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fused money offered by their respectable visitors, though, in fact, their means are a good deal diminished by the hospitality
extended to each successive guest; while a young sister, who In the hope that the narration of the following singular cir- has constantly attended Cavanagh since he has lain and fasted cumstances may attract the attention of medical and scien- according to the statement, persists in declaring, with the tific men towards its extraordinary subject, we lay it before strongest appearance of innocence and belief in the truth of the readers of the Irish Penny Journal :
her own assertion, that it was impossible he could have tasted Bernard Cavanagh is about twenty-four years of age, and any thing during any part of that time unknown to her, and now living with his parents at nearly a mile distant from that he never had. the little town of Swineford, county Mayo. The parents are That a person of narrow intellect and strong devotional respectable, of reputable character, and in comfortable cir- propensities should be seized with a religious monomania, and cumstances. They assert_indeed they have made affidavits that to a being of a weak mind and a debilitated frame strange before a magistrate of the county—that for nearly the last visions should occur, is perfectly comprehensible ; but that four years he has existed without tasting sustenance of any the frail materials of the human frame, which needs the noukind. They state also that from the 20 September 1836 to the rishment of food as much as the flower requires sunshine and 20 July 1840, he neither spoke nor rose from his bed except moisture, should endure for such a period without support, is to allow it to be arranged, during which operation he never so unprecedented in all the records of mankind, and so con opened his mouth; and this portion of the statement is borne tradictory to the general laws of nature, that it would require out to a considerable extent by the fact of his having been the most powerful proofs indeed to convince the intelligent risited frequently, and at various periods, by persons of high mind of its truth. We therefore again express our strong respectability as well as of the lower class, on all which occa- hope that this slight sketch may produce the effect of having sions he was observed invariably in the same position, with Cavanagh's case submitted to the test of eminent medical his hands on his breast and his eyes fixed on the window. skill—a test to which the parents profess their entire willing
The night before he betook himself to bed, he knocked at ress to assent, and thus a case of the grossest imposition be the door of the priest's house, and stated that he wished to deteoted, and thousands of simple beings disabused, or one communicate something to him; but the reverend gentleman of the most extraordinary of nature's anomalies be clearly declined admitting him, in consequence of the lateness of the ascertained and exhibited.
A. hour, saying that he could impart whatever he wished to state on the morrow.
“ But I will not be here to-morrow,” responded Cavanagh ; SCENE IN THE THEATRE AT LEGHORN.-My time passed and he was right: the next day he took to his bed.
delightfully while I remained in Leghorn. The Russian fleet In the interval between September 1836 and the present sea- was at anchor in the Bay, commanded by Admiral O'Dwyer, son, public attention on a limited scale was occasionally di. a distinguished seaman, and an Irishman by birth. The Storected towards Cavanagh. But the report of his utter and races and myself often went on board his ship, and were decontinued abstinence from food was treated as a monstrous lighted by hearing the Russians chaunt their evening hymn. fable by every one at any distance from his immediate locality, The melody is beautifully simple, and was always sung comand the extraordinary allegations respecting him were begin- pletely in tune by this immense body of men.
There was at ning to fade from general recollection, when, to the utter asto- the same time in the harbour a privateer from Dublin, called nishment of every one in his neighbourhood, he arose from bed the Fame, Captain Moore: he and his first officer Campbell and recovered his speech and powers of moving about; since were Irishmen, and had a fine set of Irish lads under them. which time he continues, according to the accounts, without When Storace's benefit took place, the officers and crew who sustenance in any shape, and has been visited by thousands could be spared from their duty, to a man (and a famous sight of persons from various quarters.
it was) marched to the theatre, and almost filled the par. In boyhood, Cavanagh's education extended barely as far as terre. At the end of the opera, Storace sang the Irish bal. the acquirement of reading and writing; but he constantly ex- lad “Molly Astore," at the conclusion of which, the boathibited strong marks of religious enthusiasm, often proceed- swain of the Fame gave a loud whistle, and the crew in a body ing to Moelick chapel (about three miles from his residence) rose and gave three cheers. The dismay of the Italian part to one mass, and then attending another at his own parish of the audience was ludicrous in the extreme. The sailors chapel of Swinoford. It is said, too, that he at one time con- then sang. “God save the King” in full chorus, and when done, structed a sort of rude building for his private devotion in the applauded themselves to the very skies: nothing could be open fields, and repeatedly went to prayers at meal-times in more unanimous or louder than their self-approbation. ---Rehis father's house, contenting himself with one meal in the day, miniscences of Michael Kelly. as if preparing himself for his total fast. Accordingly, since
TRUTH.-Truth is the foundation of virtue. An habitual resuming his speech and motion he haunts the chapel at all regard for it is absolutely necessary; He who walks by the hours by day and night, continuing for hours together appa- light of it has the advantage of the mid-day sun; he who rently in private prayer, and generally attended by a large would spurn it, goes forth amid clouds and darkness. There concourse of the peasantry, whom he addresses by fits and is no way in which a man strengthens his own judgment, and starts, and many of whom are naturally, under the circumstances, beginning to deem him not a human being at all
, but acquires respect in society so surely, as by a scrupulous re
gard to The course of such an individual is right on a shadow.
and straight on. He is no changeling, saying one thing toHe seems not inclined to speak much, though he states he day and another to-morrow. Truth to him is like a mounhas had “high visions. His reply to the clergymen respect- tain landmark to the pilot: he fixes his eye upon a point that ing his revelations and fasting, is, that he is fed by the Word ; does not move, and he enters the harbour in safety. On the that he is not at liberty to detail his visions for the gratifica contrary, one who despises truth and loves falsehood is like a tion of man; and that no one should judge lest he be judged, pilot who takes a piece of drift-wood for his landmark, which
Cavanagh is about the middle height, of a grave emaciated changes with every changing wave. On this he fixes his at. countenance; his motions are quite unembarrassed, and his tention, and, being insensibly led from his course, strikes upon voice is sonorous and distinct when he speaks, which is still some hidden reef, and sinks to rise no more. Thus truth but seldom, as he seems to utterly disregard his visitors, what brings success; falsehood results in ruin and contempt.-Dr ever their rank.
Channing. As we said before, he continues daily to draw thousands of the peasantry around him, who eagerly watch every word that
GAMING.—I look upon every man as a suicide from the falls from his lips, as they place implicit faith in tħe assertion moment he takes the dice-box" desperately in his hand; and that he has lived without any description of food for the last all that follows in his fatal career from that fatal time is only four years, and of course regard him as something entirely sharpening the dagger before he strikes it to his heart.-Cumbeyond the pale of ordinary humanity. We are, however, | berland. not so easy of belief in a case so much at variance with the ordinary regulations of nature; at the same time that we are
Printed and Published every Saturday by Gunn and CAMERON, at the Office
of the General Advertiser. No. 6, Church Lane, College Green, Dubfree to admit that it is hard to conceive what motive the young Jin.- Agents :-K. GROOMERIDGE, Panyer Alley, Paternoster Row, Lon. man or his parents could have for carrying on such an im- don. Simms and DINHAM, Exchange Street, Manchester. C. Davies, position, as the latter endeavoured at first to conceal the
North John Street, Liverpool. J. DRAKE, Birmingham. M. BINGRAM,
Broad Street, Bristol. Fraser and Crawford, George Street, Edinmatter altogether, and, in the next place, have repeatedly re- burgh. Dario ROBERTSO.x, Trongate, Glasgow,
The bold and nearly insulated promontory called the Hill of house can be had from various points, in some commanding the Howth, which forms the north-eastern terminus of the Bay of horizon-bound sea, and in others the Bay of Dublin, with all Dublin, would in itself supply abundant materials for a topo- its delightful sceneries of wooded country and mountain ranges. graphical volume—and a most interesting work it might be The view which we have chosen for our illustration is taken made. For the geologist, botanist, and naturalist, it has an from the northern side of this peninsula, that presented from abundant store of attractions, while its various ancient monu- the other side having been already published in several popular ments of every class and age, from the regal fortress, the works; but we trust that this view will not be deemed less sepulchral cairn, and the cromleac of Pagan times, to the striking or picturesque; and we are of opinion that a more early Christian oratory, the abbey and the baronial hall of romantic subject of its kind is not to be found in the empire. later years, would supply an equally ample stock of materials The lighthouse is itself an object of great interest and for the antiquary and the historian. With all, or most of these beauty, and is constructed according to the most approved features, we propose to make our readers somewhat familiar models of modern times. Its form is that of a frustrated cone, in our future numbers ; but our present purpose is only to give supporting a lantern which exhibits a fixed bright light. some account of one of its most recently erected structures, The illumination, according to the system now generally the singularly picturesque and beautiful lighthouse, which we adopted by the Trinity-house, is produced by a set of reflectors have attempted to depict in our prefixed illustration. ground to the parabolic form, in the foci of which twenty
The Baily lighthouse, as it is popularly called, is situated farge oil lamps are placed: an outer gallery, lightly but securely at the eastern extremity of Howth, on a nearly perpendicular railed, surrounds the dome. Connected with the building on its rock, whose vertex is elevated one hundred and ten feet above east side, there is a large room, which opens by folding doors high-water mark. This rock, which is nearly insulated, is the on a platform, and where an excellent telescope is kept, by terminus of a long and narrow peninsula of still higher altitude, means of which the shoals which obstruct the entrance to the which stretches out into the sea from the eastern end of the bay may be distinctly observed—namely, the great Kish, and promontory, and whose cliffs are equally precipitous on both the Bennet and Burford banks, which are links of the chain sides, so that the most striking and romantic views of the light- extending along the Wicklow and Wexford coasts, and called
BY MARTIN DOYLE.
the Irish grounds. These, though not visible, are distinctly JOHNNY HALFACRE; OR, THE VALUE OF TIME. marked in stormy weather by the surf, which breaks over them with uncommon violence, and form a dangerous obstruction to the approach to the bay.
STATESMEN and professional men, whether occupying stations The Baily lighthouse was erected by the Ballast Board of of eminence, or struggling to attain them, duly estimate the Dublin in 1814, previous to which time the Howth light, as it importance of time: they know the value of an hour too well to was commonly called, stood on a hill considerably more to the mis-spend it. The lawyer of high practice, during the term sesnorth, and at an elevation of more than three hundred feet son, steadily pursuing his laborious studies, and determined to above sea level. This circumstance of its great elevation, led, overcome every difficulty in his pursuit of professional rank however, to its being abandoned, and the erection of the Baily and wealth, rises early, and borrows from the night so many lighthouse in its place, as it was found to be frequently in of those hours which are spent in rest and sleep by men of less volved in clouds and mist, while lower stations were clear and mental activity, that he leaves himself but a very contracted well defined.
measure of time for those essential purposes. As to dining The Baily lighthouse is a spot of no less antiquarian than out with friends at this period of care and labour, he rarely picturesque interest. Its name, which is cognate with the Latin ventures to indu!ge in such a recreation; or if he does on some ballium, is derived from an ancient circular stone fortress very particular occasion, such is the discipline of his mind, which encircled the apex of the rock, and of which consider- such the strength of his self-denying habits, that he can rise able remains existed previous to the erection of the present from the table at a prescribed moment, and with a cool lawyerbuildings. This great keep was fortified by three earthen like head apply to his nocturnal labours as if there had been walls, with deep intervening ditches placed at the entrance to no interruption of an exciting nature. the narrow peninsula, and by extending from one side of it to The physician-I do not mean him who regularly called the other, cut it off completely from the promontory. These out of church, or from the social party, by his servant, under works still remain, though in a very ruinous state; yet they the pretence of a pressing call, but the real and laborious pracare sufficiently distinct to mark their purpose, and to convey titioner, to whom minutes are money and fame-will not idle a good idea of the style of military defensive works in use in away an hour; neither will the sober steady shopkeeper, until extremely remote times. They will be found marked on the he has realized an independence, absent himself from his coun. Ordnance map.
ter as long as there is a reasonable chance of a customer dropIn the popular traditions of Howth, these works like most ping in ; nor the operative mechanic, who has to finish his others in Ireland, the real origin of which has been forgotten piece of work within a prescribed time, and who will contrive -are ascribed to the Danes, a remnant of whom, after the to do it even in despite of all the petty interruptions to which battle of Clontarf in 1014, were supposed to have fortified he is liable. themselves in this peninsula, till they were carried off in their Time is proportionably valuable to the meanest peasant who vessels. But such tradition is wholly opposed to history, and possesses a cabbage garden, and if properly estimated and the works themselves exhibit sufficient evidences of its fal applied, will add to his comforts in a degree of which, he who lacy; they belong to a much earlier age, being nothing less is habitually uncalculating and unthrifty in this respect can than the remains of Dun-Criomthan (pronounced Dun-Critfan), have but little notion. the fortress of Criomthan Nia-nair, who, according to our This I am anxious to impress upon the class of labourers. ancient histories, ascended the throne of Ireland in the year many of whom I hope can read what I write, for in them I 74, and who, after being dethroned, died in this fastness in the take an especial interest, probably because they are the least year 90, after a reign of sixteen years. His sepulchral cairn- cared for of any class in the community. Some of them perhaps crowning the summit of Sliabh-Martin, the highest pinnacle will say, with a show of reality, " If our time were to bring of the ancient Bin-edair_is still to be seen.
us in such profits as the counsellor and the doctor make, A century or two more will wholly obliterate these remains we would be busy too, and no one would see us standing idle, of the once powerful prince and warrior Criomthan; but his sitting on a ditch side, or smoking and coshering by the firecelebrity belongs to history, and will not thus pass away. It side, or talking to the neighbours, of a wet day, in a forge. was in the third year of his reign that Agricola fortified the If we could be coining guineas as easily as the likes of them bounds of the Roman empire in Britain from the incursions of makes the money, sitting in their soft chairs, and never doing the Picts and Irish, the latter, it is said, led by the monarch a hand's turn of work that would tire their limbs, we would; Criomthan himself, who, according to our annalist, returned but what could we inake, after our regular day's work, if we to Ireland, loaded with spoil, as thus stated in the record of his can get that same, out of a bit of a garden, that would better death in the Annals of the Four Masters :
us any thing to signify?" “ Criomthan Nia-nair, sixteen years monarch of Ireland, Now, I shall show them by actual facts what they could in died, after his illustrious foreign expedition. It was from that many cases do. expedition he brought home the noble spoils ; the golden cha- Johnny Halfacre is a little farmer, whom I occasionally see, riot, the golden chess-board studded with three hundred spark- and who, being in no way connected with me, nor even conling gems, and the ceth-criomthan, which was a parti-coloured scious that I am particularly observing him, goes on in his shirt, interwoven with gold. He also brought with him a own way, without any hint or encouragement from me, or battle-giving sword, having various figures of serpents en- indeed from any one else, as far as I can perceive. graved upon it, and inlaid with gold; a shield embossed with Johnny two years ago had not as much land as would corbright silver ; a spear which gave an incurable wound; a sling respond with his name, which is really genuine; he had for from which no erring cast could be thrown; two hounds linked several previous years but a rood, including the site of his together by a chain of silver; together with many other valu. house, and a shed for a pig, and some poultry; but this rood able rarities."
produced more than half an acre usually does with many, and How long after this period Dun-Criomthan existed as a entirely by his good management and judicious application of fortress, it would perhaps be impossible now to ascertain, but time. from the following record in the Annals above quoted, it would Johnny had exactly five shillings a-week, paid in full every appear to have been preserved at least for six centuries :- Friday evening, from his employer, for Johnny never had time
* A. C. 646. The battle of Dun-Criomthan was gained by to be sick, far less to be drunk, and always avoided broken Conall and Kellach (co-monarchs of Ireland), the two sons of days, by contriving in-door work, at Mr B.'s, in wet weaMaolcobha, over Aongus, the son of Donall
. Aongus was ther; his wife, who had two children, washed occasionally for killed in this battle, as was also Cathasach, the son of Donall, a neighbour's family, thus adding two shillings and ence his brother."
each week to their income, and the contribution of additional These notices, which have not hitherto appeared in an Eng- suds to the dunghill ; but in other respects they had no ad. lish form, of a highly interesting historical remain, not pre- vantage over other labourers. Their own little garden added viously identified by the antiquarian topographer, will
, it is greatly to the support of the family, by judicious cropping hoped, impart a new interest to the Baily of Howth; but, in- and excellent management. Johnny had every year some dependently of such claims on our attention, its singular pic- drills of very early ash-leaved potatoes put down in January, turesqueness should have made it long since not only more if possible, which he either sold at a very high price in sumfamiliarly known to the visitors of our capital, but also to mer at a neighbouring town, or consumed as he found most ourselves.
economical; and his early sowing of potatoes was far better than the more common practice of the Irish cottier, who leaves his garden uncropped with them until March or April, with
the view of obtaining a more abundant crop (but of inferior What the other means of providing manure were, ought to quality) at a late season, when they might be purchased at a be mentioned, for the man's system is of such easy application mere trifle, and that, too, without the advantage of a second that it only requires to be stated in order to be followed. crop of any description to succeed them. Johnny had too For two or three evenings in the summer before last, I per. much sense for this : he began to dig his dish of potatoes for ceived Johnny Halfacre without his coat, rolling a wheeldinner in the first or second week in July, when his neighbours barrow frequently from an adjacent common to a corner of were half starving, or paying exorbitantly for oatmeal and old his garden separated from the road by an old weather-beaten potatoes; and as he dug out his crop, he either sowed tur- paling. When I had leisure to see what he had been doing at nips, with a little ashes and a sprinkling of dung, or planted this time, I found that he had marked off an oblong space for borecole for the winter ; generally he had some of both, for he four geese and a gander, which he had bought from Bridget found turnips good for his own table in winter, and profitable Gozzard at rather a high price, partly for the sake of their for the support of some poultry, of which I shall take notice powerful manure, which, combined with other substances, is soon. He had also every variety of common kitchen vegeta- good for stimulating the growth of vegetables, as well as for bles in small patches, continually changing places, and thus the profit which he expected to realize by rearing goslings improving the soil; he had, besides, two hives of bees; and for the market. Johnny was aware that fat green geese are for the sake of the straw, as well as for rotation, and the sup- worth from six to ten shillings each, in the very early season port of his pig and poultry, a little rye, vetches, or clover, in the great English markets, and are also profitable if reared
Johnny, however, only worked in the garden in the evening, for the stubbles at Michaelmas; and he did not see why he after his ordinary day's work, or, in summer, at sunrise ; yet and his industrious wife should not realise a profit as well as there never was a weed to be seen in it, for they never had English housewives by the breeding of such poultry, when a time to grow: by using the hoe for a few moments now and steam-packet and a rail-road could take them off even to Lon. then, they were always kept down, and every waste blade and don in a few hours. Cocks and hens would ruin his own briar and useless sod around the hedge which enclosed it, was garden, and bring him into disputes with his neighbours--he carefully pared and burnt for manure.
had the advantage of a run on the common for geese-there He had worked in the large garden of a gentleman who was a pond of water near his house--and therefore he gave kept an English gardener, who had taught Johnny the use of them and ducks the preference. He first built his back wall a sprong in preference to a spade for turning up the earth, two feet and a half high and ten feet in length, with the sods
а especially when too hard for the latter implement; and though from the common, and then put down ten upright stakes in the handle was short, and, according to my own notion, fa- front, every pair answering for the jambs of each comparttiguing to the back, the fact was, that Johnny soon preferred ment, with a board stretching the whole length across, and it for dispatch and correctness of operation to the long-handled which formed the front support of his rustic roof; from this spade which all my other neighbours use. When he cut his board he laid rafters to the top of the back wall, and having own rye or other corn, the ground was usually so hard that a first interwoven some small branches of a tree through the broad spade could not enter it: but Johnny quickly turned it rafters, he laid as many scraws (thinly pared grassy sods) as up and broke it with his sprong, and then completely pulve- secured the whole roof from rain. The jambs were then con. rized it with what the Englishman called a beck, a three-forked tracted to a narrow opening, for the sake of shelter and warmth, hoe, which, acting like the long tines of a harrow, loosened by more sods laid one over the other. and rendered the whole perfectly fine, while it brought any By this simple process of construction he formed a separate latent roots of couch (or scutch grass) that might have escaped chamber for each bird, with a yard in front six feet broad and on former occasions, to the surface.
ten long, and with an opening through the paling at the road Johnny's various vegetables greatly assisted his house- side, by which the inmates could go in and out at their pleakeeping. He had often a good bowl of soup, flavoured with His rye assisted in feeding them, and he also cultie leeks, onions, carrots, &c, made with the least conceivable vated grey peas for them, which are excellent for fattening; portion of meat, but thickened with barley, properly shelled, and with cabbage and lettuce leaves, the pods of beans, and and prepared like French barley, but at only one-third of the other green food, he afterwards kept them in high condition ; price of that which is sold under such denomination in the and in the succeeding year, when other young geese were shops; and his family always breakfasted on porridge, or dying of disease, occasioned by want of shelter, and from coarse bread of their own baking, with or without milk, ac- starvation, his were thriving. cording to circumstances---for Johnny at this time had no And to the credit of this worthy man and his wife I must cow-sometimes washed down with a cup of tea, and more mention, that the feather-plucker was indignantly sent away generally in winter with a mug of light and good table beer, from his door whenever he came round for the execrable pur. which tħe Englishman taught Johnny, to brew at Mr B.'s pose of plucking the geese alive. Johnny's wife would as soon brew-house. Half a bushel of malt, with a quarter of a pound | have let him pull out the hairs of her own head, as give up one of hops, produced ten gallons of unadulterated beer which of her birds to his barbarous hands; and the consequence was, could not be bought any where, and the grains (given to his that while their neighbours' geese were miserably crawling pig) fully counterbalanced the cost of fuel. Even at this about, with draggling and mutilated wings and smarting botime he killed a pig every year, and never wanted a small dies, until many of them died, in their miseries invoking as it supply of salt meat for his cabbage or beans, which with this were in their dying screams shame and curses on their unfeelcombination of flesh went farther in this way towards the ac- ing owners, Johnny Halfacre's geese strutted about on tho tual supply of his dinner, and sometimes of his supper too (for common, with an independent and unconstrained step, as if any remainder of the dinner was heated and peppered up for conscious of their security from the tortures to which their fel. the supper, with the addition of a broken loaf, or a skillet lows had been doomed. full of potatoes), than can be imagined by the poor man who has never cultivated his garden in the same manner--whose HOW JOHNNY HALFACRE BECAME A LITTLE FARMER. cabbages are of little value from want of bacon, and whose
If it be true, and it unquestionably is, that "he wbo desa allotment, producing but one crop instead of two each year, piseth small things, shall fall by little and little," the conis thus of but half its proper value to him; besides, with him verse is, I think, no less so—that he who pays attention to potatoes succeed potatoes continually, until the ground becomes little matters will rise by degrees. sick of yielding them.
Mr B. having narrowly observed Johnny's general good But, further, Johnny Halfacre's garden, in which he seldom conduct and extreme industry as a common labourer, put him ceased from doing something in the summer evenings as long in possession, two years ago, of a field adjoining his cottage as daylight lasted, greatly aided in supporting his pig at that and garden, which contains about six statute acres, and which time when food is so dear and scarce for swine. The tops of fortunately was in good condition. blossoming bean-stalks (by tho plucking off of which the Johnny at first was afraid to accept the tempting offer, at crop is improved) and other vegetable waste, besides vetches which any other labourer would have jumped, on the sincere and rye—the latter both in the green and ripe state-geve and modest plea that he had no capital for such a weighty him sufficient food to keep the pig in fair order, with a little speculation. "He did not wish to grasp at more than he could help from other sources; and the pig, by being always well properly manage ; but Mr B. set him at ease, by telling him littered, and supplied with this food, gave a return in most ex- that he considered health, industry, and skill
, sufficient capital cellent manure, which with other sources of a similar kind, and for Johnny to possess, as he himself would not only build a the economical distribution of crops, supplied the entire garden barn, cow-shed, ass-house, and pig-styes, but put the bounwith fertilizing matter.
dary fence into perfect order (according to the frequent
practice of British landlords), and lend Johnny a sum sufficient for the purchase of every thing necessary to give him a good start, charging him only five per cent on the advances. Mr B., who in riding over his property often “went by the Beld of the slothful," which “was all grown over with thorns and nettles that covered the face of it, and the stone wall whereof was broken down,” wished to render Johnny an exemplar of superior management to other tenants.
I shall not trouble the reader with all the details of Johnny's management during the two last years, but shall very briefly notice those particulars of husbandry which are new to my countrymen of the same class. He has not subdivided the field, nor does he intend to do so, as he values every foot of it too much for such waste. He does not keep a horse, nor will he do so, unless his holding be increased; but he keeps a donkey and a well-constructed cart. As yet he has no cow, not having his land in sufficiently clean order for laying down any part of it with grasses ; bat he has two yards full of pigs, which he keeps for the sake of the rich manure they supply. I do not advocate his system altogether, but merely relate the most striking features of it. His pig-yards are very commodious, and well arranged for weaning, fattening, &c; and his stock now consists of a sow with ten young ones in one yard, and six store pigs in another. These are in fine conditionfed on vetches, rye (of which the grain is now, July 20, ripe), and wash, consisting of pollards and water ; their food next weok, and for some time after, will be beans, ripe and unripe, according to their successive stages. These pigs are now ten months old, and have never been outside their yard, nor do they seem to be (compared with pigs of the same age which have had the run of the common) injured by confinement. Being always highly littered in the yard, having the sleeping chamber kept perfectly clean, and being abundantly fed, they sport about the straw, and seem quite contented. But without such care and comfort young swine will certainly not thrive in imprisonment.
Johnny will fatten up these pigs in October for sale in No. vember, with barley-meal, pollards, toppings, and potatoes ; and judging from his success last year under similar circumstances, they will weigh (at the age of fourteen months) nearly two cwt. each. He does not intend to sell any of his ten young ones until they shall have been fattened in the same way; but their mother will be put up as soon as possible after they shall be weaned. He does not expect to realize any ready money by rearing and fattening them; when sold, his stock will merely pay for their keep—he considers the large quantity of valuable manure a sufficient return.
He has hired a labourer to work with him, and will incur but little expense for horse-labour, as he and his assistant together are able to dig an acre very deeply in ten days; and he considers one such digging equal to three light ploughings; and from his experience of the last year, he is of opinion that spade-husbandry is far cheaper than that which is effected by the plough. As he reaps his vetches and rye for the pigs, he cuts out the stubbles with a bean-hoe for litter; and for the perfect cleansing of the ground before he digs it up, he collects the stubbles and clears them from earth with a little harrow drawn by the ass, and will pursue the same plan with all his stubbles. Last year he cut and bound half an acre of wheat himself with a fagging-hook, which I have described in my Cyclopædia, in one day; and he and his labourer intend to cut down an acre this year in the same way.
I could enumerate many other particulars of this man's excellent husbandry—such as burning the clay of headlands for manuring his turnip-crop and cabbage seedling beds—but I fear to be tedious, and therefore shall only add, that Johnny Halfacre is a true exemplification of the sacred proverb, that “the soul of the diligent shall be made fat.” He is always diligent (not only in seed-time and harvest, but all the year round), but never so busy with his field or garden crops as to choke the seed of God's word in his heart, and render that unfruitful by sloth or negligence. As far as I can judge, he does not permit his worldly to supersede his eternal interests ; and as he knows the value of the present TIME, so does he estimate aright the infinitely superior importance of that which is future.
LIFE AND ITS ILLUSIONS.
day to day
IDLENESS. The worst vices springing from the worst principles—the excesses of the libertine, and the outrages of the plunderer-usually take their rise from early and unsubdued idleness.-Farr's Discourses on Education.