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pose it, for it must be done. There's the character, may be the life, of a great lady at stake; so be quiet till I cover your
THE BAROMETZ, OR TARTARIAN LAMB. eyes, or,' says he, lettin' out a great oath, it'll be worse for Before steam and all the other facilities for travel had made us you. I'm a desperate man;' an,' sure enough, I could feel so well acquainted with the productions of remote parts of the heart of him beatin' undher his ribs, as if it would burst the earth as we are at present, every traveller on his return in pieces. Well, my dears, what could I do in the hands of a astonished his auditors or the readers of his works with acman that was strong and desperate. So,' says I, counts of monsters which existed only as the creations of his my eyes in welcome; only, for the lady's sake, make no delay.' ingenuity, and to give importance to his discoveries. One out Wid that he dashed his spurs into the poor horse, an' he of many which could be produced, and which, as they may afford foamin' an' smokin' like a lime-kiln already. Any way, in innocent amusement, we purpose from time to time to bring about half an hour I found myself in a grand bedroom ; an under the notice of the readers of the Penny Journal, we jist as I was put into the door, he whishpers me to bring the lately met with in an account of Struy's Travels through Rus. child to him in the next room, as soon as it would be born. sia, Tartary, &c, in the seventeenth century. The object of wonWell, sure I did so, afther lavin' the mother in fair way.
der was in this case the Scythian or Tartarian lamb, a creature But what 'ud you have of it?—the first thing I see, lyin' an which, it was stated, sprang from
the ground like a plant, and, the table, was a purse of money an' a case of pistols. Whin restrained to the spot on which it was produced, devoured every I looked at him, I thought the devil, Lord guard us ! was in vegetable production within its reach, and was itself in turn his face, he looked so black and terrible about the brows. eaten by the wolves of the country. This singular produc• Now, my good woman,' says he, ‘so far you've acted well, tion has since been found to be nothing more than a plant of but there's more to be done yet. Take your choice of these the fern tribe, the Aspedium barometz, found occasionally two,' says he, “this purse, or the contents o' one o' these pis- in arid plains, where scarcely any other vegetable production tols, as your reward. You must murdher the child upon the can exist; it rises like many others of the tree ferns with a spot.' In the name of God an' his Mother, be you man or rugged or shaggy stem; and the plant having decayed or been devil
, I defy you,' says I; ‘no innocent blood 'll ever be shed uprooted by any accident, it is not impossible that by means by these hands.' I'll give you ten minutes,' says he,to of a storm or otherwise it might be found supported on its put an end to that brat there ;' an' wid that he cocked one o' feet, namely, the stumps of the leaves ; but that it pastured on the pistols. My dears, I had nothin' for it but to say in to other plants, or was mistaken by the wolves for a lamb, al. myself a pather an'ave as fast as I could, for I thought it though speculations which the wonder-seeking traveller might was all over wid me. However, glory be to God! the prayers be tempted to indulge in, it need hardly be said are ornamengave me great stringth, an' I spoke stoutly. • Whin the king tal additions introduced to suit the taste of the narrator, and of Jerusalem,' says I'an'he was a greater man than ever you'll to pander to that love of the marvellous which prevailed in be—whin the king of Jerusalem ordhered the midwives of the age in which he lived. The following is his account of Aigyp to put Moses to death, they wouldn't do it, and God this wonderful plant-animal :preserved them in spite of him, king though he was,' says I;
“On the western side of the Volga there is an elevated salt *an' from that day to this it was never known that a midwife plain of great extent, but wholy uncultivated and uninhabited. took away the life of the babe she aided into the world—No, On this plain (which furnishes all the neighbouring countries an' I'm not goin' to be the first that'll do it.' • The time is with salt) grows the boranez, or bornitch. This wonderful out,' says he, puttin' the pistol to my ear, but I'll give you plant has the shape and appearance of a lamb, with feet, head, one minute more.' 'Let me go to my knees first,' says I; . an' and tail distinctly formed. Boranez, in the language of Musnow may God have mercy on my sowl, for, bad as I am, I'm covy, signifies a little lamb. Its skin is covered with very willin' to die, sooner than commit murdher an the innocent.' white down, as soft as silk. The Tartars and Muscovites He gave a start as I spoke, an' threw the pistol down. · Ay,' esteem it highly, and preserve it with great care in their said he, an the innocent—an the innocent—that is thrue: houses, where I have seen many such lambs. The sailor who But you are an extraordinary woman: you have saved that gave me one of those precious plants found it in a wood, and child's life, and previnted me from committing two great had its skin made into an under-waistcoat. I learned at crimes, for it was my intintion to murder you afther you had Astrican from those who were best acquainted with the submurdered it. I thin, by his ordhers, brought the poor child ject, that the lamb grows upon a stalk about three feet high, to its mother, and whin I came back to the room, “Take that that the part by which it is sustained is a kind of navel, and purse,' says he, an' keep it as a reward for your honesty.' that it turns itself round, and bends down to reach the herbage
Wid the help o' God,' says I, • a penny of it will never come which serves it for food. They also said that it dries up and into my company, so it's no use to ax me. Well,' says he, pines away when the grass fails. To this I objected, that the
afore you lave this, you must swear not to mintion to a livin' languor and occasional withering might be natural to it, as sowl what has happened this night, for a year and a day.' It plants are accustomed to fade at certain times. To this they didn't signify to me whether I mintioned it or not ; so being replied, that they had also once thought so, but that numerous jack-indifferent about it, I tuck the oath, and kept it. He thin experiments had proved the contrary to be the fact, such as bound my eyes agin, hoisted me up behind him, an’ in a short cutting away, or by other means corrupting or destroying the time left me at home. Indeed, I wasn't the betther o'the start grass all around it; after which they assured me that it fell it tuck out o' me for as good as six weeks afther!"
into a languishing state and decayed insensibly. These persons The company now began to grow musical ; several songs also added, that the wolves are very fond of these vegetable were sung; and when the evening got farther advanced, a lambs, and devour them with avidity, because they resemble neighbouring fiddler was sent for, and the little party had a in taste the animals whose name they bear, and that in fact dance in the barn, to which they adjourned lest the noise they have bones, blood, and flesh, and hence they are called might disturb Mrs Keho, had they held it in the dwelling: zoophytes, or. plant-animals. Many other things I was like. house. Before this occurred, however, the “midwife's glass" wise told, which might, however, appear scarcely probable to went the round of the gossips, each of whom drank her such as have not seen them.”
M. health, and dropped some silver, at the same time, into the bottom of it. It was then returned to her, and with a smil. ing face she gave the following, toast :-“ Health to the METHOD OF MAKING TAR AT ARCHANGEL._They dig parent stock ! So long as it thrives, there will always be a hole in the ground, of sufficient size, some two or three branches ! Corny Keho, long life an' good health to you an' fathoms deep, and little more than half way down they make yours! May your son live to see himself as happy as his a platform of wood, and thereon heap earth about a foot deep, father! Youngsters, here's that you may follow a good exam- except in the middle, where a hole is left in the form of a ple! The company's health in general I wish ; an', Paddy tunnel. They then fill the pit with fir billets piled up from Rafferty, that you may never have a blind child but you'll the platform, and rising about a fathom or more above have a lame one to lead it!-ha! ha! ha! What's the world ground, which part they wall about with turf and clay to widout a joke? I must see the good woman an' my little keep in the fire. They command the fire by quenching: for son afore I go; but as I won't follow yez to the barn, I'll bid which use they make a lixivium of the ashes of fir. When all is yez good night, neighbours, an' the blessin' of Rose Moan ready, they set fire a-top, and keep the wood burning, but very be among yez !"
leisurely, till it has sunk within a foot or two of the partition; And so also do we take leave of our old friend Rose Moan, and then they heave out the fire as fast as it is possible ; for the Irish Midwife, who we understand took her last leave of if it once laid hold of the tar which is settled down into the the world only about a twelvemonth ago.
lower pit, it blows all up forthwith. These tar-pits take up
a great deal of trouble, and many men to tend them during
ANIMAL CHARMING, the time of their burning, that the fire may descend even and
OR THE SUBJUGATION OF ANIMALS BY MEANS OF leisurely, whereby the tar may have time to soak out of the
CHARMS, SPELLS, OR DRUGS. wood, and settle down into the pit. As it comes from the
Third and Concluding Article. wood it is pure tar, but in the pit it mixes with water, which issues from the wood also; therefore it is afterwards clarified. In my last paper I endeavoured to show how exceedingly -Life of Sir Dudley North.
absurd and unfounded was the notion of the Abbé Dubois and AURORA BOREALIS.–According to Crantz, «the Green Denon, that the serpent-charmers of India were and are a landers hold the northern lights for a game of tennis, or for set of juggling impostors, who practise on the credulity the a dance of departed souls; and this opinion is not a whit more vulgar, and vainly set forward pretensions to an art which irrational than the superstition of the oriental nations, the has no actual existence, and which, consequently, possesses Greeks and Romans, and all the unenlightened people of the no legitimate claims on the attention of the philosophic inmiddle ages, who, in the aurora borealis, and other fiery me- quirer. I now wish to bring all that I would observe upon teors, saw fighting armies, flaming swords, chariots and spears, this very curious subject to a conclusion. I acknowledge my battles and blood, and even thought that they heard the clash- inability to furnish my readers with a thorough explanation ing of arms and the sound of martial music. In the rainbow of the means by which these wonders are performed, but I the ancient inhabitants of the north discovered a bridge from think I may be able, at all events, to suggest such hints as earth to heaven, and called it the bridge of the gods, which may place them on the direct path to the attainment of the was watched by a dog, whom no art could elude, and whose knowledge they desire ; after which, nothing will be necessary auditory faculty was such, that he could hear the grass grow but some degree of research and perseverance to afford them or the wool on the sheep's back; the Kamschatkadales make a complete gratification of their wishes. of it a new garment for their aërial spirits, edged with fringes It is evident, that whatever may be the supplementary of red-coloured seal-skin, and leather thongs of various gaudy means employed in serpent-charming, music is necessary to dyes.
its accomplishment. I should not be satisfied on this point were it merely dependent upon the assertions of the jug
glers themselves, as in such case it might not unnaturally THE ISLE OF SAINTS.
be set down as a mere external cloak for some more important “ Primus ordo sanctissimus ; secundus ordo sanctior ; tertius sanctus. secret which the performers did not wish to be discovered ; Primus sicut sol ardescit ; secundus sicut luna ; tertius sicut stellæ."— and for this reason I made the observation in my first article See the ancient catalogue of the three classes of Irish saints, as published on this subject, that the precise importance of the music in by Usher and Lanigan.
these operations was not as yet entirely apparent. I wish it There lived in Erin's hallowed borders,
to be understood, however, that although the degree of impor
tance in which music should be held as an adjunct to the In days of yore, three saintly Orders. And first, the simply HOLY :- They
charming of snakes, or as a primary part of the process, has Shed like the stars a flickering ray.
not as yet been ascertained by those
who have investigated The second-HOLIBR-poured a light
or endeavoured to investigate the business, and published the Moon-like, subdued and calmly bright.
results of their inquiries, I for my part am fully satisfied The third, or HOLIEST of all,
on the subject. To return, however, to our more immediate Shone like the sun-or like Saint Paul.
matter of discussion.
Many have conceived that serpent-charming depends in the But, oh, the state of man's unrest
first instance upon the snakes being previously deprived of In good !--the last were first and best.
their fangs, and thus rendered innocuous. This opinion I The middle but a term between
have already demonstrated as palpably erroneons. Others, The purest and the least serene; Less than the greatest-greater far
again, hold that the jugglers possess a power, by eating cer.
tain herbs, or chewing the leaves or roots of certain plants, of Than those whose emblem is the star. Waning they ran a downward race,
rendering themselves proof against animal poisons. In order With fainter faith and lessening grace,
to render themselves perfectly secure, it is said that their Till, reaching to the stage most lowly,
practice is to chew the herbs, to inoculate various parts of The least and latest were the Holy.
their body with the juice, and even bathe themselves in water
in which these herbs have been steeped. It is supposed that Oh, that they there had staid !-that sin
the bodies of the charmers thus become not merely proof Had, to this swept and garnished inn
against the most deadly poison should they chance to be Returning, found the entrance barred,
bitten, but that those thus prepared exhale from their persons And Faith still keeping watch and ward !
an odour which produces a benumbing or stupifying effect Alas !-they slept in Ease's bower;
upon the reptiles, and renders them an easy capture. Whether They could not "watch one little hour."
or not it be true that such is the case, we know that the The stars their ineffectual light
Psylli not merely profess the power of charming snakes, but In slumber sealed. # The thief by night
also that of curing by spells, and the application of certain Entered ; and o'er the rich domain
herbs, such as have been bitten by them. We are informed Sowed tares among the better grain.
by the historian and biographer Plutarch, that Cato in his Sin flourished ;-poverty and strife
march through the desert took with him many of those persons Embittered all the charms of life ;
called Psylli (then a distinct tribe, though at the present day And passion, with unbounded sway, Swept sun and moon and stars away.
that name is applied indiscriminately to all professing the art
of serpent-charming) to suck out the poison from the wounds And yet not ever such, sweet Isle,
of any of his soldiers that might chance to be bitten by any Shall be thy fate. The stars shall smile
of the numerous venomous serpents which infested his route. Again upon thy valleys green,
The powers of the Psylli were then always attributed to Again the moon shall beam serene
magic, and the performers themselves took care to confirm Upon thy mountains; and the bright
that opinion by accompanying the application of remedies to Celestial sun clothe thee with light,
their patients with muttered spells or elaborately wrought With plenty bless, and warm and cheer
and imposing incantations. This is a testimony respecting the Thy long-delayed millenial year.
ancient repute in which charmers were held, not lightly to be Even now the sacred morning dawns,
rejected. The clouds are fleeting from thy lawns;
While some travellers are too sceptical, I have likewise to And, as light thickens in the sky,
complain that others are too credulous. For instance, while Lo! Riot and Intemperance fly ;
Dubois and Denon scout the idea of serpents being charmed at And chaste sobriety imparts
all, Bruce asserts, and that from minute personal observation, Her cup, and Industry his arts.
that all the blacks of Sennaar are completely armed by nature Peace, Love, and Holiness once more
against the bite of either scorpion or viper. « They will,” says Row their sweet ark towards thy shore ;
he, “take their horned snakes (there the most common and And Heaven renews the favouring smile
one of the most fatal of the viper tribe) in their hands at all That made thee once the SAINTLY ISLE.
times, put them in their bosoms, and throw them at one
another as children will balls or apples, during which sport | thus destroy them wholesale, or to entice them into the trap; the serpents are seldom irritated to bite, or if they do, no and it has been pretended by some worthy members of this mischief results from the wound.” Of course it must be evi- ancient and mystic calling, that they are possessed of secrets dent that Bruce in this instance ascribed rather too much to by which they can, if they please, draw away all the rats the bounty of nature, and forgot how far art might have aided from any premises on which they may be employed. I have, in producing the appearance which astonished him.
however, sought after the most talented living professors of Don Pedro D'Orbies Y. Vargas, who published in the year rat-catching, and I cannot say I have ever witnessed miracles 1791 the result of a series of investigations he instituted to equal to that. I have, however, seen a trap placed in a celascertain the secret on which serpent-charming depended, lar haunted by rats, and left there all night, filled next morning informs us that it is also extensively practised by the natives with these vermin to the number of thirty, and surrounded by of South America, and that they produce the wished-for end a host of others, who actually could not enter from want of by means of a certain plant named the quacho-mithy, so de- room! I have seen a tame white rat smeared with a certain signated from its having been first observed to have been composition, let loose in a vault, and in less than half an hour resorted to by the serpent-hawk, or, as the bird is sometimes return, followed by at least half a dozen others, who appeared styled, the “quacho-mithy," and by it sucked, preparatory to so enamoured of the white-coloured decoy, or of some scent its encounters with the poisonous reptiles which it fought with that hung about him, that they suffered themselves to be taken and destroyed for its prey. Taking the hint from the natur- alive in the rat-catcher's hand, and never so much as offer to ally and instinctively instructed bird, the Indians chewed the bite. I purchased this secret from an old rat-catcher, and plant thus discovered, and inoculated and washed their have much pleasure in communicating it to the publie, and bodies with its juice, rubbing it into punetures made in their more especialy to the discriminating patrons of the Irish breasts, hands, and feet; and, thus prepared, they dreaded not | Penny Journal.
It consists of the following simple prepathe bite of the most venomous snake. Don Pedro himself, and ration:the domestics of his household, used after these simple precau
2 grains. tions to venture into the thickest woods and the most danger
Essential oil of rhodium
3 drachins. ous meadows, and fearlessly seize in their hands the largest
Essential oil of lavender
1 scruple. and most poisonous serpents; the creatures seemed as if under the influence of a sort of charm or fascination, and very
Oil of aniseed.........
I drachm. rarely attempted to bite; and at any rate, even if they did, no Let the assafoetida be first well triturated with the ani. evil consequence resulted from the wound beyond the tempo- seed, then add the oil of rhodium, still continuing to rub the rary inconvenience produced by the laceration of the flesh by material well up together in a mortar, after which add the the animals' teeth.
oil of lavender, and cork up the mixture in a close bottle until The same gentleman to whom I was indebted for the anec- required. The method of employing this receipt is very simdote of the encounter with the cobra de capella, mentioned ple, and consists merely in smearing the decoy rat with it, in a preceding paper, informed me that he had detected a in mixing a few drops of it with a little flour or starch, and snake-charmer in the act of chewing and inoculating him-employing the paste thus formed as a bait for the trap; and self with some plant, the name or character of which he if you anoint your hands with this mixture, you may put them could not however ascertain, though he offered the juggler into a cage full of rats without the slightest danger of a bite. a considerable sum for the information. One of the leaves of I have done so repeatedly myself, and never got bitten unless this plant, and the only one he saw, he states to have been when I had prepared the composition improperly, or displayed of a long and narrow form, with the sides indented or scol- timidity in proceeding to handle the animals--a defect of deloped, somewhat like those of our own common dandelion. meanour which appears capable of counteracting the working
Now, it appears to me by no means difficult of deduction of the charm. from the facts brought forward in this and the preceding The liking which rats exhibit for the perfume produced by papers on the same subject, that the secret of the snake the above simple composition is truly wonderful, but will be charmers is dependent upon two ingredients, viz, in the first readily admitted, even while as yet its efficacy remains unplace the employment of an antidote which will not only tested, by any person who has witnessed the passion exhimollify the effects of the reptiles’ venom, should the experiment- bited by cats for valerian, or of dogs for galbanum, and after ers happen to be bitten, but, from some peculiar odour which much consideration and attentive observation I have come to it emits, stupify or intoxicate the snake, and indispose it from the conclusion that the effects produced by different subviolence, inclining it rather to appreciate the melody with stances upon these animals have a common origin, viz, in which they are treating it, and luxuriate in hearing of their the peculiar odour calling into play the sexual appetite, and fife; and, in the second place, the sounds of music which the that too in a more than commonly energetic manner; of whole class of reptiles appear more or less to be sensible of, course I only mean to apply this latter observation to the and which will induce the serpents to quit their holes when case of dogs, rats, and cats. I have no intention of thus they come within the sphere of the influence of the intoxicating seeking to explain away the effect produced upon serpents or odour, and, abandoning themselves to its effects, fall into a fishes by certain odours, accompanied by music ; indeed, in state of temporary oblivion, and are taken captive. We our. these instances I should rather ascribe the effects produced to selves are well acquainted with several substances which are a sort of intoxicating, fascinating influence, bearing no discapable of producing upon such creatures as we are conver- tant resemblance to the power exercised towards other anisant with in these islands, effects no less astonishing than mals by many of the serpent tribe themselves. The fascinathose produced upon the snakes by the charmers of India or tion of the rattle-snake, for example, seems in a great meaSouth America. "It is, for instance, a very common thing, sure to depend upon the agency of a certain intoxicating and an experiment I have not only often seen tried, but have odour which the reptile has the power of producing at pleasure. tried myself dozens of times, and that with success, to charm In support of this opinion I may adduce the testimony of trout, perch, or roach, with assafætida. If you sprinkle this Major A. Gordon, who thus explains the fascination of sersubstance, finely powdered, upon the surface of the water, you pents in a paper read before the New York Historical Sowill presently see the fish crowding to the spot ; and even if ciety. He adduced various facts in support of his opinions, you rub your hands well with it, and, gradually approaching and amongst the rest mentions a negro, who could by smell the water, gently immerse them in it, you will ere long find alone discover a rattle-snake when in the exercise of this the fish attracted towards you, and, losing their natural timi- power, at the distance of two hundred feet, and who, follow. dity, actually permit themselves to be taken. Many have ing such indications, never failed of finding some poor ànimal imagined that it was upon the use of a certain drug that the drawn within its vortex, and in vain struggling with the irrewonderful power possessed and successfully exerted by Sulli- sistible influence. By no means remotely allied to charming van, the whisperer, depended; but for my part I think the cir- and fascination would appear to be that mysterious and as cumstance of Sullivan's son having been unable to produce yet doubtful power, animal magnetism, a subject on which I similar effects, although instructed by his father in the mys- shall not dilate, as it hardly falls within the limits indicated by tery, is sufficient to show that Sullivan's trick depended upon the heading of this paper, which has now run to a length some means less certain in operation than the mere employ, considerably greater than I contemplated at starting; and ment of a drug would be, and in which mechanical dexterity consequently I think it time to take my leave, trusting I have and personal bearing occupied places of no mean importance, at least given a clue to the great secret on which depends
Rat-catchers used formerly to employ certain drugs, or com- the magical influence of the serpent-charmer. binations of them, to collect these vermin into one place, and
H. D. R.
WHY DO ROOTS GROW DOWNWARDS, AND these stems and roots ought to direct themselves in accorSTEMS TOWARDS THE HEAVENS ?
dance with the natural tendencies of the superior springs which
enter into the structure of these organs. Now, the superior Second Article.
springs of the stems have a natural tendency to curl outOur readers may remember a very simple experiment, but wards, or when placed horizontally, upwards ; and the supepregnant with important results, which we described in our rior half of the root has an equally natural tendency to curl former article: namely, if an onion plant, exposed to day inwards, or, when placed horizontally, downwards. Need we light, be laid horizontally on the ground, the extremities of be surprised, therefore, if in obedience to these more powthe stem and roots will in the course of a few hours turn erful springs the stems and roots of vegetables shall (as themselves in their natural directions, the one upwards and experience shows us they will do) curve, after having been the other downwards; if a similar plant be placed in a dark placed for some time in a horizontal position, the former upcellar, to which no light has access, the same things will take ward and the latter downward ? place; but that which happens in a few hours in the one in- Let us now endeavour to explain the causes which produce stance, will require as many days in the other. From this these peculiar and different tendencies to curvation of stems experiment we were led to conclude that in the production and roots, and for this purpose it will be necessary for us to of the proper directions of stems and roots, two classes of premise, that the fleshy substance which constitutes the causes operate, namely, the light; and, secondly, some other basis of vegetable structure is composed of a multitude of principle distinct from light. Our former article was devoted little vesicles or cells, each perfectly distinct in itself, and to the explanation of the manner in which light causes stems merely adhering by its external surface with those surroundto ascend, and roots to descend; we shall now endeavour to ing it, while it contains a thick syrupy liquid; these cells, investigate that other principle, less powerful, but more uni- although pressed to a certain extent against each other, are versal, which shares in the production of the same phenomena. not so closely approached as to obliterate completely the
If the flower stalk of the common dandelion be split verti- spaces existing between them, so that little passages, called cally into a number of portions, each of these will be seen, intercellular passages, continue to remain, during
the life of spontaneously, to curl outwards; the same tendency must the plant, between the cells through which the ascending sap be familiar to every one in celery dressed for the table; if rises in its passage to the buds. This ascending sap is not the root of the dandelion be split vertically into two or more so viscid a liquid as that contained in the cells : thus, the parts, these will likewise be found to curve, but in a contrary syrupy contents of the latter must, according to the princidirection from those of the stem; they will curl inwards. ple of endosmose described in a previous article, absorb into We thus find that all the portions of stem placed round the the cells the ascending sap, in a way similar to that whereby central axis have a natural tendency to curl outwards ; while syrup placed in a bladder, immersed in a basin of water, will all the portions of root round the central axis have a ten-attract the latter liquid through the membrane, until the bladdency to curl inwards. The stem may be therefore considered der be filled. While the sap continues to ascend, therefore, as consisting of a number of springs placed round a central the cells must necessarily continue swollen in proportion to axis, and all endeavouring to burst away from each other; their size. while the root, in a like manner, may be regarded as com- If we examine the relative size of the cells in stems and posed of a number of springs placed round a central axis, roots, we will meet with a remarkable phenomenon: in stems the and all pressing against each other. These natural tenden- largest cells are situated towards the centre; but on the concies are overcome, in the living plant, by the mutual cohesion trary, in roots, the largest cells are placed near the circumof these parts or springs; but when this cohesion is removed ference. Now, we have ascertained in the preceding paraby the knife, their influence becomes acknowledged.
graph that all the cells have a tendency to swell in proportion Now, if we imagine a number of springs, all of equal to their size : it follows that the central cells of stems and strength, and either dragging away from each other or press the circumferential cells of roots possess the greatest tendency ing together, it will be easily understood that in such cases to swell. The centre of a stem has therefore greater perfect equilibrium should result : for, of two springs pulling elasticity than the circumference, while the circumference of in opposite directions, for either to overcome, it is necessary has greater elasticity than the centre. When this that one should be the more powerful; and the same applies elasticity in either case is permitted to exert itself by means to springs pressing against each other. As long, therefore, of a vertical section, it causes each half of the stem to curl as a stem consists of a number of equal springs, all endea- outwards, and each half of the root to curl inwards. If the vouring to burst away from each other, its direction will be influence of endosmose be acknowledged, the explanation is in a straight line; and as long as a root is composed of equal perfect. springs pressing towards each other, its direction, likewise, But it may be said, what proof have we that endosmose will be straight.
operates in these cases ? An experiment instituted by DutroIf a stem or root be placed for a certain length of time chet, and repeated by the writer of this article, sufficiently in a horizontal position, the peculiar tendency to curvation of demonstrates its influence. A plant of dandelion was imits parts will become modified. If a stem which has been mersed in syrup, and after a certain time the root and stalk thus treated be split along its axis, the part which, while it were severally split in a vertical direction: the tendencies to was in a horizontal position, was superior, will have its ten- incurvation of these organs were now seen to be completely dency to curl outwards increased; while that which was changed from what they are under ordinary circumstances ; under the same circumstances inferior, will have its tendency the parts of the stalk curled inwards, those of the root outto curl outwards diminished. If a root be placed, during a wards: this was exactly what might be expected, if we certain period, horizontally, and then split along its axis, the suppose endosmose to be the cause of these phenomena ; superior portion will be found to have its tendency to curl placed in syrup, this thick fluid attracted liquid out of the inwards increased, while the inferior portion will have the cells, which consequently shrunk in place of expanding; and same tendency diminished. A horizontal position is there the larger cells contracting more than the smaller, the former fore found to increase the peculiar tendencies to curvation elasticities became reversed. of the superior parts of stems and roots, and to lessen those It remains to be seen why it is that when roots and stems of the inferior half.
are planted for some time in a horizontal position, the proper Now, we have already ascertained that while equal springs elasticities of the superior parts become increased, while either pull against or press towards each other, equilibrium those of the inferior become diminished. These phenomena is obtained ; but if from any cause the springs become un- can be explained by recollecting that the ascending sap is a equal, the greater power may be expected to overcome the heterogeneous fluid, composed of mucilage and syrup, mixed less. When a stem or root has been kept for some time ho. with light water and carbonic acid, which have been drawn rizontally, the upper half has its elastic power increased, up unchanged from the extremities of the roots, and are deswhile the spring of the most depending portion has become tined to escape, or undergo decomposition in the leaves. It diminished; we have therefore now springs of unequal is not difficult to imagine that this heterogeneous fluid conpower placed round a central axis, the superior being ren- tained in the intercellular passages should be subjected to dered more energetic, while their antagonists have become the influence of gravity; if this be admitted, we can then weakened; it is reasonable, therefore, to expect that the understand how in a horizontal root or stem the heavier and respective directions of roots and stems under such circum- more viscid portion of the sap should descend into the inferior stances should be obedient to the excess of elasticity which half, and the lighter ascend between the cells of the superior the upper half has acquired over the lower ; in other words, half; endosmose will take place in proportion to the differs
ence of density between the liquid in the intercellular pas- variance from her years. They never seem young; there sages and that contained in the cells; therefore it will take is no freshness of heart in them: they become women faster place more energetically in the superior half, where is the than other girls, and become old faster than other women ; lighter fluid ; and as the elasticity depends upon the energy of they are remarkable for thin lips, sharp noses, and white endosmose, the upper portion will, according to its nature, artificial teeth. They are walking strictures upon human curve with greater force, while the elasticity of the lower life-bleak visions of philosophy in petticoats_daughters, not part will be lessened. This explanation acquires increased it would seem of love, but of Fellows of the Royal Society! weight from the fact that the specific gravity of the most They are fond of phrenology and meetings of scientific assodepending portions of stems and roots growing horizontally ciations. They like a good pew in church, and write long in the dark, is greater than that of the upper.
letters to their unfortunate " friends in the country.” They But we have stronger arguments in favour of the supposi are generally spinsters, or, if married, motherless. No young tion that gravity is essentially connected with the several wife with " six small children" ever wore spectacles. They directions of stems and roots. These directions take place go a good deal into company, where they are seen seated on naturally in the “line of gravity,” that is, parallel to a sofas talking to ladies older than themselves, or turning over line drawn from the centre of the mass towards the centre of the leaves of a book, and with interesting abstraction poring the earth; at the same time it is to be remarked, that over it. They dance quadrilles, but never waltz. Heaven although roots grow in the direction of gravity, that is, to- and earth! think of a pair of spectacles whirling in a waltz. wards the centre of the earth, stems grow in exactly the op- They have a genius for the “ scholastic profession,” and freposite way. An experiment made by Mr Knight has been quently exercise it as amateurs ; "never eat suppers ;" and repeated by different philosophers, to determine whether these are, many of them, members of the Horticultural Society. directions of stems and roots bear to other physical laws The lady with the spectacles ! Half a century ago this would the same relation they do to gravity. Seeds permitted to have been understood to refer to some one stricken in years, germinate in wet moss were attached to the circumference of but now-a-days infirmity of eye-sight has been raised to the a wheel made to revolve constantly in a vertical manner; rank of a charm. The moment spectacles become really under these circumstances the roots grew outwards, away useful they are abandoned ; it is the harmonious combination from the circumference of the wheel, and the stems towards of youth and short-sightedness which gives beauty to the its centre; the roots were thus found to obey the centrifugal | guise. Intense interest is expected to be felt towards her, force, and the stems the centripetal; but while the wheel re- who, still young and lovely, abandons the frivolities of her sex volved vertically, gravity and the centrifugal force were for the calm secluded pleasures of intellect. This is the point operating in the same direction. It was necessary to cause our heroines aim at. But we have done with them. They them to act in different directions, and for this purpose the may be very good in their way, but their ways are not as our wheel was made to revolve horizontally: in this case the cen- ways. Flirts, coquettes, prudes, and a host of other orders trifugal force acted at right angles to the line of gravity, and into which the sex are classified, have their failings, but they, it was accordingly found, in obedience to the law of the com- at least, are women ; while the " lady with the spectacles” position of forces, that the roots no longer grew towards the seems hardly a daughter of Eve, but a mysterious being; a centre of the earth, nor towards the circumference of the new creation, come into the world to gladden the lovers of wheel, but in a plane between these two forces; and the angle modern science, and patronise the house of Solomons and Co. which they formed with the line of gravity could be rendered -Court Gazette. more or less acute by increasing or diminishing the velocity with which the wheel rotated. It was thus made evident that roots and stems were influenced by physical laws, although MARRIAGE.- It is the happiest and most virtuous state of growing in opposite directions.
society, in which the husband and wife set out early together, We have thus shown why roots grow downwards and make their property together, and with perfect sympathy of stems towards the heavens: in the dark these things arise soul graduate all their expenses, plans, calculations and dethrough the influence of gravity controlling endosmose, and sires, with reference to their present means, and to their thus producing the proper incurvations of the parts of stems future and common interest. Nothing delights me more than and roots. Under the influence of light the same phenomena i to enter the neat little tenement of the young couple, who more energetically arise from the agency of this element over within perhaps two or three years, without any resources but vegetable growth.
J. A. their own knowledge or industry, have joined heart and hand,
and engage to share together the responsibilities, duties, in THE LADY WITH THE SPECTACLES.
terests, trials, and pleasures of life. The industrious wife
is cheerfully employing her own hands in domestic duties, BEAUTY in spectacles is like Cupid in knee breeches, or the putting her house in order, or mending her husband's clothes, Graces with pocket handkerchiefs-an excrescence of refine- or preparing the dinner, whilst, perhaps, the little darling sits ment; an innovation of the ideas which spiritualize woman prattling upon the floor, or lies sleeping in the cradle-and into a goddess; a philosophical blossom of the “ march of everything seems preparing to welcome the happiest of husmind.” Beauty in spectacles ! and has it come to this ? bands and the best of fathers, when he shall come from his Burke said that the age of chivalry was past, and publishers toil to enjoy the sweets of his little paradise. This is the true say that the age of poetry has followed it; powder and pe- domestic pleasure, the “ only bliss that survived the fall." riwigs destroyed the one, and spectacles have gone far to an- Health, contentment, love, abundance, and bright prospects, nihilate the other. Think of the queen of beauty, of some are all here. But it has become a prevalent sentiment, that tournament-thanks to my Lord Eglintoun for making such a man must acquire his fortune before he marries—that the words familiar to us—looking on the encountering knights wife must have no sympathy, nor share with him in the purthrough a patent pair of spectacles !-picture to yourself a suit of it, in which most of the pleasure truly consists; and beautiful and romantic young lady parting from her lover, the young married people must set out with as large and extaking the “ first long lingering kiss of love," as pretty Miss pensive an establishment as is becoming those who have been Pardoe terms it, and just imagine the figure the spectacles wedded for 20 years. This is very unhappy. It fills the would cut in such an encounter ; think of Mary Queen of community with bachelors, who are waiting to make their Scots, Lady Jane Grey, Scott's “ Jewess," or Shakspeare's fortunes, endangering virtue and promoting vice-it destroys “ Lady Macbeth,” with such appendages ! think of a heroine the true economy and design of the domestic institution, and in a novel taking off her spectacles to shed "salt tears” for it promotes idleness and inefficiency among females, who are her lover's absence, or in the emotion of a distressing junc- expecting to be taken up by a fortune, and passively sus. ture throwing herself at the feet of some obdurate tyrant, tained, without any care or concern on their part-and thus breaking the lenses of her " sight preservers ;" think of all many a wife becomes, as a gentleman once remarked, not a this, and judge of the effect which spectacles, as an ornament, “help-mate," but a "help.eat."-Winslow., have upon romance. Beauty has three stages—the coy, the dignified, and the intellectual. The first exists until about Printed and published every Saturday by Gunn and CAMERON, at the office twenty, the second until twenty-five, and the last until beauty of the General Advertiser, No. 6, Church Lane, College Green, Dublin.has made unto itself wings and flown away. It is in this last Agents :-R. GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley, Paternoster Row, London ; stage that women wear spectacles. The symptoms of spec
Simms and DINHAM, Exchange Street, Manchester ; C. Davies, North
John Street, Liverpool ; SloCombe and SIMNs, Leeds; J. MENZIES, tacles begin at an early age. The young Miss has a prim- Prince's Street, Edinburgh ; and David ROBERTSON, Trongate, Glasness, a staidness, and a miniature severity of aspect, at gow