Imágenes de páginas

First Article.

the risk of loss which results from the use of seed which is antiquarian research. In the first place, he takes the liberty mixed with seeds of the dodder.

of dividing the words into as many parts as he thinks This I consider as a remarkable proof of the necessity of proper ; secondly, he makes such changes in the vocables obtaining clean seed rather than cheap, and deserves in my thus obtained as he finds convenient to his purpose ; thirdly, opinion to be made generally known throughout Ireland by he gives each of these words new meanings of his own; and means of the Penny Journal. I conclude by saying to all lastly, he places the tribes whose names he thus explains in cultivators of flax, When buying your seed, always ask for localities which many of them never occupied. that from America, and do not be tempted by the cheaper but As the errors of this writer, though so long before the pubdirty seed from Russia, as by doing this you will avoid the lic, have never been sufficiently exposed, I shall here unmost destructive weed to which the crop is liable.

dertake the task, by the exhibition of a few examples of C. C. B. his process of investigation, taken without selection, and given as a fair specimen of the whole.

It will be necessary

for me, however, in fairness, to quote in the first instance ORIGIN AND MEANINGS OF IRISH FAMILY

the author's own account of the theory which he has put for. NAMES.

ward to account, in his novel manner, for the origin of the BY JOHN O'DONOVAN.

names of men and tribes in Ireland.

“On the increase of population and the introduction of agri

culture, these wandering tribes were under the necessity of It has for a long time appeared to me a desirable object, as confining themselves to certain permanent districts; which regards the history of Ireland and the information of the districts were generally denominated either from their situaIrish people, to communicate to the public a correct account of tion or quality of the soil, and from which also the inhabitants the origin and signification of the proper names, tribe names, obtained their collective appellation ; whence, in the most and surnames of the people of Ireland; more especially as

ancient Irish poems and histories, we frequently find clan and some of the popular writers of the last century have misled slight added to the name of the country, to signify the inhathem generally into the most erroneous notions with regard bitants ; as clan Cuilean, slioght Breoghain, and slioght Gae; to these classes of names. The errors of these writers have wherefore the children and "race of any division were the not only been adopted by the usually shallow compilers of invariable names by which the ancient Hibernian septs were county surveys, county histories, and other topographical distinguished from the remotest antiquity, and not, as freworks down to the present time, but also to some extent by quently asserted, the children and descendants of their respecwriters of a higher order and greater learning and research, tive leaders.” as Lanigan and Moore. Indeed, strange as the fact may

Again, “ The chiefs of every district were elected from the seem, it is nevertheless unquestionable that there are very elder branches of the dynasts; and the kings of the princifew in the country whose ideas upon this subject are conso; palities from the senior chief of the subordinate districts, who nant with the truth ; and hence, upon most occasions on which

on their advancement to the dignity obtained the name of the an Irishman adopts an anglicised form of his Christian name and district or clan over which they presided; it being an universurname, the effect of the alteration is such as completely to sal custom amongst all the Celtic tribes to denominate the conceal, and not unfrequently to misrepresent, their original noblesse, with their other appellations, from the place of their orthography and meaning. On this account it becomes un residence ; a custom in some measure yet retained in the avoidably necessary for me, before I enter upon the series of Highlands of Scotland. The variety of names used by the articles which I propose furnishing on this subject, to exhibit ancient Irish have occasioned great confusion in their history; and expose the ignorance of those writers to whom I have for before the tenth century surnames were not hereditary, alluded, and whose theories have produced so erroneous an im. and prior to the establishment of the Christian religion in pression upon the minds of the Irish people ; and to this object this country no person was distinguished by one permanent I purpose to devote the present introductory paper.

nomination. It is true, during their pagan state every child The fallacies which I have to expose were unknown to the

at his birth received a name generally from some imaginary Irish people until towards the close of the last century: the divinity under whose protection he was supposed to be ; but this writers of an earlier period having been too well informed to

name was seldom retained longer than the state of infancy, lead their readers into error. But their works being for the from which period it was generally changed for others arising most part in a dead language, and very rarely to be met with, from some perfection or imperfection of the body, the disposithey ceased to have an influence on the

public mind, and left the tion and qualities of the mind, achievements in war or the way open for a new race of writers, very ignorant of the chace, the place of birth, residence, &c. so that it frequently ancient language and history of Ireland, to impose their crude happened that the same person was distinguished by several theories upon the uninstructed reader. A society of such

appellations. Our ancient historians, not properly attending persons, of whom General Vallancey, Mr Beauford,* and Dr

to this, have committed great errors in relating the transacLedwich, were the most active, was formed for the purpose of tions of early periods, by asserting the same action to be pergiving to the public a series of essays on the antiquities, formed by several different people, which in reality was perancient literature, and topography of Ireland; and the result formed by one only, thereby throwing their history and antiquiof their joint labours made its appearance in a work published ties into too distant a period. A similar error has also been periodically under the title of Collectanea de Rebus Hiber-committed by not considering the dignitary names of the nicis,” and since popularly called Vallancey's Collectanea. chiefs, who on their election to the government constantly These gentlemen, however, after a time found that their sys- obtained the name appertaining to the clan over whom they tems had nothing in common, each considering the other as presided, or rather that of the district. These dignitary insufficiently informed on the subjects treated of, and I think, with justice ; for, as I trust I shall be able to show on a fu- distinctions, created new difficulties to genealogists of latter

names becoming in the tenth century hereditary and family ture occasion, all were alike ignorant of the matters they pro- ages.” —Collectanea, vol. iii, p. 257. fessed perfectly to understand. But though the labours of these gentlemen contributed generally to the propagation of wholly erroneous, and are mere conjectures, unsupported either

Now, it will be very easy to prove that these assertions are erroneous theories on the subject, it was a work of Mr by history or etymology. In the first place, the three instanBeauford's, published in No. il of the Collectanea, which, ces above given to show that the words clan and slioght were treating more immediately of this subject, has had the greatest prefixed to the names of territories among the Irish, instead influence on the popular mind ; an influence less owing to any of supporting the author's assumption, go to prove the very celebrity attached to his own name than to that of Vallancey, contrary, for in the first two instances the names adduced are whose sanction and approbation this work is generally suppo- not names of territories, but of men; and with regard to the sed to have received. With this writer originated the novel third instance, there was no such name among the ancient theory that the names of tribes and families in Ireland, as Irish, and it is a pure fabrication of Beauford's own imaginausual among the Saxons and Normans, were derived from tion! As for his assertion that in the time of paganism every earlier appellations of the territories and localities which they child at his birth received a name generally from some imagioccupied. To establish this hypothesis he adopts a process nary divinity under whose protection he was supposed to be, of etymological investigation unparalleled in the annals of it is another pure fabrication ; there is no authority in any of

our ancient documents that men were called after their pagan * Let not the reader confound this Beauford with the author of the ecclesiastical map of Ireland, for the latter was Dr Beaufort, and his works deities, except in three instances, in the darkest period of are distinguished for their accuracy,

Irish history; and even from these it does not appear that such names were given immediately after the birth of the cess, thus : clann means descendants, cuil means corner, and individuals referred to, but that they assumed them after ean water; but regular as this process appears, it is neverthehaving arrived at the age of maturity. These instances are less utterly fallacious, for the word clann means children or to be met with in ancient Irish MSS. concerning the history of descendants relatively to an ancestor, not to a locality ; and the Tuatha De Dananns, a colony said to have preceded the though the name Cuileain (now anglicised Cullen or Collins) Scoti in Ireland, at a period now generally believed to be when cut in two, would apparently make the words cuil and beyond the reach of authentic history; but granting that ean, still the word is not compounded of cuil, a corner, and ean, what has been handed down to us concerning this colony is water, for the first syllable is short, and the last syllable is a authentic, it does not follow from any thing stated that even diminutive termination of the same power with the Latin among them every child at his birth received a name from a ulus, as in the compounds campulus, colliculus, catulus ; and the divinity under whose protection he was placed ; for the sum of word cuilean, whether taken as a common noun substantive or what has been banded down to us on this subject is, that on as a proper name, is synonymous with the Latin catulus, or Ca. the arrival of the Scotic or Milesian colony in Ireland the tullus. Tuatha De Dananns were governed by three kings, who The next assertion above made, that clann Cuileain was also were distinguished by surnames derived from the names of the called Hy na mor, is untrue, for the name Hy na mor had never gods whom they worshipped. Thus, one of those kings, whose any existence except in Mr Beauford's fancy; and even if it real name was Eochy, was, it is said, usually styled Mac had, the meaning given for it would not be correct, for hy Greine, because he worshipped the sun; the second, whose does not properly mean district, nor does mor mean sea. The proper name

was Eathur, was called Mac Cuill, because assertion that the chiefs of clann Cuileain were called Mac he worshipped the hazel tree, for I suppose men generally na mor aois is also untrue, for the name was never so written lived on nuts in his time; and the third, whose proper name by any one except Mr Beauford. They were uniformly called was Teathur, was called Mac Ceachta, i.e. son of the plough, Mic Conmara, as being the descendants of Cu-mara, who was for he worshipped that useful implement as his god! We have chief of the clann Cuileain in the tenth century; and the no instance of men having been named after pagan deities name Cumara, signifying hero of the sea, was first given to but these three, and I venture to say that they are not suffi- a chief of this family, from his being an expert seaman, not cient to establish Beauford's hypothesis. But a stronger ar- from his dwelling on the sea, for the clann Cuileain or Mac gument than this can be urged against his theory, namely, Namaras were not located on the sea, or near the sea, but in that among all the pagan names of men which have been pre- an inland territory in the south-east of the county of Clare. served by our authentic annalists, not one appears to be 2. “CINEAL EOGHEAN, or Cean all Eoghain, from cean called after a pagan deity; and if it had been a general cus-thuath oll Eogh-an, pronounced Connal Owen, or the princitom to call children after such deities, it might be expected pal division of the northern county of the Oll or Bolgæ, an that at least a few of them would have been transmitted. ancient district in the province of Ulster, comprehending Since then, they have not been transmitted, how, I would ask, originally the present counties of Tyrone, Armagh, Donegal, did Mr Beanford discover that such a custom had ever ex- | and part of the county of Derry, being the ancient divisions isted ? It is true that after the establishment of Christianity of Eirgal or Orgall," &c. in the fifth century, the descendants of the pagan Irish who Here the name Cineal Eoghain, which had been translated entered into holy orders, or into the monastic state, had their genus Eoghain, i.e., race or progeny of Eoghan, by all the pagan names sometimes changed, as we learn from the lives early Irish writers, is made to signify the principal division of of the saints of the primitive Irish church, but no documents the northern county of the Oll or Bolgæ. Let us examine now remain to prove, or even suggest, that such a change had how this interpretation has been wrested from Cineal Eogh. been made previous to the introduction of Christianity. It is ain. In the first place, he spells the name incorrectly, though undeniable that cognomens, epithets, or sobriquets, were fre- we cannot see that he gains any point by doing so ; next he quently added to the first name from some warlike exploit, or takes asunder what he conceives to be its component parts, from some perfection or imperfection of body, colour of hair, first metamorphosing the word Cineal, which is cognate with or disposition of mind; but this continued to be the custom the Latin genus and the English kind, kindred, into Cean all, in Christian times, and still continues so, but no authority has which he made to signify “principal division," and resolving been discovered even to suggest that any change of the igi- | Eoghan, man's name, into Eogh-an, to make it sigpify I nal

pagan name had occurred previous to the introduction of know not what; but as the four vocables thus obtained would Christianity; and we find that even long after that period not answer his purpose, he took the liberty of adding one more many distinguished Irish bishops, abbots, and other ecclesias- of his own coining, thus making five distinct words of the two tics, bore the names of their pagan ancestors.

original ones. But even allowing that these five vocables are It is also a groundless assumption that the chief changed legitimately obtained from the two original ones, I have still his name for that of the territory after his election to the a further objection to them, for they do not grammatically cogovernment, or that the names of either the clan or district alesce, or bear the meaning he affixes to them, as there is no became surnames or family names in the tenth century. Can word among the five to express principal division or county, any one believe that Brian was the name of the territory of And granting further that the five words thus formed could the O'Briens before the establishment of the name O'Brien ? really bear the signification he gives them, it would not follow Was Donnell the name of the territory of the O'Donnells pre- that the name Cineal Eoghain is so compounded, while in opvious to the tenth century? Was Niall the name of the prind position to the testimony of all authentic history; and we cipality of the O'Neills ?

have the testimony of all the authentic Irish annals, the lives So much then for Mr Beauford's general theory as put for- of the Irish apostle, and of the most ancient genealogical ward in the introduction to his work. I shall now proceed to books, to prove that the great northern race called Cineal show the equal fallacy of the etymological processes by which Eoghain took that appellation from their great ancestor he attempts to sustain his theoretical assumptions in the Eoghan (the son of Niall of the Nine Hostages), who was work itself; namely, that the names of Irish tribes and fami- contemporary with St Patrick, as did a neighbouring race lies were derived from the situations and natural features of that of Cineal Conaill, from Eoghan's brother, Conall Gulban. the territories they inhabited.

But the supporters of Mr Beauford's system may say that 1. “CLANN CUILEAN, or the race or children of the corner although it may be true that the Cineal Eoghain took their of the water ; called also Hy na mor, or the district of the appellation from their ancestor Eoghan, still that this EOGHAN sea; the chiefs of which were denominated Mac na mor aois, may have taken his name from the territory over which he the sons of the elders of the sea, by contraction Macnamara,” | ruled. I answer, that this does not bear even the semblance &c.

of probability, for we have the authority of Cormac's GlosNow, what will be thought of all this etymological induction, sary for asserting that the proper name Eoghan (still used as when it can be proved from history that clann Cuileuin sig- a man's name in every part of Ireland, and anglicised Owen nifies the race of Cullen ?

and Eugene) was understood by the ancient Irish literati The Cuilean or Cullen from whom this tribe took their name to signify the good offspring, or the goodly born, and this looks is found in the pedigree of Mac Namara, within the authentic much more probable than the signification which Mr Beauperiod of Irish history, for he flourished in the eighth cen- ford wrings from it, for the Irish had many other names simi. tury, a period to which our authentic annals reach with per- larly compounded, as Finghin (now Florence), meaning the fect historical certainty. Let us then see how this meaning fair" offspring; Coemhghin (now Kevin), the beautiful off. “children of the corner of the water" is obtained from the spring, &c. Thus it appears that Beauford's derivation of compound clann Cuileuin. Apparently by a very simple pro. I the tribe name 'of Cineal Eoghain is a mere etvmological


BY J. U. U.


phantasy, unsupported by history or etymology. I have also THE DOMESTIC MAN.— There is no being of the mascuto mention that the extent he gives to the territory of this line gender whom “ the sex” so heartily despise as the dotribe is too great, for it never comprised the one-fourth part mestic man. He is an anomaly—a sort of half-way house beof the present county of Donegal, or any part of Armagh. tween the sexes-a concentration of weaknesses-a poor

But I am exceeding the space allowed me for this article, driblet of humanity—a vile caudle-drinker—an auditor of and must defer the remaining examples till next number. laundress's bills-an inquisitor of the nursery—a fellow that

likes his bed warmed, and takes note of the decay of car

pets--a reader of works on “ cookery" and a "treatise on LETHE: AN ALLEGORY.

teething”-a pill bolter—a man that buys his wife's gowns and his children's dresses-a scolder of maid-servants—a fre.

quenter of the kitchen—a person who can tell you the price Has it e'er crossed thy fancy to explore

of treacle, and how long a mop should last-a gazer at butchers' The mystery of that old forgetful river

windows—a consumer of ginger wine-a slop eater-a market In which the Shade, permitted to renew

visitor-a tea maker-Faugh! He looks like the aborigine Its servitude to clay, went down to drink

of a bed-room. He is lean and bilious-delights in black gaiters Oblivion of itself and all it was :

and a brown greatcoat. He gives his little bandy-legged A dread completion of the work of Death !

child a walk in the Park, where he is taken for a brother of Now lend a patient hearing, and I'll tell thee

one of the nursery maids in delicate health. He entertains

his visitors with his discoveries of the tricks of bakers and - Thou wilt receive it as a wayward dream

the machinations of grocersennuies them to death with long The course of this old river. Know it glides

stories about bad bread, and “ coffee without adulteration." Beneath thy steps, with lapse invisible,

He always knows what is to be for dinner, what remains in the For but by glimpses mortals may bebold it;

larder—and employs his gigantic intellect in considering the And these seem far too glorious for one thought

best mode of cooking it. He is naturally fretful and peevish, Of dull oblivion ever to intrude

and in cold weather has a helplessness of aspect peculiar to On the rapt vision. Not a shadow there

himself. These men never look like Englishmen. They never From gloomy Hades clouds the living light

acquire that manly bluff appearance which is the character That glances gaily down the rippling stream.

of our nation. God knows what is the matter with them, But past description's power, 'tis loud and bright

but they always seem out of sorts. Their features are sharp: With trumpet voices, and with silken sails

their voices are effeminate, and they are nearly all of them Full-blown with Fortune's breath; while from the bank

" troubled with colds.” The business of life with them is to Hope lists her siren strain, and bids them speed

regulate the affairs of housekeeping—their tastes, habits, For ever on to happy isles afar.

thoughts, and rivalries, are womanish. Their conversation And every ripple teems with springing thoughts

is about “poor Mrs" this, and “poor Lady” that_antiquaIn one sense faithful to the Samian's creed

ted matrons, with whom they occasionally compare notes in A constant iteration of old fancies

matters of condolence-yet who have enough of the spirit As if the wise and fools of time came back

of their sex in them to despise their male coadjutor, and in With their old dreams : forgetful of experience.

their souls they think " poor Mr” so-and-so the greatest bore "There system swells on system, bubbles gay,

alive. They are always complaining; if not positively unwell Conventions, empires, powers, authorities,

themselves--a case of rare occurrence—some of their family Song's intellectual fabric, pictures, modes,

is sure to be so—or, if all that should fail, then, at least, a Those myriad lights, the glory and the glitter

dish has been broken, and there is always a number of stand. Which make that current gaily beautiful.

ing grievances ready to be produced when occasion requires.

Well, heaven help them !” as Shakspeare says, " for they And so it rolls, in its magnificence ,

are sad fools." They live a long time, these fellows, but they Tumbling and sparkling up into the sun Like an eternal thing: buoyant and bright

die at last-all the pills and possets in the world will not Beneath the airs of Heaven that murmur mirth

avert death. The passenger who sees the hearse and mutes,

thinks some rational being has died—the stranger, who reads And hope, and life, and pauseless interest.

the tombstone, thinks that a man moulders below. But are While on its living course no spot is seen

they deceived ? We think so.- ---Court GAZETTE. That is not far too bright and glorious

PETRARCH'S OPINION OF Money.--He who expends it For the approach of grim decay, or that More mighty and more terrible shadow Death

properly, is its master; he who lays it up, its keeper; he who

loves it, a fool; he who fears it, a slave; and he who adores To find a cave to lurk in.

it, an idolator. Thou wilt say, This is not Lethe, whose dull waters glide

The whole of human virtue may be reduced to speaking the Sunless among the silent fields of death,

truth always, and doing good to others. Oblivion's formless valley. Yet attend

Many an acknowledged truth was once a controverted Mark well the course of each bright-crested wave :

dogma; the basis of every science has been considered a funAs it rolls by, the gallant barks it bore

damental error. Are vanished, and have left no trace, as if

Truth is the most compendious wisdom, and an excellent They never had existence. Though for ever

instrument for the speedy dispatch of business. It creates New shadows fast emerge into the Sun

confidence in those we have to deal with, saves the labour of (So like the last, that scarce one notes the change),

many inquiries, and brings things to issue in a few words. And take a look of immortality,

-Spectator. Incredulous of the Past, blind to the Future ;

Let us hope the best rather than fear the worst, and believe Not knowing whence they come, from what they are,

that there never was a right thing done, or a wise one spoken Or whither tend. Alas, the stream

in vain, although the fruit of them may not spring up in the With all that went before, is lost below

place designated, or at the time expected. In dim Oblivion's world: It were a dream

George II., being informed that an impudent printer was · Most fleeting and fantastic, were there not

to be punished for having published a spurious King's speech, A chain of awful consequence that binds

replied, that he hoped the punishment would be of the mildest What has been, with what must be. Death and Life,

sort, because he had read both, and as far as he understood The Past, the Present, and the Future, are

either of them, he liked the spurious speech better than his But names bestowed on one perpetual stream, In different provinces beneath the Crown Of Him who is the source from whence all comes

Printed and published very Saturday by GUNN and CAMERON, at the Office And to whom all returns—we see no more

of the General Advertiser, No. 6,Church Lane, College Green, Dublin.But as the gazer from some narrow bridge

Agents :--R. GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley, Paternoster Row, London ;

Simps and DINHAM, Exchange Street, Manchester ; C. Davies, North Looks down upon the waters, when beneath

John Street, Liverpool ; SLOCOMBE & Simms, Leeds, John MENZIES, They come from far, and so pass, and are gone.

Prince's Street, Edinburgh ; & DAVID ROBERTSON, Trongate, Glasgow,


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The fine old mansion of the noble family of Skeffington, of at Massarene and Lough Sidney, or Lough Neagh, with an which our prefixed wood-cut will give a very correct general entertainment of five shillings Irish by the day, and 18 men to idea, is well deserving of notice, not only from its grandeur of serve in and about the said boats, at ten-pence Irish by the size and the beauty of its situation, but still more as present-day each. This grant was made to him by patent for life, in ing an almost unique example, in Ireland, of the style of do- 1609; and on a surrender of it to the king in 1618, it was mestic architecture introduced into the British islands from re-granted to him, and his son and heir John Clotworthy, France, immediately after the Restoration.

with a pension of six shillings and eight-pence per day, and to This castle is generally supposed to have been erected in the longer liver of them for life, payable out of the revenue. or about the year 1662, by Sir John Clotworty, Lord Massa- For this payment Sir Hugh Clotworthy and his son were to rene, who died in 1665, and whose only daughter and heir, build and keep in repair such and so many barks and boats Mary, by her marriage with Sir John, the fifth baronet of as were then kept upon the lough, and under his command, the Skeffington family, carried the Massarene estate and title without any charge to the crown, to be at all times in readiinto the latter family. But though there can be no doubt, ness for his Majesty's use, as the necessity of his service from the architectural style of the building, that Antrim castle should require. John Clotworthy succeeded his father as was re-edified at this period, there is every reason to believe captain of the barks and boats, by commission dated the that it was founded long before, and that it still preserves, to 28th January 1641, at 155. a-day for himself; his lieutenant, a great extent, the form and walls of the original structure. 4s. ; the master, 4s. ; master's mate, 25. ; a master gunner, The Castle of Antrim, or Massarene, as it is now generally Is. 6d. ; two gunners, 12d.; and forty men at 8d. each. called, appears to have been originally erected early in the On the breaking out of the rebellion shortly afterwards, the reign of James I., by Sir Hugh Clotworthy, who, by the es. garrison at Antrim was considerably increased, and the fortablishment of King James I. had the charge of certain boats tifications of the castle and town were greatly strengthened

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by Sir John Clotworthy, who became one of the most distin- The greatest length of the castle, however, runs parallel with guished leaders of the parliamentary forces in the unhappy the river, from which it is separated only by a low parapet wall, conflict which followed. Still commanding the boats of Lough while the terraces of the gardens are situated on the other Neagh, that magnificent little inland sea, as we may not very side. These gardens are no less attractive than the castle improperly call it, became the scene of many a hard contest itself, with which they appear to be of equal age; they are between the contending parties, of one of which Sir R. Cox laid out in the French style, the flower-beds being formed gives the following graphic account. It took place in 1642. into a variety of patterns, among which that of the fleur-de.

“But the reader will not think it tedious to have a descrip- lis is the most common and conspicuous. This design is in tion of a naval battel in Ireland, which happened in this man- its way extremely beautiful, and to carry it out fully, no exner: Sir John Clotworthy's regiment built a fort at Toom, and pense or trouble seems to have been spared. The borders thereby got a convenience to pass the Ban at pleasure, and are often of triple and quadruple rows of box, between which to make incursions as often as he pleased into the county of is laid fine gravel of different colours, which adds greatly to Londonderry. To revenge this, the Irish garrison at Char- the effect. "It is said that a red kind of this gravel was imlemont built some boats, with which they sailed down the Black ported from Holland, and cost upwards of ls. 2d. a quart. water into Loughneagh and preyed and plundered all the bor- This garden is traversed from east to west by a succession ders thereof. Hereupon, those at Antrim built a boat of of fish-ponds, of which the most central one is circular, and twenty tun, and furnished it with six brass guns; and they the rest oblong: and miniature cascades conduct the water also got six or seven lesser boats, and in them all they stowed from the most elevated of these ponds to the lowest. The three hundred men, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel timber in this garden is of great age and beauty, particularly Owen O'Conally (the discoverer of the rebellion, who was a the lime and oak; and it contains two or three specimens of stout and active man) and Captain Langford. These sailed the rhododendron, which are celebrated for their magnifi. over the lou and landed at the mouth of the Black-water, cence, being ful fifteen feet in height, and of corresponding where they cast up two small forts, and returned. But the circumference. Irish found means to pass by these forts, in dark nights, and The house contains some fine pictures and curious articles not only continued their former manner of plundering, but of antique furniture.

P. also raised a small fort at Clanbrazill, to protect their fleet upon any emergency. Upon notice of this, Conally and Langford manned out their navy again, and met the Irish ORIGIN AND MEANINGS OF IRISH FAMILY near the shore of Clanbrazill ; whereupon a naval battel en

NAMES. sued: but the rebels being fresh-water soldiers, were soon forced on shore ; and the victors pursuing their fortune, fol

BY JOHN O'DONOVAN. lowed them to the fort, and forced them to surrender it: and

Second Article. in this expedition sixty rebels were slain, and as many were in returning to the subject of the origin of Irish family names, taken prisoners, which, together with the boats, were brought I feel it necessary to adduce two or three additional instances in triumph to Antrim."

of the erroneous statements put forward by Mr Beauford, But Sir John Clotworthy's little fleet were not always so as they have had such an injurious influence with subsequent successful against the Irish as on this occasion. In an Irish Irish writers on this subject :MS. journal of the rebellion it is stated that on the 15th 3. “Osracit, derived from Uys raigagh, or the kingdom beSeptember 1645, a boat belonging to the governor of Mas- tween the waters, the present Ossory, called also Hy Pau. sarene was captured by Sir Felim O'Neil, in which were druig, or the district of the country between the rivers, &c., two brass cannon, ten muskets, twelve barrels of salted fish, the hereditary chiefs of which were denominated Giolla Pausome sailors, and a company of soldiers. They brought it druig, or the chief of the country between the rivers, called to the mouth of the river Black-water, at Charlemont. The also Mac Giolla Padruic," &c. journalist coolly adds, “Some of the men were hanged, and This seems an exquisite specimen of etymological induction, some redeemed?” And again, according to the same authority, and I have often heard it praised as beautiful and ingenious ; in May 1646, Sir Felim had the good fortune to capture seven but it happens that every assertion made in it is untrue! boats, taking fourteen men prisoners, and killing abovetwenty Osragii is not the Irish name of this territory, but the Latin

However, upon the whole, the governor of Massarene ized form of the name of the inhabitants. Again, Osragii is did good service to the cause of the Protector, for which, in not compounded of Uys and raigagh; and even if it were, consideration of the surrender of his pension of 6s. 8d. a-day, these two vocables are not Irish words, and could not mean &c, an indenture was perfected on the 14th of August 1656 | what is above asserted, the kingdom between the waters. between the Protector and him, whereby a lease was granted Again, Ossory was never called Hy Pau-druic, and even if him for 99 years of Lough Neagh, with the fishing and soil it were, Hly Pau-druic would not mean “district of the thereof, and the islands therein, and also the lough and river country between the rivers.” Next, the hereditary chiefs of Ban, and as far as the Salmon-leap, containing six salmon- were not denominated Giolla Paudruic, but Mic Giolla fishings, and two mixed fishings of salmon and eels, &c.; and Paudruic (a name afterwards anglicized Fitzpatrick), from being instrumental in forwarding the restoration of King an ancestor called Giolla Paudruic, who was chief of Össory Charles II. after Cromwell's death, he was raised to the peer- in the tenth century, and who is mentioned in all the authenage by patent, dated at Westminster, Nov. 21, 1660, by the tic Irish annals as liaving been killed by Donovan, the son of title of Baron of Lough Neagh and Viscount Massarene, en- Imar, king of the Danes of Waterford, in the year 975. tailing the honours, in case of failure of his issue male, on Moreover, Giolla-Phadruic, the name of this chieftain, does Sir John Skeffington and his issue male, with whom they not mean "chief of the country between the rivers," as Mr have since remained. A new patent, constituting Sir -John Beauford would have us believe, but serrant of Saint Patrick, Skeffington captain of Lough Neagh, was granted to him in which, as a man's name, became very common in Ireland 1680.

shortly after the introduction of Christianity, for at this time We shall conclude with a few words upon the castle itself, the Irish were accustomed to give their children names not which is beautifully situated at the extremity of the principal only after the Irish apostle, but also after other distinguished street of the town of Antrim, on the banks of the Six-mile- saints of the primitive Irish church; and the names of these water river, and immediately contiguous to Lough Neagh. saints were not at this period adopted as the names of the The entrance from the town is through a fine gate-house, in children, but the word Giolla, or Maol, servant, was genethe Tudor style of architecture, built of cut lime-stone, and rally prefixed to the names of the saints to form those of the closed by two folding-doors of cast iron, which are opened children: thus, Giolla Padruic, the servant of St Patrick ; from a room overhead by means of machinery. The prin- Giolla Ciarain, the servant of St Kieran ; Giolla Caoimhghin, cipal front of the castle faces the gate-house, and is in the the servant of St Kevin; Giolla Coluim, the servant of St centre of a curtain wall, connecting two large square towers Columb, &c. placed at the angles of the building, and which again have 4. “ CONMAICNE MARA, or the chief tribe on the great sea, smaller circular towers at three of their angles. This front comprehending the western parts of the county of Galway on is approached by a magnificent double stone staircase, and the sea coast; it was also called Conmaicne ira, or the chief presents a great variety of enrichments in the French style tribe in the west, and Iar Connaught, that is, west Connaught; of the seventeenth century, and is also decorated with shields likewise Hy lartogh, or the western country; the chiefs of having the armorial bearings of the founder's family, and which were denominated Hy Flaherty or O'Flaherty, that with medallions containing the portraits of Charles I. and II. I is, the chief of the nobles of the western country, and con


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