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traneous matter upon them, unless the expression “ heaps of doubtless already given a tolerable inkling of the reasons rubbish,” in a passage of the voyage of Scoresby senior, means upon which this species of explanation of the phenomerubbish of stones as well as rubbish of ice. Examples will non of boulders has been founded. Captain Bayfield, of indeed be quoted from other writers, but the comparative the Royal Navy, the able surveyor of the Canadian lakes scarcity of transported matter on the upper surface of the and of the river St Lawrence, 'records similar facts obfields of ice, seems a natural consequence of their mode and served by him in that river. The St Lawrence is in place of formation. Formed in bays or gulfs, some portions of winter low, and the ice on the shallows along both banks them are broken off by the violence of the waves at a dis- of the river is frozen into one connected mass by a tempera. tance from the shore, and never therefore come in contact ture which often sinks to thirty degrees below zero, or sixtywith rocks or stones ; whilst others, grounding in shallow wa- two degrees below the freezing point. When the thaw sets ter, encase many in the substance of their lower surface, al- in, these masses are raised up and floated away, and with though none are seen on the upper.

them an extraordinary quantity of blocks and stones which The conditions, indeed, which are necessary to ensure a had been encased by the frost in their substance. In like load for the carrying ice, such as proximity to the rocks the manner, anchors which for the security of the ship in detached fragments of which are to rest on its surface, are winter had been fixed near the shore, were obliged to be more peculiarly present in ice formed under or brought into cut out of the ice, or they would have been carried away. contact with precipitous rocky banks, and in that formed Half a ton weight of one of the strongest chain cables in deep narrow gulfs-in short, in ice constituted after the was torn off and carried many yards away, when means manner of glaciers. A large portion, therefore, of field ice were taken to cut it out. Captain Bayfield also mentions the must necessarily float_about unencumbered with rubbish or fact that he had often seen at sea icebergs laden with stones. fragments of rook. Boethlingk, in treating on the diluvial | In the Straits of Belleisle the captain examined one amongst and alluvial formations of South Finland, incidentally touches many which must have come from Baffin's Bay; it was upon this subject. " The dispersion,” he observes, * of these thickly covered over with blocks, gravel, and stones. M. blocks, is very probably in accordance with a phenomenon Reinecke, an officer of the Russian navy employed on a sur. which may be observed on many seas and rivers, and which vey of the coast of Finland, relates two pleasing though depends on the presence of blocks of stone near the shore. minor incidents of a similar kind. The fishermen of SweaThrough what force and in what manner the deposition of borg pointed out to his officers that the sea-bottom of their large blocks on the surface of all those formations which are coast was subject to frequent change, partly from the action at the water's brink even now happens, can be observed of the waves in violent storms, but more particularly from every spring, by any one who, at the breaking up of the the force of traction exercised by enormous bodies of ice ice, repairs to those parts of the coast where the shore bears which are set adrift at the breaking up of the frost, and being testimony, by, the numerous blocks heaped up one upon the arrested in their progress by some of the numerous headlands of other, of their forcible deposition. Near Kiwinjemei

, on the the coast, or by the shoals which there encumber the sea, are Wwoxen, there is, as it were, a wall nine feet high, stretch- heaped up one upon the other into colossal masses, which, liing along the flat shore, composed of blocks of stone which have berated by some new shock, are again violently urged forward, been gradually raised by the masses of ice. In several places and drag along with them the sand of the bottom, and even large such stones, three feet in diameter, were lying on flakes of fragments of the rocks. At the village of Kittelholm, near ice, which, pressing onwards to the shore, had been shoved one Sweaborg, the inhabitants directed the officers' special attenover the other to the height of six or eight feet; so that tion to two such erratic blocks of stone, which at a very reno one could doubt the fact that the ice-flakes had been the cent period had changed their place : resting on a rock of carriers of the stones ; and also, where the steepness of the the coast called Witthella, and at a height of three sagènes ground permits the near approach of ice-shoals to the shore, (about 21 feet) above the level of the sea, there now appears that the blocks would be heaped up one over the other into a block of granite, called by the sailors“ sea calf,” from its a terrace or wall ; whilst, on the contrary, on shallow coasts resemblance to a seal basking in the sun. This block was they would be scattered in the water, at a distance from the first seen in its present position in 1815. It had been encased shore. The deposition of blocks depends therefore on the shore in a mass of ice, which, raised up by the waves in a storm, being accessible to ice-shoals driven in by winds or currents. had rested on the level top of the rock, and there melted as it Small blocks, also, are often cemented together by ice when the thawed; the boulder, brought probably from a distant region, water over shallows, the bottoms of which are covered with being left where it now stands. The other erratic block or boulloose stones, freezes; and when the water rises in the spring, der of Kittelholm had been observed by the inhabitants in or in consequence of storms setting in from the sea, the ice also the winter of 1806 to shift its place, being dragged on by the rises, and with it the encased stones; and being driven out to sea, ice for a distance of about one-third of a mile. But all these the stones, by the melting of the icy cement, are dropped in va- were carriers of small note and name when compared to rious places. In this way it is very probable that the boulders those of vast bulk and power described by Scoresby. "Many,” which lie scattered over the surface of the countries south says he, “of the icebergs contained strata of earth and stones, of the Baltic were transported from Scandinavia and Finland and some were loaded with beds of rock of great thickness, on ice-shoals, at a time when the East Sea yet spread over and weighing by calculation from 50,000 to 100,000 tons. those regions. Banks also are thrown up along the shore by When, therefore, we see such operations going forward in our the ice; they are never composed of large stones, but on flat own time—the iceberg loaded with its freight of gravel and of sandy shores principally of sand.

rocks, moving slowly from the frozen north to the south, Where the water-level was constant for a considerable where, melted by the increasing heat, it is destined to distime, during which banks were formed, they show by their charge its cargo indiscriminately on mud, on gravel, or on height above the present flow of the water how much the rock, in the plain or on the hill, in the valley or on the condition of the latter has been changed. When two such mountain top (for all these forms of matter and of feature banks lie one behind the other, at the same level, or suc- may be reasonably assumed to diversify the bottom of the cessively like terraces, we are justified in concluding that present ocean, as it did that of a former one, now the sure the level of the water has changed and the land been increas. face of our dry land)—may we not conclude with Lyell or ed, or that the one has sunk and the other in consequence ad- with Wissman, with Murchison or with Darwin, that were vanced upon it. In confined basins this sinking may have that bottom exposed dry to our view, it would in like manbeen the consequence of the outlet widening by wear, and ner exhibit its phenomena of gravel and of boulders ? in open seas by the upheaving of the land. On all the Nor would these appearances be confined to the nor. large lakes of Finland are seen banks and terraces, as well thern regions; the reign of frost and snow has extended as single blocks of stone, on the slopes. The terraces of- over a wider space in the antarctic than it has in the arctic ten lie one above the other, which indicates sudden depres- circle. Mr Murchison quotes from a letter of Captain sions of the water's surface at different periods, each bank Harcourt, R. N., who in returning from South America met or terrace marking the water-line of a particular period, with a vast number of ice-floes in the Pacific, in latitude 50 in which were deposited in strata many kinds of detritus degrees. Some of them were not less than two miles square, mixed up with vegetable substances.' These remarks of and 250 to 300 feet above the water, and consequently about Boethlingk, originally recorded in the “ Bulletin of the Aca- 2000 feet thick. It is remarkable that this phenomenon demy of Sciences of St Petersburg," are here cited from occurred from 85 degrees west longitude, at a considerable the “ Neues Jahrbuch von Leonhard und Bronn.” They distance from any land, to the meridian of Cape Pillar, are valuable, as results of personal observation, and have I while the immediate coasts of Chili and Cape Horn offered no trace of them. The winter was comparatively mild, which were indeed in all probability the result of the joint operation might indeed account for the liberation of such large masses of the marine current which moved onwards the floating ice, of ice from the South Pole, and their being wafted into seas and of the ice itself. In these lines or trainées, two sets have usually quite free from them. The number and size of these been discovered-one crossing the other at a very acute angle, ice-floes were so astonishing, that Captain Harcourt, during a circumstance which may possibly be explained by supposing the long winter moonless nights of eighteen hours, had great two currents simultaneously running from the north being difficulty in steering through them without shipwreck ; their inflected by local peculiarities into slightly differing directions, course seemed to be from south-east to north-west, and they and then, on meeting, proceeding in a direction the resultant were met with through five degrees of latitude (50 to 55 of the two ; the direction of the resultant varying at differdegrees), which would be the exact position of England if ent epochs according as one or the other current, from varying transferred to the other hemispbere. May we not then shud- local causes, possessed the greater or less velocity; if so, the der at the thought of that dreary future, in which, by some natural result of such meeting currents would be to deposit physical changes of the earth's surface, according to the along their resulting direction lines of drift, to form in this theory of Mr Lyell, the conditions of the earth's superficial manner shoals on which the floating ice would occasionally temperature may be reversed, and bring down upon the coasts ground, and by its load of gravel and boulders assist the work of our ill-fated island those frost-bearing monsters to bite up of detritic accumulation. every living thing by one common congelation ; for we may In as far, then, as the phenomenon of boulders is exhibited well suppose, that long ere that dismal period our cold-dispel- in the low lands of Europe (leaving other countries out of the ling fuel, turf, coal, and all, will have been utterly consumed. question), it seems quite in conformity with the operations of But let us comfort ourselves with this selfish reflection—it causes such as have been here explained. But it may next will not be in our day.

be asked, How does the ice-transporting theory explain the Numerous as the icebergs of the antarctic regions are, they boulders of the Alps ? Had the waters been sufficiently elehave as yet afforded few examples of transported materials. vated to convey icebergs over the Jura chain, the ScandinaOne, however, of very considerable interest, is thus recorded vian mountains would have been deeply submerged, and no in a Journal of Discoveries in the Antarctic Ocean in 1839, longer, therefore, a source either of ice or of boulders. This by Mr John Balleny, communicated to the Geographical is unquestionably a difficulty, unless it be assumed either that Society by Mr Enderby, the ship-owner. “ March 13. Light some great change of relative altitude has taken place by variable winds from the eastward; surrounded by icebergs. the uplifting of the Alps since the deposition of its boul. In latitude 61 degrees, longitude 103 degrees 40 minutes, ders, or that the Alpine boulders have not been conveyed by passed within a quarter of a mile of an iceberg about 300 feet marine agencies. Lyell supposed it possible that falling high, with a block of rock attached to it.” The rock is de- ** hill-sides” might have dammed up the vallies of Switzerland, scribed as about 12 feet in height and about one-third up the and have formed lakes, on which the icebergs from its uplifted berg. The nearest certainly known land (Enderby's Land) glaciers might have floated across to the Jura, and have been was distant from the spot 1400 miles ; Sabrina Land, if such carried down to the low country at the base of the Alps, by exists, was distant 450 miles ; and it is very improbable that the sudden bursting of the barrier, and the food following it; any land will be discovered within 100 miles. Mir Darwin, in and Wissmann (who strangely enough ranks Lyell, manifestly an interesting note on this Journal, mentions a preceding his precursor in this idea, amongst the advocates of the theory case of an iceberg with a considerable block lying on it, seen of torrents) in like manner assumes the existence of a large east of South Shetland by Mr Sorrell, when in a sealing vessel ; sea extending over the low portion of Switzerland, the country and though another voyager, Captain Briscoe, during several now bordering on the Lake of Constance, and the greater part cruises in the antarctic seas, had never once seen a piece of of Bavaria, on the waters of which the ice of falling glaciers rock in the ice, he remarks, that if but one iceberg in a with its cargo of boulders floated across. This sea was not thousand or in ten thousand transports its fragment, the bot. however, like Lyell's, the result of a secondary accident, but tom of the antarctic sea and the shores of its islands must arose, encircled and walled in by mountains, on the last upalready be scattered with masses of foreign rock, the coun- heaving of the Alps. Its waters overflowing their bounterpart of the erratic boulders of the northern hemisphere. dary at the lowest points, according to Wissmann enlarged

Such, then, are the facts on which modern geologists, and the passages of discharge, which giving vent to the waters, more especially Mr Lyell, have founded the theory of ice- gradually lowered and finally emptied the sea, leaving the transported boulders, appealing to the experience of that valley of the Rhone and of the Rhine as a relic. If, how. which is now occurring in existing seas as evidence of that ever, hypotheses of at least equal probability have been rewhich did occur in seas not now existing-seas which once jected either as depending too much on supposititious data, or covered or at least rose to the level of places which exhibit as being imperfect explanations of the phenomena, there these relics of their presence. Presuming, then, for an in- seems no greater reason for admitting these. Such accidents stant, that the fact is conceded, that at some ancient epoch as those suggested by Mr Lyell have indeed occurred in the the low lands of a large portion of the northern and southern Alpine regions ; rivers have been dammed up either by fallhemispheres were under water, whilst the higher hills and ing hill-sides or by falling massos of ice, and on bursting mountains were covered with snow, and their gorges and through these obstacles, have poured down in fearful devalleys filled with glaciers, which on descending to the ocean struction on the plain below. But how diminutive are carried with them fragments of rocks, and became as ice- such catastrophes in comparison to that which must have bergs their carriers to distant regions, do we not obtain an attended on the dispersion of the Alpine boulders ! and alexplanation of the phenomena of boulders more simple and though the lake of Wissmann's hypothesis is sufficiently exrational than any of those previously advanced ? For example, tensive to transport the boulders through a very wide Kirwan in his Essays tells us that the Bay of Galway must space, it is insufficient to account for those in Franchehave been occupied by a granitic mountain, which in a great comté ; whilst, if we suppose with him that the last elevation catastrophe was shattered and swallowed up, because he of the Alps was prior to the deposition of the Molasse, it found a mass of granite called “the Gregory” on one of the seems improbable that all the great openings of discharge, or isles of Arran, 100 feet above the sea, and 8 or 10 miles from vallies, should have been formed since that period. Must we the nearest granitic locality, the islands themselves being then turn from these explanations, and again suppose great limestone. But such a mass, though 20 feet long, 10 high, relative changes of altitude by vast upheavings of mountain and 11 broad, if floated across on an iceberg, could have been chains in comparatively recent times, giving rise to diluvial deposited at its destined place by machinery more simple waves, or, as supposed by De Beaumont, such upheavings than such a catastrophe. In like manner, how easily the being accompanied by a sudden rise of temperature, to the granitic blocks of Scandinavia could by similar means have sudden melting of huge masses of snow and ice, and to powbeen transported across the Baltic !-and at the same time erful torrents resulting from it ? Are we in short to appeal many of the phenomena of drift (a name now given by many with Kapp to the testimony of the Chinese Annals, elucidated geologists to what was formerly called diluvian) might be by Edward Biot of the French Academy, for evidence of explained, as shown by Mr Lyell in his account of the Norfolk such changes ? In them, mention is indeed made at dates of drift, by the action of floating fields of ice carrying with them 2400 and 3300 years before our era, of the elevation of two sand and gravel, or grating and heaping up the sand and mighty chains of mountains, by which an ancient sea was grarel of shoals on which they were beginning to ground, as raised

up and became the present Marsh of Gobi, having been shown in the examples cited. The long lines of drift and drained by an arm of the Yellow River, or through the valboulders extending from north to south in northern Europe I ley of Tsischi, and at the same time the course of the Yellow

was

and many other rivers were greatly changed. But, truly cu- drop from their flight, weltering in their blood, or perhaps rious' as such documents undoubtedly are, and worthy of the perishing with wounds and hunger, under the cover of some most attentive research in order to ascertain what support friendly thicket to which they have in vain retreated for can really be given to geological theories by historical evi- safety; they triumph over the unsuspecting fish, whom they dence, they could not be received as conclusive in respect have decoyed by an insidious pretence of feeding, and drag to the face of Europe, unless something like a chain of de him from his native element by a hook fixed to and tearing out ductive reasoning from observed facts could be adduced in his entrails ; and to add to all this, they spare neither labour support of them. What, then, is the state of the case ?

nor expense to preserve and propagate these innocent ani. Must we reject the ice-transporting theory as insufficient, and mals, for no other, and but to multiply the objects of their stand in despair of ever finding a clue to our difficulties ? persecution. What name should we bestow on a superior Far from it: the very difficulty itself points to the true ex- being whose whole endeavours were employed and whose planation. The northern or Scandinavian boulders are not whole pleasure consisted in terrifying, ensnaring, tormenting, mixed with the Alpine on the low grounds at the base of and destroying mankind ?--whose superior faculties were the Jura, and this circumstance shows us that there was a exerted in fomenting animosity amongst them, in conlimit to the space over which these boulders were transpor- triving engines of destruction, and inciting them to use ted, and that limit was, probably, the result of the ele- them in maiming and murdering each other ? - whose power vation at which the ocean then stood. Whilst, then, this over them was employed in assisting the rapacious, deceiving ancient ocean conveying from the Scandinavian the simple, and oppressing the innocent ?--who, without propeaks its falling glaciers loaded with fragments of rocks, vocation or advantage, should continue from day to day, the glaciers of the Alps were conveying over the ice-covered void of all pity and remorse, thus to torment mankind for land the fragments of its broken pinnacles. Such a union of diversion, and at the same time endeavour with the utmost the two modes of transport, combined with sea currents, care to preserve their lives, and to propagate their species, seems at once consistent with reason and efficient in explana- in order to increase the number of victims devoted to his tion; for example, it explains the difficulty experienced in malevolence, and be delighted in proportion to the miseries understanding the ancient glaciers of the northern face of which he occasioned? I say, what name detestable enough our Dublin mountains, where we see limestone gravel and could we find for such a being ? Yet if we impartially confragments of red sandstone accumulated against their base sider the case, and our intermediate situation, we must up to a certain point where they end abruptly, and gravel of acknowledge, that, with regard to inferior animals, just such primitive rocks begins. The limestone gravel and fragments a being is a sportsman.Disquisitions on Several Subjects, of sandstone may have been conveyed there, and heaped by Soame Jenyns. up by the pressure of drifting ice, whilst the descending glacier conveyed primitive fragments, and pushed up before it into a heap the limestone gravel. We have there

HISTORY OF PAPER-HANGINGS. fore now come to the consideration of the glacier theory, Abridged from a paper by Mr Crace, read before the Royal Institute of which, propounded and explained by Agassiz, has assumed

Architects. not merely a character of sublimity, but of demonstration. PAPER HANGINGS may be divided into three separate branches, This I shall enter upon in another article, to which I shall the flock, the metal, and the coloured; and each of these also defer some necessary remarks on the supposed causes of seems to have been invented at a different time, as an imitathat great and general refrigeration which Agassiz assumes, tion of a distinct material—the flock to imitate the tapestries and the facts support. But even now I cannot refrain from and figured velvets, the metal in imitation of the gilt leather, answering a question which may possibly be asked by some, and the coloured as a cheap substitute for painted decorations, Why do you place so abstruse and difficult a subject before Professor Beckman says that the former of these, the fock, the readers of a popular work? I do so, because, though was first manufactured in England, and invented by Jerome assuredly of no easy solution, the boulder question is one Langer, who carried on the art in London in the reign of replete with interest, and calculated to excite the attention of Charles the First, and obtained a patent for his discovery, many who perhaps never before thought that in those time-dated May 1st, 1634. Various French and German authors worn stones was matter to exercise the deepest reflection of give us the credit of this invention, yet it is disputed by a the philosopher. But this is not all. To follow up the theories Frenchman, M. Tierce, who in the Journal Æconomique says, of the astronomer, instruments, and “appliances to boot,” that a man named Francois carried on this art at Rouen so early are necessary, which few can possess; but to seek for geolo- as the years 1620 and 1630, and affirms that the wooden blocks gical data, the inquirer needs only health, his hammer, and employed are still preserved with the before-mentioned dates his bag. When, therefore, as so powerfully urged by Mr Pat- inscribed on them." Francois was succeeded by his son, who terson, in his beautiful address to the Natural History Society followed the business with success for fifty years, and died at of Belfast, our national system of education shall include Rouen in 1748. M. Savary, in his Dictionnaire de Comwithin it an elementary course of natural history, we may merce, thus describes the manner in which the French manuhope to see in each of its trained schoolmasters not a "vil- factured their tonture de lane, or flock hangings:-The lage Hampden,” but a "village White” or a "village Saus- artist having prepared his design, drew on the cloth, with a sure," and in each locality around him a group of young and fat oil or varnish,

the subject intended to be represented ; and ardent naturalists growing up with a taste and enthusiasm then the flocker, from a tray containing the different tints of for scientific research which not only will infuse happiness flocks, arranged in divisions, took the colours he required, over their own breasts, but multiply the data for correct de- and sprinkled them in a peculiar manner with his finger and ductions. And in what branch of geological inquiry is such thumb, so that the various shadows and colours were properly a multiplication of materials more required than in the one we blended, and an imitation of the wove tapestry produced. have been discussing ? Happy times, then, for science, mo- Of the second branch, the metal papers, I do not find much rality, and religion, when a taste for research shall have mentioned by the older writers ; and of the coloured papers been budded on the earliest shoot of man's intelligence! I almost despaired of finding any early account, till, in an old

J. E. P. French dictionary of commerce, printed in 1723, under the

head of Dominoterie, I discovered an account which seems

to give the origin of the present system of paper-staining. CRUELTY TO ANIMALS. Though civilization may in some Dominoterie is an ancient French name for marble paper, degree abate the native ferocity which prompts men to tor- such as used by bookbinders; and the early French paperture the brute creation, it can never quite extirpate it. The stainers were associated with the makers of that article, most polished are not ashamed to be pleased with scenes of bar- as a class called dominotiers. The manufacture is thus barity, and, to the disgrace of human nature, to dignify them described :with the name of sports. They arm cocks with artificial The design having been drawn in outline, on paper pasted weapons, which nature had kindly denied to their malevolence, together of the size required, the paper was then divided into and with shouts of applause and triumph see them plunge parts of a suitable size, and given to the carver or wood them into each other's hearts; they view with delight the engraver, to cut the designs on blocks of pear-tree, much trembling deer and defenceless hare, frying for hours in the in the same manner as at present. The outline thus cut was utmost agonies of terror and despair, and at last sinking printed in ink with a press, resembling that then used by the under fatigue, devoured by their merciless pursuers. They letter-press printers, on separate sheets of paper. When dry, see with joy the beautiful pheasant and barmless partridge I they were then painted and relieved with different colours 14

a

distemper, and afterwards joined together, so as to form the inferior parts by young girls, of whom more than fifty were required design. The author then adds, that grotesques employed; and had this undertaking been supported by the and panels in which are intermingled flowers, fruits, ani-government, it would, I think, have been more available as a mals, and small figures, have up to this time succeeded better school for our rising artists, and of infinitely greater service, than imitations of landscapes, or other tapestry hangings, than our present school of design, for it would have been a which are sometimes attempted, and refers to article 61 of working school, and no other, I am convinced, will be of any the French laws in 1686, which confirms the statutes pub- use in forming a talented race of decorative artists in this lished in 1586, 1618, and 1649, in which rules are given as to country. There was also about this time another establishwhat kind of presses, &c. are to be used by the dominotiers, ment similar to the former, conducted by Mr Sheringham, in and prohibiting them under heavy penalties from printing Marlborough-street. with types.

From this time the French began to excel in this superior Recurring to the subject as connected with this country: branch of the art, which with us had fallen on such barren in the year 1754, a Mr Jackson, a manufacturer of paper- ground. Their manufacturers were encouraged in every way hangings at Battersea, published a work on the invention of by their government and the Emperor Napoleon to attempt printing in chiaro oscuro, and the application of it to the mak- that perfection which they have now so successfully attained. ing of paper-hangings, illustrated with prints in proper colours. -Engineer and Architeci's Journal. This book is a sort of advertisement of the kinds of papers made, and the mode of manufacture employed by him. He adopted a style of paper-hangings executed with blocks in chiaro oscuro, in imitation of the most celebrated classic Sir Walter Scott.— The following extract from the subjects.

Diary of Sir Walter Scott (see his Life by Lockhart) touchTo use his words, “ The persons who cannot purchase the ingly exemplifies the state of his feelings at the period of his statues themselves, may have these prints in their places, and ruin, of the total loss of property and frustration of all his thus effectually show their taste. "l'is the choice and not the bright hopes by the bankruptcies of the Ballantynes and Conprice which discovers the true taste of the possessor ; and stable :- * It is a bitter thought; but if tears start at it, let thus the Apollo Belvedere, the Medicean Venus, or the Dying them flow. . My heart clings to the place I have created. Gladiator, may be disposed of in niches, or surrounded with There is scarce a tree on it that does not owe its being to me. a mosaic work in imitation of frames, or with festoons and What a life mine has been !-half educated, almost wholly garlands of flowers, with great taste and elegance; or, if pre- neglected or left to myself ; stuffing my head with most non. ferred, landscapes after the most famous masters may be in- sensical trash, and undervalued by most of my companions for troduced into the paper. That it need not be mentioned to a time; getting forward, and held a bold and clever fellow, any person of taste how much this way of finishing with contrary to the opinion of all who thought me a mere dreamer ; colours, softening into one another with harmony and repose, broken-hearted for two years; my heart handsomely pieced exceeds every other kind of paper-hanging hitherto known, again, but the crack will remain till my dying day. Rich and though it has none of the gay, glaring colours in patches of poor four or five times ; once on the verge of ruin, yet opened red, green, yellow, and blue, &c. which are to pass for flowers a new source of wealth almost overflowing. Now to be broand other objects in the common papers.

ken in my; pitch of pride, and nearly winged (unless good By the account of this gentleman we find that paper-hang- news should come), because London chooses to be in an upings were then in common use, and had reached a certain roar, and in the tumult of bulls and bears, a poor inoffensive degree of perfection, for that even arabesques were executed; lion like myself is pushed to the wall. But what is to be the and I therefore conceive that the art discovered by Lanyer end of it ? God knows; and so ends the catechism. Nohad been continued from his time to the present; particularly body in the end can lose a penny by me ; that is one comfort. as in the year 1712, the 10th of Queen Anne, a duty of 13d. Men will think pride has had a fall. Let them indulge their per square yard is imposed on this manufacture. In the own pride in thinking that my fall will make them higher, or reign of that queen the Chinese paper-hangings were very seem so at least. I have the satisfaction to recollect that my much employed, and have continued in fashion to the present prosperity has been of adyantage to many, and to hope that day. These hangings, though parts of them may be executed some at least will forgive my transient wealth on account of by blocks or stencils, are almost wholly painted by hand. the innocence of my intentions, and my real wish to do good Cotemporary with Jackson, I have learned that a Mr Taylor, to the poor. Sad hearts, too, at Darnick, and in the cottages the grandfather of one of our present most eminent manufac- of Abbotsford. I have half resolved never to see the place turers, carried on this business to a considerable extent, and again. How could I tread my hall with such a diminished accumulated a large fortune. He was succeeded by his son, crest ? How live a poor indebted man, where I was once the who, I am informed, visited France, and was enabled to give wealthy—the honoured. I was to have gone there on Saturthe manufacturers there considerable information. He said day in joy and prosperity to receive my friends. My dogs on his return that he found the French paper-hangings very will wait for me in vain. It is foolish ; but the thoughts inferior to our own, both as to execution and beauty of design. of parting from these dumb creatures have moved me In those days we had an extensive export trade in this mate- more than any of the painful reflections I have put down. rial to America and other foreign parts, but we are now Poor things, I must get them kind masters! There may driven out of this market by the French. The paper-hang- be yet those, who loving me, may love my dog, because ings at that date, about 1770, were manufactured nearly in it has been mine. I must end these gloomy forebodings, or I the same manner as at present; I have indeed seen a fock shall lose the tone of mind with which men should meet dispaper of a large rich damask pattern, more than 100 years tress. I feel my dogs' feet on my knees. I hear them whinold, which resembles in every way the modern material ; it is ing and seeking me everywhere. This is nonsense, but it is singular that this art of flocking was disused and almost lost what they would do, could they know how things may be. An during a period of twenty years, and revived only about forty odd thought strikes me—when I die, will the journal of these years ago; a mode of decorating papers was also formerly days be taken out of the ebony cabinet at Abbotsford, and employed, which is now never adopted. I have seen papers read with wonder, that the well-seeming baronet should ever ornamented with a substance commonly called frost, a species have experienced the risk of such a hitch? Or will it be of talc.

found in some obscure lodging-house, where the decayed son In the year 1786, there was established at Chelsea a manu- of chivalry had hung up his scutcheon, and where one or two factory for paper-hangings of a superior description, con- old friends will look grave and whisper to each other, "Poor ducted by Messrs George and Frederick Echardts, gentlemen gentleman”-“ a well-meaning man nobody's enemy but of considerable taste and spirit. The mode of manufacture his own"_" thought his parts would never wear out”-“ fawas different to that in general use; for, besides the usual mily poorly left”—“ pity he took that foolish title.” Who printing blocks, copper plates, on which were engraved de- can answer this question ? signs of great finish and beauty, were likewise employed, and they not only printed on paper, but also on silk and linen; and

Printed and published every Saturday by Gunn and CAMERON, at the Office by an underground of silver or gold, they obtained very

of the General Advertiser, No. 6, Church Lane, College Green, Dublin. beautiful effects of colour.

Agents :-R. GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley, Paternoster Row, London ; Only part of the design was given by printing; it was

Simms and DINHAM, Exchange Street, Manchester; C. Davies, North finished by artists constantly retained by the manufacturers,

John Street, Liverpool ; Slocombe and Simms, Leeds ; J. MENZIES,

Prince's Street, Edinburgh; and David ROBERTSON, Trongate, Glasmen of considerable talent, who again were assisted in the

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There is scarcely in all Ireland a scene which has so many, therefore regret that in the short notice of Limerick Bridge
exciting associations connected with it as that which we have and Castle which we have to present to our readers, neither
chosen as the pictorial subject for the present number of our our plan nor our space will permit us to give any sketch of
Journal. The bridge is indeed a new one; but it is erected on their history but such as may be read by all, if not with plea-
the site of that most ancient one which was the scene of so sure, at least without pain.
many a hard-fought battle for all that men hold dear; and The Castle and Bridge of Limerick owe their origin to the
the castle-ruined and time-worn, it is true—is the same first Anglo-Norman settlers in Ireland, and were erected to
fortress which served in turn the race by whom it was secure their possessions and facilitate the extension of them.
erected, and, as if partaking of the change which our soil is It is probable, however, if not certain, that the site of
said to make in the feelings of all those who settle on it, the castle had been previously occupied by a stronghold
became the last and most impregnable stronghold of those it of the Ostmen or Danes who settled in Limerick in the
was designed to subdue.

ninth century, and with whom, if they were not its founders,
But some of the events connected with this scene—and its authentic history as a city at least begins; for the earlier
these events, too, the most important—though honourable to historical notices connected with it relate only to its church
the manly character of all concerned in them, and such as all or churches.
the members of the great family of the British empire may now These churches, with whatever town may have been con-
feel a pride in—are still associated with remembrances which to nected with them, were plundered by the Danes as early as
many are of a saddening cast, and which require to be soft- the year 812; and there is every reason to believe that they
ened by distance or time before they can be distinctly awaken- fortified the island in the Shannon, or what is now called the
ed without giving pain—like our country's music, of which English town, with walls and towers very shortly afterwards,
even some of the

most exhilarating movements have strange as our annalists record the predatory devastations of the tones of sorrow blended with them, which to many tempera- Danes of Limerick in Connaught and Meath as early as the ments are too touching if strongly accented. And we do not year 843, as well as at various years subsequent. They

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