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on the suppression of that establishment it was granted to dew stood on the huge oak-table; tumblers and glasses glitthe Knights of St John of Jerusalem, and subsequently to the tered in their respective places: and, in a few minutes we were Bishop of Waterford. But be this as it may, it was preserved all engaged in discussing the merits of a large jug of potteen as a military fortress till it was dismantled in 1649 by that punch. All were happy; Garret talked, his wife smiled; great destroyer of Irish castles, Oliver Cromwell, who, plant- told all the “new news” of the Queen's county ; whilst the ing his cannon on the opposite hill near the bridge, made a spaces were filled up by blind Maurice, who played several breach in the walls, which speedily induced the garrison to sur- of his most delightful 'national airs on his antique-looking render. The breach there is still shown, and according to an pipes, whilst invariably as he concluded each successive old tourist the following story is told in connection with it :- lay, he would enrich the treat by some tradition connected “When the place was besieged by Oliver, a butcher was within with the piece he had been playing, and which threw an indethe walls, who while the siege lasted could never be prevailed scribable charm not only around the performance, but the per. on to come out of the room where he had placed himself; but former. when the breach was made, and the soldiers began to storm, " That's a curious thing," remarked Garret, as the piper conhe took up a handspike, and defended the breach almost cluded one particular rant; " it's a quare medley, sometimes alone for some time, and knocked down several soldiers that gay and sometimes sad, and sometimes like the snarlin' of a strove to enter ; but finding none to second him, he retired growlin' dog, and again exactly like the mewing of a cat." without the least hurt. When the castle was surrendered, he The piper smiled. “ And have you," he asked, “never was asked why he would not come to the walls before the heard me play that tune before ?--and did I never tell you the breach was made? He replied, “ Damn them, I did not mind strange story connected with it?" what was doing on the outside, but I could not bear their Never," was the reply. coming into the house,' as he called it.”
“ Well, that is strange enough; that tune is an old favourite Ardtinnan is a parish in the barony of Iffa and Offa west, in Munster, and I thought the whole world had heard of it.” county of Tipperary, above four miles S. S. E. from Cahir, “ It never kem to Glen-Mac-Tir, any how,” replied the farand contains about nine hundred inhabitants. The village mer," or I'd surely have heard of it. How d'ye call the name itself, which extends into the adjoining parish of Ballybacon, of it?" contains above three hundred. It was once a place of greater “ Caith-na-brogueen—that is in English, Puss in Brogues," note, and appears to have had a corporation, as it is on record, said the piper. 4th of Edward II (1311), that a grant of “pontage for three “ Well," said Garret, “ it's often I heard of Puss in Boots, years” was made to the Bailiffs and good men of Ardfynan” but I never heard of Puss in Brogues afore.” at the request of the Bishop of Limerick.
P. “ Well, I'll tell you and this good company all about it,"
said Maurice, laying down his pipes and wiping his forehead.
“ Ay, but afore you begin," said Garret, " take another PUSS IN BROGUES,
dhrop to wet your whistle, and you'll get on the betther with A LEGEND.
The piper scized the flowing tumbler again, and raising it It was about Christmas in the year 1831 that I received an to his lips, gaily exclaimed, whilst his attenuated hand shook invitation to spend the holidays with a friend who resided in nervously beneath the weight of the smoking goblet, a valley embosomed amongst the loftiest of those mountains Sho-dhurtlh, your healths, my friends, glory to our noble which form the boundary between the King's and Queen's selves; and if this be war, may we never have more peaceable counties. The name of my host was Garret Dalton ; he held times.” a considerable tract of land at a low rent, and by hard work. Amen," was the fervent response of every one present. ing and thrifty living contrived not only to support his “Now for the Caith-na-brogueen,” said Garret. family in comparative comfort, but to “ lay up a snug penny Ay, aud a wild and strange tale it is," said Maurice. in the horn" for his only daughter Nanny, who was at this However, it is a popular tradition in South Munster, and time about fourteen years of age, and, as her fond father often often when a boy have I listened to it, whilst my eyes, now proudly boasted, " the patthern ov as purty a colleen as you'd dark for ever, would glisten with delight, and I would even find from the seven churches of Clonmacnoise to the hill or fear to breathe lest one syllable of the legend might escape Howth-wherever that was.
me.”. Then emitting a deep-drawn sigh, and again wiping his Garret was generous and hospitable ; bis house “was polished brow, he thus began. known to all the vagrant train,” and the way-worn pilgrim, • At the foot of a hill in a lonely district of the county of the wandering minstrel, the itinerant boccough,” and the Cork, about a dozen miles from my native village, there lived strolling vender of the news and gossip of the day, were always in old times a poor man named Larry Roche. He was, they secure of a welcome reception at his comfortable fireside. say, descended from that family of the Roches once so mighty
Amongst the most constant of his guests was one Maurice in the south of Ireland, and some branches of which still reO'Sullivan, a native of the county of Cork. Maurice was a tain a considerable degree of their former consequence and most venerable-looking personage--tall
, gaunt, athletic, and respectability. Poor Larry, however, although the blood of stone blind. He was about eighty years of age; his white kings might flow through his veins, was neither rich nor rehair flowed on his shoulders, and he played the Irish bag- spectable; and his only means of support was a patch of barren pipes delightfully. He was the lineal descendant of a family land, which he held from that celebrated sportsman Squire still famous in the annals the "green isle ;' and although B, in consideration of his services as care-keeper of a now compelled to wander through his native land in the garb vast extent of bog and heath, the property of the squire, and and character of a blind piper, he had once seen better which extended far westward of poor Larry Roche's cabin. days, and was possessed of education and intelligence far Yet Larry was not discontented with his situation. His father superior to most of his caste. He was intimately acquainted and grandfather had lived and died in the same cabin ; and with the sad history of his country, was devotedly attached to although sometimes he might feel disposed to envy the fine the dogmas of the fairy creed, could recite charms and inter- times which the sporting squire enjoyed, yet on cool reflection pret dreams, and was deeply conversant in all those witch he would console himself with the consideration that " it was legends and traditions for which the Munster peasantry are not every one that was born with a silver spoon in his mouth,” so peculiarly celebrated. Hence Maurice was always a spe- and that even squire B himself, as grand as he was, was cial favourite with my enthusiastic friend, who regularly en- on the " look down,”or he would not spend so much of his time tertained him at his own table, and who, when they would wading through fens and bogs at home, but like his ancestors be have disposed of their plain but comfortable and substantial lavishing his thousands amongst the Sassenaghs at the other meal, would treat his blind guest to repeated “rounds” of side of the lough, or driving about on the continent. Thus good " half and half," composed of water from the spring, and rolled away poor Larry's days in poverty and contentment. In the potteen of the valley. It was night-fall when I arrived, the shooting season his time was occupied in following his master and the happy family, consisting of Garret and his wife, over beath and hillock with his game-bag on his shoulder, and Nanny their eldest girl, and her two little brothers, with Paddy his “dhudeen” in his teeth, whilst the rest of the year was Bawn the " sarvint boy," and Ouny the “girl," including spent in lounging about the ditches of the neighbourhood, blind Maurice, were collected in a smiling group around chatting with the crones of the vicinity about his family conthe immense turf fire. In that day teetotalism had made nexions, or the fairies of Glendharig, or squabbling with his little progress in Ireland; a huge copper kettle was therefore good woman and his young ones : for Larry was married ; and soon hissing on the fire; a large grey-beard of mountain. I as his wife was exactly a counterpart of himself, every hour
of course gave fresh cause for that bickering and disagreement maker in the county, and he is my first gossip besides." so often the result of untimely and ill-assorted marriages. “I know all that,” said the cat, as he leaped up the chim
The only domestic animal in or about Larry Roche's cabin ney, on his departure to the scene of his midnight wanderwas a ferocious-looking old black tom-cat, far bigger and ings. Good night, Larry, and don't forget your engagestronger than any cat ever seen in that part of the country. ment;" and he disappeared through the gathering gloom, to His fur was black, he had strong whiskers, his nails were like the great relief of poor Larry and his terrified family. a tiger's, and at the end of his tail was fixed a claw or “gaff" That was a sad and uneasy night with poor Larry and his as sharp and hooked as a falcon's beak ; his eyes also flashed wife and children. They did not go to bed at all, but sat by night with an appalling glare, and his cry was a savagę trembling at fire, expecting every moment that the black howl, baffling all description, and unlike any sound ever heard imp would return with legions of fiends to carry them away, from any other animal. He was as singular in his habits, too, body and bones, to the regions below. Numerous were the as in his appearance. He was never known to demand a mor- plans proposed for getting rid of their old companion, but all sel of food, and if offered any, he would reject it with indig; were rejected—some as inefficient, others as impracticable; nation. Every evening at twilight he left the fireside, and and the only point on which they could finally agree, was, spent the night scouring over moor and heather, and at day, that their days were numbered, and that perhaps before break would return from his foray, gaining access through morning their blood would be streaming on the hearth-stone, the low chimney of the cabin, and be found in the morning in and their souls wandering through mire and morass, the prey his usual position on the hob-stone. There he would sit of troops of fiends. from morning till night; and when Larry and Betty and the At last the morning dawned, and as Larry disconsolately. “childre” were chatting in a group around the fire, the cat enough was preparing to set forward on his journey to Mill
. would watch them intently, and if the nature of their conver- street, the cat jumped down the chimney, and took his usual sation was such as to excite laughter or merriment, he would place on the hob. growl in a low tone, evidently dissatisfied; but if their dialogues “ Well, I am going now," said Larry;" have you any diwere held in a jarring, angry strain, as sometimes happened, rections to give about the brogues ?”. he would purr hoarsely and loudly, whilst the wagging of his The cat did not reply, but uttered a hideous growl, which tail testified the pleasure he felt in their feuds and dissensions. fell heavily on the poor fellow's heart; so kissing his wife and The family had often been advised to make away with him, children, and commending them to the protection of God, he but superstitious awe or family prejudice prevented them; and set out on his sorrowful journey. although the whole neighbourhood averred that he was no
no He had not gone far when he perceived through the dim right thing," yet for the reasons I have stated his owners grey of the morning a human figure approaching; and on never could be induced to make any attempt to banish or advancing a little nearer, he found that it was a very old destroy him.
man, of extremely diminutive stature and forbidding aspect. One dreary evening in October, Larry returned from his He wore an old grey coat and an equally old woollen cap, day's wandering with the squire over the bleak bogs, and and his thin white hair descended to his knees; he was barealthough it rained, and the wind blew bitterly, he appeared foot, and carried a walking-stick in his hand. in much better spirits than was usual with him on similar oc- “ Good morrow, and God save you, Larry Roche," said casions. His wife wondered, and made more than usual prepara- the old man as he came up. tions to please him. She trimmed the fire, and assisted him A bright morning to you," answered Larry. in taking off his dripping clothes, and then commenced pour- “ How is every rope's length of you, Larry, and how is the ing out her sympathy for his sufferings.
woman and the childre at home ?" demanded the stranger. ** Oh, never mind," said Larry; “I have good news." “ Faix, purty well, considherin," replied Larry. “But you “ Arrah, sit down," said Betty, “ and tell
us what it is." have a great advantage of me." Larry sat down, and putting his hand in his pocket, pulled “ How's that?" said the old man. out a glittering gold coin.
“Why, because you know me so well, while I have no more “ Arrah, Larry, avourneen, what's that ?" asked the woman. knowledge of you than of the man in the moon."
“ Faith, it's a rale yellow boy, a good goold guinea," re- “ Och, I'd know your skin in a tan-yard," said the old plied Larry. “ The squire gev it to me, and tould me to buy chap, laughing." But is it possible you don't know me?" a pair of brogues with it, and drink his health with the balance. • Faix if God Almighty knows no more about you than I
Och, musha ! then, long life to him," vociferated Betty; do, the devil will have a prey of you one of those days,” re“and, Larry, a-hagur, will you buy the brogues ?”
plied Larry. “ Faix and I will,” said Larry, "and another rattling pair “ Well, say no more about that,” said the old fellow, rather for yourself, a-chorra."
angrily. But where are you going this blessed Sunday mornAy, daddy, and another pair for me,” shouted young ing, Larry?" Larry.
* To Mill-street,” said Larry. And another for me,” cried Thady.
“ All the ways-musha! what's taking you to Mill.street, “ And another for me," chuckled Charley.
Larry ?" “Ay, and two pair for me,” cried the black cat, speaking My feet and my business," said Larry, something piqued in a wild unearthly tone from the hob-stone, and breaking at the old fellow's inquisitive importunity. forth into a horrible laugh.
You are very stiff this morning, Larry," said the stranger “Devil knock the day-lights out of yez all," cried Larry, with a grin. without seeming to take any notice of the strange circum- “ I am worse than that,” said the poor fellow; "the heart stance, though his heart died within him with terror and sur- within me is sick and sore. prise.
“ And what troubles you now, Larry?" “ Lord have mercy on us !" faintly ejaculated Betty, sign- Larry hereupon told the whole of his strange misfortunes ing her brow, whilst all the children started up in terror, and to the stranger, ending with a deep “ochone," and wishing, if ran behind their parents in the chimney-corner.
it was the will of God, that "his four bones were stretched All this time the cat remained silent on the hob; but his in the church-yard of Kilebawn." aspect, at all times terrible, now seemed perfectly monstrous “ You'll be there time enough for your welcome, may be," and hideous. For some time a death-like silence was preser- said the old chap, “but that's neither here nor there. What ved, but at last Larry plucked up courage to address the will you do with the black cat?". speaking animal.
Och, sweet bad luck to all the cats alive, both black and “ And, in the name of God," he began, “what business have white,” imprecated Larry. you with brogues ?"
That cat's a devil-a fiend,” said the stranger ; " and “ Ask me no questions," replied the cat, “but get me the more than that, he intends to murder you and your family brogues as soon as possible."
this very night.”. “Oh, by all means," replied Larry, quite gently, “ you must Larry groaned and crossed his forehead, whilst the stran. have them; and why did you not ask them long ago, and you ger’s hideous countenance was convulsed with half-suppressed should have got them ?"
laughter. “ My time was not come," replied Puss, briefly.
Well, Larry,” said he again, “ I am your friend, and I “Well,” resumed Larry,“to-morrow is Sunday, and at day- have power to save you and yours, on one condition; and break I will start off to my gossip Phadruig Donovan's, in that is, that you will stop up the window in the back wall of Mill-street, to engage the brogues ; he is the best brogue- your cabin."
“ Faith and I'll do that with a heart and a half,” said Larry. So Larry opened the bag, and out jumped Puss, and away “ But what do you want that for ?"
with him over the bog like a flash of lightning. The wild “ I'll tell you that another time," said the little man. huntsman hallooed his dogs, and the pursuit commenced, but " Go home now, and say you can't proceed to Mill-street the cat was soon surrounded and torn to pieces. without taking the wife and children with you, to leave the “ Now," said the horseman, “ I must bid you farewell ;" and measure of their feet for the brogues. Tell the cat also that off he went; and then Larry returned home with the happy he must come too, to have his fit taken; then tie him up in a tidings, and the squire's guinea was spent in the purchase of bag, and bring him with you ; fasten this hair around your sundry bottles of " Tom Corcoran's" best potteen ; but we neck," added the old man, at the same time extracting a sin- must do Larry the justice to say that his agreement with the gle white hair from his head, and all the imps of hell cannot old man was punctually performed, and the back window hurt you. But mind and don't open your lips from the time stopped as effectually as mud and stones could do it. you leave home till you come to this spot; and when you A few nights after, Larry was aroused from his sleep by the arrive here with the cat, sit down and wait the event.” merry tones of bagpipes at his fire-side, and getting up, he
A thick fog now suddenly rose, and the old man was hidden perceived the kitchen illuminated with a bright, reddish glare, from the sight of Larry, who, greatly overjoyed, returned to whilst on the hob-stone he saw, snugly seated, the ever rehis cabin to execute the orders he had got, and was met by membered little old man playing a set of bagpipes, to the his wife, who was trembling for his safe return, but did not delightful tones of which hundreds of little fellows with red expect him sooner than night.
caps and red small-clothes were capering about the floor. • Musha! Larry agragal, you're welcome,” she exclaimed ; "God bless the man and the work" said Larry, “and warm “and what in the name of God turned you back ?"
work yez have ov it this hour ov the night." “I am coming for you and the gorsoons ; you must all The little fellow hereupon set up a shout, and rushing to come to Mill-street to have your measure taken for the the door, flew through it, one of them striking poor Larry a brogues.”
box on the right eye, which blinded it. “ And must I go too ?” asked the cat.
“Good night, Misthur Larry,” said the piper; "and how “Faix you must," said Larry; “ if natural Christians could'nt is your four bones ? and how is the good woman that owns be fitted without bein' on the spot, it's hard to expect that you you?” could."
Och, no fear at all ov the woman,” replied Larry; "and “ And how am I to travel ?” he asked.
as for my bones, they are well enough ; but, faith, my right eye, “ In a bag on my back," replied Larry. “I'll whip you I believe, is in whey in my head." through the country like a dinner to a hog, and man or mor- “Well, it will teach you how to speak to your betters in tal shall never be the wiser, if the brogue-maker keeps his future," said the little piper ; "never mintion the holy name tongue quiet."
again, when talking to the 'good people.' " I'll go bail he will,” said Puss, " for I'll kill him the very But, Larry, listen : I'll now tell you why I wanted you to night the brogues is brought home."
stop up your back window, " Lord have mercy on him!” ejaculated Larry, his heart * You must know that this cabin of yours stands on the midsinking within him.
dle of a fairy pass.
We often come this way in our wan“Pray for yourself—may be you want mercy as well as derings through the air in cold nights, and often we wished him," said the cat.
to warm ourselves at your fire-side; but as there was a win. The preparations were soon completed, and the cat being dow in the back of your cabin, we had not power to stop, but put into the bag, Larry tied the mouth of it firmly with a were compelled to pursue our journey. Now that the winpiece of cord, and then slung it on his shoulder; and after ac-dow is stopped, we can come in and remain as long as we wish, quainting his wife with his adventure with the old man on and resume our journey through the door by wbich we enter. "Moin-more," he departed, whistling the air of “Thamama We pass this way almost every night, and you need never feel Thulla."
in the least apprehensive of injury so long as you let us pursue He soon gained the spot where he had parted with the old our pastimes undisturbed." man, and looking round and perceiving nobody, he sat down “I'll be bound me or mine shall never annoy one of yez," on the green fern, still holding the bag which contained his said Larry, terrible fellow-traveller.
“ That's a good fellow, Larry," said the little chap; “What stops you Larry?” asked the cat.
now take those pipes and play us a tune." Larry, recollecting the old man's injunction, spoke not, but “ Och, the devil a chanter I ever fingered,” said Larry, continued whistling.
“since I was christened." “ Does anything ail you, Larry?”
" No matter," said the little fellow; “I'll go bail you'll play " Whoo, hoo, phoo, hoo—Thamemo Chodladh.”
out of the soot." “Is Betty and the childre to the fore?”
Larry “yoked" on the pipes, and lilted up in darling style “ Thamemo Chodladh."
a merry tune, whilst the old chap was ready to split with “Bad luck to you and your "Thamemo Chodladh,'” cried laughing. the cat.
“What's the name of that tohune ?" said Larry. “ That the prayers may fall on the preacher," said Larry “ Caith-na-brogueen,"replied the fairy piper ; "a tune I comto himself.
posed in memory of your escape from the cat; a tune that will The cat now began to make desperate efforts to escape from soon become a favourite all over Munster.” the bag, whilst Larry redoubled his exertions to detain him. Larry handed back the pipes ; the little man placed them in His attention, however, was soon arrested by the cry of a red bag, and, bidding his host “good night,” dashed up the hounds, and on looking westward, he perceived, rapidly ap- chimney. proaching over the morass, a big black man mounted on a The next night, and almost every following night, the din black horse, and accompanied by a numerous pack of black of fairy revels might be heard at Larry Roche's fire-side, and dogs.
Larry himself was their constant companion in their midnight “Ochone,” thought Larry,," now I am coached of all ever frolics. He soon became the best performer on the bagpipes bappened me. Here is the chap's black friends coming to rescue in the south of Ireland, and after some time surrendered his him, and they wont leave a toothful a-piece in my carcass.” cabin to the sole occupation of the “good people," and wan.
“Let me go, Larry,” said the cat, “let me go, and I'll dered with his family through all the Munster counties, and show you where there's a cart-load of gold buried in the was welcome and kindly treated wherever he came. After ground.” But Larry remained silent, and meantime the horse- some time, the cabin from neglect fell, and offered no further man and hounds came up.
impediment to the fairy host in their midnight wanderings, “Good morrow and good luck, Larry Roche,” said the whilst Larry followed a life of pleasure and peace, far from black equestrian, with a grim smile.
the scene of his former perils and privations. “Good morrow, kindly, your worship,” said Larry.
The cat, of course, was never seen after ; but the peasantry "Is that a fox you have in the bag, Larry?".
of the neighbourhood say that the screams of the infernal “No, in troth," said Larry, “though I believe he is not fiend, mingled with the deep howlings of hell-hounds and the much honester than a fox."
savage yellings of the sable hunter, may be distinctly heard .." I must see what it is, any how,” said the sable horseman, in horrid chorus amongst the fens and morasses of the broad with a gesticulation which convinced Larry at once that he Moin-more.' was the fellow whom he had seen before.
Thus ended the strange tale of Maurice O'Sullivan, who
in addition to the unanimous applause of the company present, / tions of his work; and then, exposing the whole to the action was treated to another flowing tumbler of the barley bree, of the fire, in a few moments the soldering is completed. But which he tossed off to the health of those who, to use his own if it is open work, he lays out the foliage and other parts upon words, were “ good people” in earnest—not fays or fairies, a card or thin bit of soft wood, and attaches them together, however, but the hospitable folks of Glen-Mac-Tir; adding as before described, with the pulp of the sago berry, applies at the same time that he was resolved to gratify the lovers of the solder to the points of junction, and puts his work into legendary lore with another of his wild Munster tales on the the fire as before; the card or wood burns away, the solder following night.
J. K. unites the parts, and the work is completed ; but if the piece
be very large, the soldering is done at several times. When
the work is finished as to the manufacturing part, it is clean. ITINERANT GOLDSMITHS OF INDIA AND SUMATRA
sed and brightened by boiling it in water with common salt
and alum, or lime juice; and when the goldsmith wishes to In the production of beautiful specimens of mechanical art, give it a fine purple colour, he boils it in water with sulphur. much more depends upon the natural taste and ingenuity of The beautiful little balls with which the Sumatran filagree the workman than upon the completeness and perfection of work is sometimes ornamented, are very simply made. The his tools. To those who are not much acquainted with the maker merely drills a small hole in a piece of charcoal, into mechanical arts, this may sound somewhat like a self-evident which he puts some grains of gold dust, and upon exposing it proposition; yet it is far, very far indeed, from being consi- to the fire, it runs into a perfect ball. dered such by European mechanics in general, and by our At finishing plain work, however, it must be confessed that own in particular. So commonly is the blame of clumsy the Sumatran and Indian goldsmiths fall short of the Euroworkmanship laid upon the badness or the want of tools, that pean; but if the latter excel in this, which may be considered an anecdote is related of a man, who, upon being spoken to the lowest department of the art, they are, despite their im. by a friend for having committed numerous grammatical provements and the superiority of their instruments, vastly errors in a letter which he had just written, cursed his pen, inferior in the elegance and delicacy of the finer parts. and asked his friend how he could be so excessively unreason- The Sonah Wallah (which signifies in Hindoostanee able as to expect him or any man to write good English with gold fellow”), or itinerant goldsmith of India, is far better such a wretched implement !
supplied with tools and implements of his trade than the SuTo such a degree of excellence has the manufacture of matran; and being thus a step higher in the grade of civilizamechanical tools and instruments arrived in these countries, tion, he exhibits evidences of his advance in refinement by that a British mechanic would be utterly astonished could he being such a confounded rogue, that it is almost impossible for but behold the process of manufacturing various articles in even his European employer to detect him, or prevent bim from the East; such for example as the shawls of Persia and pilfering some portion of the metal consigned to his ingenuity. Cashmere, the carvings in wood and ivory of China, the The Sonah Wallah may be hired for half a rupee (a little over extraction of metal from the ore in the same country, by which a shilling) a day, and, like the tinkers in these countries, he malleable iron is produced fit for immediate use, and of the brings his implements with him. These consist of a small finest quality, by a single process; and, not to tire by enume- forge, to the edge of which are attached several iron rings, ration, the productions of the itinerant goldsmiths of India which may be turned up over the charcoal to receive his cruand the island of Sumatra. These last excel in filagree cibles; a tin tube to blow through, a pair of slight iron work, for which they are celebrated, far exceeding even the tongs, a pair of small pliers, a hammer, a couple of earthen Chinese in its extraordinary delicacy; yet their tools are ruder saucers, and a rude anvil consisting of a piece of fint sethan those of the Indian goldsmith of the continent.
cured in a rough iron frame. The gold usually presented to him When a Sumatran goldsmith is engaged to manufacture for working is the gold mohur, a coin worth about 32s. stersome piece of gold or silver work, he firsts asks for any little ling; this coin he places in a crucible with a little borax, to piece of thin iron-a bit of an iron hoop will answer his purpose make it fuse the more readily; and having fixed the crucible --and with this he makes an instrument for drawing his wire. in one of the rings, and lighted the charcoal under and around The head of an old hammer stuck in a block of wood serves it, he blows with his tin tube until the metal is melted, when for an anvil ; and for a pair of compasses he is contented with he practises a trick of his trade by throwing in a small quantwo old nails tied together at the heads. If he has a crucible, tity of nitro-muriatic acid, which causes a sudden expansion good ; if not, a piece of a broken rice-pot or a china tea-cup or slight explosion, by which a portion of the metal is thrown answers his purpose. His furnace is an old broken quallee or out of the crucible into the fire, from the extinguished embers iron pot, and his bellows a joint of bamboo, through which he of which the rogue separates it at a convenient opportunity ; blows with his mouth. If the work be heavy, and the quan- and lest his employer should try to detect him by weighing tity of metal to be melted considerable, three or four sit round the material both before and after working, he uses a copper the furnace, each with his bamboo, and blow together. It is rod for stirring the contents of the crucible, a portion of only at Padang, where the manufacture is carried on exten- which rod melts and mingles with the gold, and so compensively, that the Chinese bellows has been introduced. The sates for the deficiency in weight, or at least so nearly as inart of wire-drawing not having been considerably improved variably to escape detection, although it is more than probaupon since the time of Tubalcain, the Sumatran method differs ble that an instance seldom or never occurs in which they do little from the European.
not defraud their employers of a portion of the gold put into When drawn sufficiently fine, the wire is flattened by beat their hands. The fact is, that their admirable skill so coining it upon the anvil, and when flattened, it is twisted by pletely compensates for their knavery, that few would think rubbing it upon a block of wood with a flat stick. Having of questioning too closely, for, rude and simple as are their twisted it, the goldsmith again flattens it upon the anvil, and tools, they far exceed European workmen in the production it is then a flat wire with serrated or indented edges, suitable of delicate and intricately formed trinkets; their small, taper, for forming leaves or portions of flowers ; these he makes by and flexible fingers more than supplying the place of the nuturning down the end of the wire with a rude pincers, and merous varieties of implements which the mechanic of Birthen cutting it off; this process is repeated until he has a mingham or Sheffield finds indispensably necessary. Indian sufficient number prepared for his work. The pattern he has chains of gold and silver have been ever celebrated for the drawn on a piece of paper or card, to the size and shape of beauty and complication of their structure ; and although the which the intended piece of workmanship must correspond. Sonah Wallah may be considered to excel particularly in this If the work is to be formed upon a plate of gold, he cuts the branch of his art, yet he still must be admitted to surpass, or plate to the shape of his pattern, and proceeds to dispose the at least equal,the European even in the manufacture of finger various bits of foliage, assorted according to size, and adjusts rings, bracelets, and armlets. wire of various thickness for the stems, tendrils, &c., fastening Much of the superior ingenuity of the Indian goldsmith them temporarily together, and upon the plate, with the sago may be attributable to the division of the people into castes berry, called boca sago, which they reduce to a pulp by grind or sections, by which fundamental law the same profession is ing upon a rough stone; and a young cocoa nut, about the size carried on by the same people or family through countless geof a walnut, forms the ointment-box for this gelatinous pre- nerations ; the Shastra, or code of Hindoo laws, forbidding paration. When the work has been all placed in order, the the mixture of the castes, or interference with any business or operator prepares his solder, which consists of gold filings profession not carried on by their progenitors. and borax mingled with water this he strews upon the plate There are four integral divisions of the people. The first and applies to the several points of contact of the finer por-caste, the Brahmins, are said by the Hindoo scriptures to
have issued, at the creation, from Brahma's mouth; and being a little boy put into my hand my watch, saying, “ Sir, the thus the most excellent and dignified, are set apart for the gentleman says you left your watch and these thingumbobs by priesthood and legislative departments of the state. The se- mistake." cond, the Cshatryas, are said to have issued from Brahma's “ What gentleman ?" arms, and to them is committed the executive_these con- “ I don't know, but he was one that said I looked like an sequently form the armies. The third caste, the Vaisyas, are honest chap, and he'd trust me to run and give you the watch. said to have proceeded from Brahma's thighs; they are He is dressed in a blue coat, and went towards the quay. the merchants, and consequently amongst them are to be That's all I know.” found some of the wealthiest men of Hindostan. The fourth On opening the paper of trinkets, I found a card with these caste, called Soodras, being said to have issued from the feet words: _“ Barny—with kind thanks." of Brahma, are considered the most ignoble and degraded, “ Barny! poor Barny! An Irishman whose passage I paid and to them are left all mechanical arts and servile employ- coming to America three years ago. Is it possible ?" ments, as being beneath the dignity of the superior castes. I ran after him the way which the child directed, and was Amongst the Soodras, consequently, are the goldsmiths ; and so fortunate as just to catch a glimpse of the skirt of his coat as the different professions form a sort of minor castes amongst as he went into a neat, good-looking house. I walked up and the greater ones, the same business is transferred from father down for some time, expecting him to come out again ; for I to son ; and all the powers of the mind being directed undis- could not suppose that it belonged to Barny. I asked a grotractedly to the single object, pre-eminence in that line is na- cer who was leaning over his hatch-door, if he knew who lived turally to be expected.
N. in the next house?
“ An Irish gentleman of the name of O'Grady."
“ And his Christian name ?" BARNY O'GRADY.
“ Here it is in my books, sir Barnaby O'Grady."
I knocked at Mr O'Grady's door, and made my way into BEHOLD me safely landed at Philadelphia, with one hundred the parlour, where I found him, his two sons, and his wife, pounds in my pocket-a small sum of money; but many, from sitting very sociably at tea. He and the two young men rose yet more trifling beginnings, have grown rich in America. immediately, to set me a chair. Many passengers who came over in the same ship with me “ You are welcome, kindly welcome, sir," said he. “ This had not half so much. Several of them were indeed wretch- is an honour I never expected, any way. Be pleased to take edly poor. Among others there was an Irishman, who was the seat next the fire. "Twould be hard indeed if you should known by the name of Barny--a contraction, I believe, for not have the best seat's that to be had in this house, where Barnaby. As to his surname, he could not undertake to spell we none of us ever should have sat, nor had seats to sit upon, it, but he assured me there was no better. This man, with but for you." many of his relatives, had come to England, according to The sons pulled off my shabby greatcoat, and took away their custom, during harvest time, to assist in reaping, be- my hat, and Mrs O'Grady made up the fire. There was cause they gain higher wages than in their own country. something in their manner, altogether, which touched me so Barny had heard that he should get still higher wages for much that it was with difficulty I could keep myself from labour in America, and accordingly he and his two sons, lads bursting into tears. They saw this, and Barny (for I shall of eighteen and twenty, took their passage for Philadelphia. never call him any thing else), as he thought that I should A merrier mortal I never saw. We used to hear him upon like better to hear of public affairs than to speak of my own, deck, continually singing or whistling his Irish tunes ; and I began to ask his sons if they had seen the day's paper, and should never have guessed that this man's life had been a series what news there were. of hardships and misfortunes.
As soon as I could command my voice, I congratulated this When we were leaving the ship, I saw him, to my great sur- family upon the happy situation in which I found them, and prise, crying bitterly; and upon inquiring what was the mat- asked by what lucky accident they had succeeded so well. ter, he answered that it was not for himself, but for his two “ The luckiest accident ever happened me before or since I sons, he was grieving ; because they were to be made re- came to America,” said Barny, “ was being on board the same demption men ; that is, they were to be bound to work, during vessel with such a man as you. If you had not given me the a certain time, for the captain, or for whomsoever he pleased, first lift, I had been down for good and all, and trampled under till the money due for their passage should be paid. Although foot, long and long ago. But after that first lift, all was as I was somewhat surprised at any one's thinking of coming on easy as life. My two sons here were not taken from me God board a vessel without having one farthing in his pocket, yet bless you; for I never can bless you enough for that. The I could not forbear paying the money for this poor fellow. lads were left to work for me and with me; and we never He dropped down on the deck upon both his knees, as suddenly parted, hand or heart, but just kept working on together, and as if he had been shot, and holding up his hands to heaven, put all our earnings, as fast as we got them, into the hands of prayed, first in Irish, and then in English, with fervent fluency, that good woman, and lived hard at first, as we were born and that “ I and mine might never want; that I might live long to bred to do, thanks be to heaven! Then we swore against all reign over him; that success might attend my honour wherever sorts of drink entirely. And as I had occasionally served the I went ; and that I might enjoy for evermore all sorts of masons when I lived a labouring man in the county of Dubblessings and crowns of glory. As I had an English preju- lin, and knew something of that business, why, whatever I dice in favour of silent gratitude, I was rather disgusted knew, I made the most of, and a trowel felt noways strange all this eloquence ; I turned away abruptly, and got into the to me, so I went to work, and had higher wages at first than boat which waited to carry me to shore.
I deserved. The same with the two boys : one was as much
of a blacksmith as would shoe a horse, and the other a bit I had now passed three years in Philadelphia, and was not a of a carpenter; so the one got plenty of work in the forges, farthing the richer, but, alas, a great deal poorer. My inve- and the other in the dockyards as a ship-carpenter. So, early terate habit of procrastination--of delaying every thing till and late, morning and evening, we were all at the work, and TO-MORROW, always stood betwixt me and prosperity. I at just went this way struggling on even for a twelvemonth, and last resolved upon leaving the land of the star-spangled ban- found, with the high wages and constant employ we had met, ner ; but when I came to reckon up my resources, I found that that we were getting greatly better in the world. Besides, I could not do so, unless I disposed of my watch and my wife's the wife was not idle. When a girl, she had seen baking, and trinkets. I was not accustomed to such things, and I was had always a good notion of it, and just tried her hand upon it ashamed to go to the pawnbroker's, lest I should be met and now, and found the loaves went down with the customers, recognised by some of my friends. I wrapped myself up in who came faster and faster for them; and this was a great help. an old surtout, and slouched my hat over my face. As I was Then I turned master mason, and had my men under me, and crossing the quay, I met a party of gentlemen walking arm took a house to build by the job, and that did ; and then on to in arm. I squeezed past them, but one stopped and looked another; and after building many for the neighbours, 'twas after me; and though I turned down another street to escape fit and my turn, I thought, to build one for myself, which I him, he dodged me unperceived. Just as I came out of the did out of theirs, without wronging them of a penny. In pawnbroker's shop, I saw him posted opposite me; I brushed short," continued Barny, "if you were to question me how I by; I could with pleasure have knocked him down for his im- have got on so well in the world, upon my conscience I should pertinence. By the time that I had reached the corner of answer, we never made Saint Monday, and never put off till the street, I heard a child calling after me; I stopped, and I to-morrow what we could do to-day."