be broken, and there is nothing left for us but des and supplicating posture, at the shattered box, and my fapair. These weakened limbs could not go through such ther's inflamed and convulsed countenance, was enough another term of trial in the face of such misfortune. It will without words to inform them of the revolting truth. be well if they last long enough to earn what will meet the • My father's heart is hardened against me,' exclaimed demands of Bartolo the broker. Your brother, to whom Ludovico, and I wonder not. I have indeed been loosewe might else have looked for aid, is getting worse and worse lived and disobedient, but never base nor dishonest, and in his evil ways : he has turned-that ever I should have to let me not be now condemned because these appearances speak such words of son of mine !-yes, turned a worthless are against me. I solemnly swear by— My father fiercely profligate and gamester. The God of Heaven grant,' con-checked him. Add not perjury to infamy-it needs not tinued he, turning ghastly pale, and staggering against the swearing--the matter can be put beyond a doubt, ay, even wall as his eye fell upon a well-known knife, that, with its beyond your own audacious denial. Mark those footsteps blade broken, lay upon the floor, that it be not even worse. in the soft soil before the door : that bed was left by me Carlo, look on that, and tell me, O tell me, that you know it smooth and unruffled yesternight—they are those of the vil. not! With horror I recognized my unhappy brother's knife; lain thief; and, Ludovico, I cannot mistake the footprints of and a fragment of the steel fixed in the box showed too him who has wrought by my side since boyhood-wretched plainly in what base work it had been employed. I was father that I am! they are yours. Deny it if you can.' struck speechless at the sight; but in defiance of all evidence, Convinced in my own heart of his innocence, I sprang forward when I thought of my warm-hearted generous brother, í to apply the test, but soon recoiled in horror, as before the burned with anger at myself for my momentary misgiving, anxious eyes of all I proved the accurate correspondence of and almost fiercely chid my father for his dark suspicion. the marks-a shock which for a moment crushed my own • Carlo,' answered he gravely, you are yet childish and in- faith in my brother's truth. What now availed my mother's experienced, and know not the power of evil company, the entreaties, my sister's tears, Ludovico's continued passionate blight of that accursed vice upon every principle of truth and assertion of his innocence, to change the stern conviction of honesty. Your brother, I have told you, is an abandoned my father? He vehemently reiterated his sentence of banishgambler-consorts with all the dregs and refuse of the coun- ment, and counselled him, if he would mitigate the keenness try, mocks at the entreaties of a mother, the warnings of a of remorse, to confess his crime and return its ill-gotten fruits. father, the honest, ay, till he bore it, the ever honest name Ludovico, stung to the quick by his reproaches, and by the of his family ; and he who does all this, will, time and tempta- agonies of my mother and Bianca, felt resentment rise in his tion pressing him, but feebly shrink from the basest act. But heart to strengthen him to support his fate, and indignantly go,' added he with stern emphasis, call him. Though rose to depart. • Cease your prayers, my mother and my guilty, I will see him face to face before I lay my curse upon Bianca. Carlo, you will live, I feel, to see me righted, and my him. With fear and trembling, for I knew how terrible my father, too, to repent his harshness to his son, and his distrust father's temper was when roused, I was obliged to confess in one whom he has often detected in error, but never yet in that he had not spent the night at home; and his forehead ignominy. My sister, if my heart's blood could at this mogrew still gloomier and more wrinkled as he listened. ment be coined into treasure to replace that which you have

He said nothing, but fell upon a seat, folded his arms, and lost, and build again your shattered hopes, freely would I remained looking fixedly upon the ground in great and fearful pour it out. But words are idle to make your heart what agony of thought.

it was but an hour ago. I go_better any where than hereAbout half an hour afterwards, my heart leaped within me and if you hear of me again, it will be of one who has learned as I caught the sound of Ludovico's cautiously approaching seriousness from suffering, and proved by acts his love and steps—for on such occasions he strove to steal in unnoticed interest for you all.' As he finished speaking, he hurried from -and I rushed to the door. There indeed he was coming up the door without further farewell, and, plunging among the the walk in front. But what a figure !-his eyes were blood. thickly wooded slopes, was speedily lost to my passionate shot, his face haggard, his dress disordered, his gait uneven, pursuit. and altogether he appeared still under the power of a deep That evening, however, a boy left a billet from him to overnight debauch. My father upon hearing rose to meet Bianca, in which he mentioned his intention of trying to turn him, and at the sight of his agitated and afflicted features, his musical talent to account, by proceeding to England, Ludovico, overcome with dismay and confusion, only afforded where he was told that money was but lightly thought of, and confirmatory evidence of guilt.' Without a word, my father purses were ever open, and where he might readily glean both beckoned with his hand to him, and walking into the room, what would support himself, and supply something towards pointed to the forced and vacant box, fixing his eyes sternly enabling my father to meet Bartolo the usurer, and perhaps, and accusingly upon my poor brother, who with fainting knees too, old Marcolini, upon the day first fixed for her union with accompanied him. With constrained silence he then lifted up Francesco. He concluded by asking pardon from our offenthe broken knife from the floor, fitted it before Ludovico's ded confidence and affection for once more scornfully denying eyes to the fragment remaining in the lid, and then turning the odious charge--a denial which, amid our joint tears over up the haft, presented it to him. A cry of dismay and horror the letter, we believed as firmly as the words of holy writ. broke from his lips as he recognized his knife, and the terrible Why need I stay to mention all the gloom and grief which truth burst upon him.

was now spread over our but lately so bright and hopeful . I am innocent, oh, my father, I am innocent,' he cried household, for Ludovico, despite his thoughtless frowardness, as he fell on his knees before him. But, alas, the action, in had been the life and spring of all our movements. place of removing, was about to rivet the evidence of his guilt, My father's dark locks soon became streaked with grey, for as he stooped, a key fell from his pocket--a false one for for his prido of honesty in an unblemished name was sorely the door which led from the very room into the garden, which abased: his heart was wounded and enfeebled; and when the he had privately procured for the purpose of secret admission fever of his first anger was past, he began to think at times when belated in his revels. My father, without other reply, that perhaps he had dealt too hardly and hastily with Ludoseized it, applied it to the door, and opened the lock. He vico. My mother often wept: my sister's cheek' became wan then turned to him, as if every stay and doubt were banished, and pale

even with Francesco by her side : my own heart was and with a voice in which pain and sorrow only aggravated faint and joyless : cloud of spiritless sadness and depression passion, exclaimed, • Wretched boy, I disown thee! Never settled over all, and every thing seemed to lament him who shall villain, gambler, robber, liar, be called son of mine. was far away among strangers, in loneliness and disgrace-Away, then, from my presence and my roof for ever! He I him whose bold spirit, athletic form, and buoyant beauty, had,

Second Article.

BOULDERS-CONTINUED.

notwithstanding his frailties, been the pride and glory, plined, my necessary limitation of space compels me to forego. secret or avowed, of all.

I need scarcely add that I was instrumental in furnishing a But Providence is able and merciful to cleanse the character supplement for his insufficient means, and I did not lose sight of of the innocent and calumniated in the end, and after many the noble lad, till, with mixed emotions of buoyant anticipation, weary months Ludovico's was cleared before all the village by and perhaps momentarily regretful gratitude, he parted from the death-bed confession of one of his former associates, who, me on his return to Italy. In imagination I often make one of under the impulse of a late remorse, stated that the robbery the reunited family, and at times, too, indulge the hope that had been committed by himself—that Ludovico had on the the chances and changes of a shifting lot may some time ennight in question been designedly drugged by some of his able me in very deed to look on old Girardi and his spouse, accomplices—his knife taken and purposely left in the room, Carlo and the reformed Ludovico, the fair Bianca and the and his shoes borrowed for the same end, of warding search faithful Francesco, and claim a return in kind an evening or suspicion from themselves by his condemnation. By way spent among their gleeful rural party-for the fellow-feeling of expiation for the diabolical villany, he secretly menaced I had the good fortune to conceive for the desolation, and the his partners in the plot that he would reveal their names and part I was privileged to take in abridging the banishment, of give them up to justice, unless the money with the interest the Italian Organ Boy.

J. J. M. in full was forthwith restored, which in consequence was quickly done. And now that his son's good fame was established in the light of day, my father's breast was lightened of

KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE. the burthen of conscious disgrace, but only to suffer the more keenly the poignancy of self-reproach for the extreme and unjust severity of his treatment; and often would he bitterly accuse himself of savage inhumanity, and madly wish that by If the dreary waste of the sandy desert, when the hot and the sacrifice of his own life he could restore his exiled son to suffocating blast sweeps over its parched surface, appears his embrace once more. As I listened to his painful lamenta- to the affrighted traveller invested with all the charaetions and upbraidings, I formed a scheme, which was no sooner ters of sublimity, not less impressed with awe is the wandevised than I hurried to execute, of following Ludovico to derer of polar regions, when, gazing on the heart-chilling magEngland, of finding him, as in the credulity of inexperience nificence of the interminable ice which surrounds him, he I doubted not readily to do, and bringing him back with me hears the sigh of the coming snow-storm, fraught with danto home, to reputation, and to happiness. Knowing the op- ger or with death. But at a time when repeated voyages and position I would meet if I mentioned my secret, I collected as spirit-stirring narratives have rendered familiar to every one speedily as I could what money I supposed would defray my the beauties and the dangers of ice in every conceivable form first expenses, procured this organ, and my poor little marmo- of floe, of field, or of berg, and have excited sympathy for set, as I knew my wandering countrymen were wont to furnish the sufferings or admiration of the daring of those who, to themselves ; and leaving a letter with a young neighbour to advance the cause of science, or to pursue for commercial give when I was gone, took my way to Naples, whence I got purposes the mighty whale, have ventured within the precincts å passage to London. My heart often died within me as I of that icy kingdom, it is not necessary to describe the wandered through its great and busy streets, and many is solitary grandeur of a scene in which ice spreads like a sea the hour of sorrow and hardship I endured; but desire for beneath the feet, and rises as a mountain above the head. Ludovico, and the hope of finding him which never failed me, Not even, then, by the side of a cheerful fire, in these more carried me through all. For nearly a year I traversed temperate regions, shall we unnecessarily indulge in shudderEngland, much of Scotland and Ireland, supporting myself ings at the thought of distant powers of congelation, or enter by grinding this poor music. I have not my brother's fine further into the subject of polar picturesqueness. It is as a voice and skill, but the people here are for the most part geological agent that we have now to contemplate ice in the indulgent, and not so delicate to please as those of Italy. various forms of fields and bergs, or of glaciers; its efficiency But the good God guided me at last to a happy meeting with as a moving power being first considered. Scoresby justly an old Neapolitan, who alone, of the hundreds whom I ques- denominates ice-fields one of the wonders of the deep. tioned, was able to give me any information of Ludovico, with They are often," he says, “met with of the diameter of whom he had fortunately fallen in a few months before in this twenty or thirty miles; and when in a state of such close comvery city. With that cordial confidence which one is apt to bination that no interstice can be seen, they sometimes extend place in a fellow countryman when cast among strangers, to a length of fifty, or nearly a hundred miles." The average Ludovico had made known to him all his story, adding that, thickness of these fields is from ten to fifteen feet, and their having now by prudence and exertion of his talent for music surface is varied by hummocks, which rise to a height of from and few could touch a guitar or raise a voice like him-gathered forty to fifty feet. The weight of a piece of field ice, one a sufficient sum of money, he was about to return to Italy mile square and thirteen feet thick, is, according to Scoresby's and to the neighbourhood of his native village, to apportion estimate, 11,314,284 tons ; and from the difference of specific Bianca once more, and set on foot some inquiry to redeem, if gravity between ice and sea-water, this floating mass is sufpossible, his forfeited character, and fix the guilt of the ficiently buoyant to support a weight of stones or other heavy robbery upon the real offenders, whom long reflection on the bodies equal to 1,257,142, or in round numbers one million circumstances had erewhile led him to suspect. Oh! how my tons. heart thrilled and burned within me as I listened to the long- Grand, however, as such floating fields of ice are, they are sought blissful words, and knew that in very deed I was at exceeded in magnificence by bergs. One of these, Scoresby last upon the track of him-though the rapture of an unex- relates, was one mile in circumference, fifteen hundred feet pected meeting in this foreign land I was not to have_after square, and a hundred feet above the level of the sea; so that, whom I had made such a weary pilgrimage in vain. Not in allowing for the inequalities of its surface, he considered its in vain neither. I have done what I could, and when I stand depth in the water seven hundred feet, its total thickness proudly amid my family once more, and receive their embraces eight hundred feet, and its weight about forty-five millions of and congratulations, say, shall í be without my reward ? tons—an enormous mass, capable of transporting at least five My daily gleanings I hoard with the eagerness of a miser: little millions of tons of extraneous weight. In number, too, they do I spend on food or lodging: for when I think of my own are as remarkable as in magnitude: above five hundred were dear Montanio, of those to complete whose happiness l alone counted by Scoresby from the mast-head at one time, of which am wanting, I have but one wish, one prayer—to have where- scarcely one was less than the hull of a ship, about a hundred withal to carry me to my own beautiful land again, to my as high as the ship's mast, and some twice that height, or two father's blessing, my brother's love, my mother's and my hundred feet above the surface of the sea ; hence in total thicksister's arms."

ness about sixteen hundred feet. These, then, it must be adTears of tenderness and rapture started to the eyes of the mitted, are mighty engines fitted for the transport of rocks of ardent and devoted youth as he thus concluded his narrative, colossal magnitude. But in the reasonings of sound philoin which the fervour and interest of truth were, as he told it, sophy, the apparent fitness of an object to perform some parbeautifully blended with much of the elevation and singu- ticular function cannot be deemed sufficient to establish the larity of romance.

reality of its action : further proof is necessary, either de Further particulars respecting this generous witness to the rived from analogy or from positive facts. In respect to disinterestedness and fortitude with which family and frater. ice-fields, the easiest of observation, it is remarkable that nal love can inspire the young, the delicate, and the undisci- neither of the Captains Scoresby speaks of having noticed ex.

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