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THERE are few things that afford us a higher pleasure than | portion of his wealth in the adornment of his home, is rarely, if to observe our metropolis and our provincial cities and towns, ever, a bad landlord. Desiring to see art and nature combine despite of adverse circumstances, increasing in the number to produce the sentiment of beauty in the objects immediately and splendour of their public buildings, for they are sure evi- about him, he cannot willingly allow it to be associated with dences of the advance of civilization, with its attendant train the unsightly and discordant emblems of penury and sorrow. of arts, amongst us, and that we are progressing to the rank To be indifferent about the presence of such accompaniments and dignity of a great nation. Yet we confess we enjoy a would be an anomaly in human character, and only an excep. still higher gratification when we see springing up around us tion proving the general rule. It is this class of men that we great architectural works of another class—those erected by want-men who seek happiness in their legitimate homes, and individuals of the aristocracy as residences for themselves and the diffusion of blessings among those to whom it is their duty those who are to come after them. Such architectural works to be protectors_lovers of the arts of refined society, not the are not merely interesting from the gratifications they afford gross and generally illiterate pursuers of field sports, which, to the feeling of taste, and the epic dignity and beauty which by hardening the heart towards the lower animals of creathey contribute to landscape scenery, but have a higher inte tion, prepares it for reckless indifference to the wants and rest as pledges to the nation that those who have erected sufferings of our fellow men. Had we more of such patriotsthem have a filial attachment to the soil which gave them birth, more of such domestic architectural buildings starting into and which supplies them, whether for good or evil, with the existence, evidencing as well their refined tastes and habits as means of greatness; and that they are not disposed to play the sincerity of the love they bear their native land, we should the part of unwise and ungrateful children. To us it little soon see the face of our country changed, and peace and hapmatters what the creed or party of such individuals may be ; piness smiling around us. We do not, however, indulge in however they may err in opinions, their feelings are at heart any feelings of despondence for the future. Very many beauas they should be. The aristocrat of large means, who is re- tiful creations of the architectural art have recently been sident “not from necessity but from choice, and who spends a | erected in Ireland, and we have little apprehension that they will not increase in number till our island shall rival any titles. Yet it appears that very shortly afterwards, the manor, other portion of the empire in the possession of such charac- however acquired, was again in the possession of a member of teristic features of civilization and beauty. Cheered by such the King family; for, on the breaking out of the rebellion of pleasing anticipations, we shall endeavour to the best of our 1641, the town, manor-house, &c. of Clontarf, then the proability to make our readers familiar with the architectural perty of Mr George King, were burnt by Sir Charles Coote styles of the chief residences of our nobility and gentry, as as a punishment for the supposed participation of that gentlewell as with the general features of the scenery in which they man in a plunder made of a cargo from a vessel which lay are situated ; and, as a commencement, we have selected the there, by Luke Netterville and his adherents. King was shortly seat of the Vernons—the recently re-erected Castle of Clontarf. afterwards attainted, a reward of £400 offered for his head;

The name of this locality, which is situated on the northern and his estates, comprising this manor, Hollybrook, and the shore of the Bay of Dublin, and about two miles from the island of Clontarf, containing, as stated, 961 acres statute city, must at least be familiar to most of our readers, being measure, were bestowed by Cromwell on Captain John Bakememorable in history as the scene of the most national and well, who afterwards sold the estate to John Vernon, a scion best contested battle ever fought in Ireland, when in 1014 of the noble Norman family of the De Vernons, and from whose the monarch Brian Boru obtained a decisive victory over the brother the present proprietor descends. united forces of the Danish and Norwegian invaders of the In 1660, Colonel Edward Vernon, the son of John Vernon, British islands, assisted by the Irish troops of a recreant passed patent for this manor in fee, together with all anchorKing of Leinster. This name signifies in English the lawn or ages, fisheries, creeks, sands and sea-shores, wrecks of the recess of the bull, being formed from two Celtic words, cluain, sea, &c. ; which right was saved in subsequent acts of parliaa lawn or pastoral plain, and tarbh, a bull; the latter appella- ment, and still remains to his successors. And in 1675, the tion expressing its contiguity to one of the two great sand- king further enlarged the jurisdictions, tenures, and courts of banks of the bay, now called the North and South Bulls, from this manor, with a grant of royalties (royal mines excepted), the similitude of the sounds produced by the breaking of the power to empark three hundred acres, with free warren, prisea upon their shores, to the roar of animals of that denomi- vilege of holding two fairs, one on the 10th of April and the nation,

other on the 16th of October, with customs, &c. These fairs As it is stated that a church or monastery was founded here have, however, been long discontinued. as early as the year 550, it is probable that this name is of We have thus briefly traced the origin, and succession of ecclesiastical origin, and that the site of that ancient church proprietors of this castle and manor, as immediately connected is still marked by the present parish one from which it was with the subject of our prefixed illustration; but our limits derived. But, however this may be, immediately after the will not allow us to touch on the general history of the locasettlement of the Anglo-Normans, the lands of Clontarf and lity on the present occasion. Santry, constituting one knight's fee, were granted by Hugh Of the original castle erected here in the twelfth century, a de Lacy, Lord of Meath, to one of his followers, named Adam square tower, connected with additions of the sixteenth and de Feipo, or as the name is now written, Phepoe, by whom, as subsequent centuries, was preserved as a residence for the prois generally supposed, the Castle of Clontarf was erected, and prietors of the manor till the year 1835, when the present its lands created a manor. This manor, as well as its cas- noble structure was commenced from the designs and under tle, appears, however, to have passed very soon after into the superintendence of the late William Morrison, Esq., the the possession of the Knights Templars, by whom a com- most eminent and accomplished architect whom Ireland has posmandery of the Order, dependent upon their splendid estab. sessed within the present century. With the good feeling as lishment at Kilmainham, was placed here. Upon the sup- well as refined taste for which this admirable artist was so dispression of the Templars, their manor of Clontarf was granted, tinguished, his first desire in the re-edification of this castle was in 1311, to Richard de Burgo, Earl of Ulster, the religious to preserve as far as possible the original buildings; and while edifices upon it remaining in the king's hands as a royal house; he increased their extent in the necessary additions to them, and in 1326, Roger le Ken had a grant of the premises in Clon- to preserve and restore them as much as possible to what tarf, which he had heretofore occupied at will, to hold hence- might be supposed to have been their original state. But it forth to him and the heirs of his body. Towards the close of was found impracticable to do so. The foundations were found the same century, however, in obedience to the Pope's decree to have sunk, and a nearly total re-erection was therefore nein reference to the lands of the Templars, the manor passed cessary; yet, in the new edifice, attending to the historical into the possession of the Knights Hospitallers of St John of associations connected with a spot so interesting, he so deJerusalem, on which Clontarf became a preceptory of that signed it as to exhibit with historical accuracy what might Order, and a chief seat of the Grand Prior of Kilmainham. be supposed to have been the forms and features of the ancient It seems somewhat probable, however, that the descendants of buildings, and thus make it a consistent commentary on and Roger le Ken still continued to hold the manor as lessees of the illustration of the past history of its locality. Hospitallers till the dissolution of the Order, as, immediately With these remarks, which were necessary to insure a just previous to that event, on an inquisition taken, the Prior of appreciation of the intention of the architect in the diversified Kilmainham was found seised of the manor, rectory, tithes, character which he has given to this architectural composition, and altarages of Clontarf, subject, however, to a lease made we may describe it generally as a structure in its character in the year 1538 to Matthew King (a corrupted form per- partly military, partly domestic, and to a certain extent ecclehaps of the name Ken) of all the town and lordship, with siastical. Its grand feature is a tower in the Norman style of the appurtenances, and also the pool of Clontarf, and the the twelfth century, which ascends to the height of seventy island lying to the west side thereof, and all the said rec- feet, or with a smaller tower which is placed behind it, eighty tory, tithes, &c. to endure for nine years. In this demise feet': it has turrets at its angles, and its windows as well it was provided that the lessee should repair the manor house as its interior are enriched with decorations in harmony with and maintain a sufficient person to administer all sacraments its architectural style. Connected with this tower, and placed to the parishioners at their proper charges. On the suppres- on its west side, is the principal portion of the domestic buildsion of the monastic order in the thirty-second year of Henry ings, which present the purest specimen, perhaps, of Tudor the Eighth, Sir John Rawson, the Prior of Kilmainham-a architecture to be found in Ireland. The entrance to this very distinguished man, who had at various periods held the range is placed beneath a small but lofty tower, beneath office of Treasurer of Ireland—having, with the consent of which a vestibule leads into a spacious and lofty hall, fiftyhis Chapter under their common seal, surrendered the hospi- one feet by twenty, which presents much the appearance of tal with its dependencies into the King's hands, he was cre- a Gothic church, the walls being panelled, and painted to ated Viscount of Clontarf in 1541, on a representation made imitate dark oak. This hall is floored with Irish oak polished, to his majesty by the Lord Deputy, with a pension of five and its roof is supported by principals springing from richly hundred marks, in right of which dignity he sat in the parlia-ornamented corbels, or pendants—its beauty being much inment of that year.

creased by gilded bosses with which it is studded, and which, In the year 1600, the manor, territory, tithes, town, and sparkling among the dark tracery, have a singularly rich effect. lordships of Clontarf, as enjoyed by the Priors of Kilmain- The cornice is also richly ornamented, and presents at interham, were granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Geoffry Fenton, vals similar gilded bosses. But the imposing feature of this who had filled the office of Secretary of State for Ireland; great chamber is a magnificent staircase of oak, placed at its and on his death in 1608 these premises were further assured eastern end, which leads, by two return flights, to a gallery to his son Sir William, who had a confirmation of this manor crossing the hall, and communicating with the principal bedin 1637, under the commission for the remedy of defective I chambers, and which would serve for an orchestra on occasions






of festivity. At the other end of the hall are doors leading

CUTTING OLD FRIENDS. into the drawing-room, dancing-room, and library; and in the centre of this end is placed a beautiful chimney-piece of black One of the most difficult things a person has to do, who is marble, surrounded by a canopy of carved oak, the enrich- getting ahead of the friends of his earlier and less prosperous ments of which are in that peculiar style which characterises years in the race of fortune, is to rid himself of these friends the ornaments of Tudor architecture, containing the single -to get quit of persons whose want of success in the world and double rose, stars, and other badges of that period. The renders them no longer fit associates. The thing is not hall is lighted by five stained glass windows of an ecclesi- easily done, for you have to maintain appearances. You have astical character, and level with the gallery; and on these to repel them gradually and gently, and in such a manner as windows are blazoned the arms of the families with whom the to be able to defy them to lay any particular act of rudeness, Vernons have intermarried, comprising some of the highest of any positive act of repulsion, to your charge. To manage the the English and Irish nobility. “Of the external architecture thing adroitly, therefore, requires some genius and a good of this portion of the building some correct notion may be deal of tact. formed from our illustration, which exhibits the style of the

The difficulty of accomplishing this great maneuvre in a gables and oriel or bay windows which are placed both on its prosperous career, is much increased by the circumstance that southern and western sides ; and we may justly apply to the

as you advance your ancient cronies throng the thicker and whole of this range the description given by Chaucer in his closer around you. They in fact cling and cluster about you imaginary palace of “pleasaunt regarde :"

like so many bees, and with impertinent looks of glee seek to “ The chamberis and parlers of a sorte,

express their satisfaction with your prosperity.

Now, it is a most desirable thing to get quit of these genWith bay windows goodlie as may be thought, try-to have them brushed off. But it would be rude to do The galleries right wele y wrought,

this with the fly-flap and the strong hand. You must get rid As for dauncinge and otherwise disporte.”

of them by more tact and management. And after you have Branching from the northern and eastern sides of the great got rid of them, that is, driven them from personal contact as tower, extensive ranges of building contain the servants'

were, you have to continue to keep them at a proper disapartments, and an extensive suite of inferior bed-rooms, and tance. No easy matter this, for somehow or other the obtuse the tower itself contains a study, and above it a nursery, over

creatures, your poor former acquaintance, will not see, what which, again, a leaded platform with parapets commands most you see very distinctly, that you are now quite a superior sort extensive and diversified prospects of the surrounding country.

person to them, and that they are no longer fit to be ranked The preceding description will, we fear, convey but an im- amongst your friends. This the perverse, dull-witted fellows perfect idea of the plan of this interesting structure, nor will will not see. And, more provoking still, no degree of adour illustration, which only gives a representation of its south

vancement in the world on your part, no acquisition of wealth, ern front, give more than a general idea of the architectural will induce one of them, whatever you yourself may think to character of a building, the great merit of which, next to the the contrary, to contemplate you with a whit more respect beauty and chronological accuracy of its details, consists in than they did when you were one of themselves. They insist on the number of picturesque points of view which it affords, considering you merely as having been more fortunate than from the irregularity of its plan and the variety of its outlines themselves--not a bit better or a bit cleverer. We shall only add a few words in respect to its locality.

Let us remark here, that the successful in the world are The Castle of Clontarf is situated in a district rich in pas- stout deniers of the doctrine of chances. They maintain that toral beauty, and at the head or northern extremity of the there is no such a thing as luck; while the unsuccessful, again, village of the same name, which consists of a single but wide

are firm believers in the doctrine, and insist on it that not street composed of houses of a respectable class, and extending only is there such a thing as luck, but that luck is every thing. from it in a right line to the sea. It is surrounded by forest The successful man's vanity prompts him to attribute his trees of great age and grandeur, through which by vistas are prosperity solely to his talents and merit—the unsuccessful obtained views of the bay and the mountain scenery of the

man's self-love to deny that the want of these qualities has southern shore.

been his hindrance. Hence the conflicting opinions of the two Upon the whole, we may truly say of this structure that its

on this curious subject. Then, where lies the truth? We beauty is no less striking than its moderate size and preten- suspect between. sion are in happy proportion to the rank and means of its owner;

From a good deal of experience in the science of “ cutting” nor is it a lesser merit, that—unlike too many of the lordly under the circumstances alluded to in this paper—we shall not residences in Ireland—the close propinquity of its situation to say whether as cutters or cuttees—we have flattered ourselves the village of which he is lord, is characteristically expressive that we could throw out a few hints that might be found useful of the confidence and kindly familiarity which should ever

to gentlemen who are getting on in the world, and who are exist between the proprietor and the community holding under desirous of ridding themselves of their earlier and poorer him. Nor is it again a lesser merit, that unlike most of the friends. Under this supposition we offer the few following mansion-houses to which we have alluded—it is not enclosed by

remarks:churlish and prison-like walls of stone, excluding it from the

For some time after you have started on the prosperous public eye, and indicating but too truly the cold and heart

career on which you have luckily fallen, continue to smile and less selfishness of their owners, which would not allow to the bow towards your old friends as formerly; and when you many even the passing enjoyment of a glimpse of the gran possibly can), shake hands with them as cordially as ever.

meet them accidentally (let this be, however, as seldom as you deur and beauty which they claim as their own. P.

You may even venture to remark, accompanying such remark

with an expression of regret, that they are prodigious stranA WOODEN Glass Goblet.- The first night of the pers now;

But this is not quite safe ground, and we by no “Stratford Jubilee” in Dublin, Robert Mahon had to sing this way, your old friends will never suspect that there is al

means advise its general adoption. Conducting yourself in the song of the “ Mulberry Tree,” the music composed by C. ready a change working at your heart—a secret operation as Dibdin senior, the words of which begin with

yet known only to yourself. “Behold, this fair goblet was carved from the tree

By and bye, throw the least, the very least thing of distance Which, oh! my sweet Shakspeare, was planted by thee.” into your greeting : let your smile be apparently as cordial as He walked on, and began the song, holding out in his hand a formerly, but let there now be a slight expression of the fine cut-glass rummer. The other performers, who were also slightest degree possible of coolness, of an indefinable someon, looked at him and his fair glass goblet “carved from a thing or other in your general manner of a repulsive charactree” with wonder. The audience took the absurdity, and ter: take care, however, that it be indefinable—that it be of much mirth and loud hissing followed. The play over, a description that cannot be named. Mahon had the folly to insist upon it he was right: “'Tis This new feature in your bearing will probably startle the true," he said, "the property-man did stand at the wing with more shrewd and observant of your former friends: but never a wooden cup in his hand, which he wanted to thrust into mind that—it is precisely the impression you desire to make. mine ; but could I appear before the audience with such a It is even possible that some of them may express by their rascally vulgar wooden mether ?_no; I insisted he should manner towards you a feeling of irritation at your new mode that instant go and fetch me an elegant glass rummer, and of treating them. Meet it by an expression of surprise at here it is !"-O'Keefe's Recollections,

their conduct, and by increased coolness. There is now good

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ground for a quarrel_not open hostility, of course, but the warfare of distant looks and haughty salutations. Improve it to the utmost, and wonder what the fellows mean.

Observe that the whole of this nice process of dissolving former associations is carried on without one angry or offensive word being said on either side_without the slightest approach to an overt act of hostility; you, particularly, being as bland as ever. The whole is effected by look and manner alone.

To the gentleman who is rising in the world there are few things more offensive than the familiarity of old acquaintanceship when presented in the shape of notes and letters. Your old friends, still obstinately overlooking your advancement in the world, will in all probability continue to write to you when they have occasion to do so, in the free-and-easy way of former days. They will even sometimes so far forget themselves and you as to address you in a jocular strain. This must be instantly put down. Do it by brief and grave replies; take no notice of their jokes, and never attempt an approach to one in return. This in time will cure them : if not, you must have recourse to stronger measures. You must either not answer at all, or administer some decided dampers.

Should any of your former friends seek your patronage—a very probable case_take an early opportunity, while doing him some trifling service, of letting him feel sensibly your relative positions, all the while, however, exhibiting towards him the most friendly dispositions. But let him ever and anon feel the bit gently—let him feel that he has got somebody on his back. Begin as soon as possible to lecture him in a gentle way—all for his own good of course. Your character of patron gives you a right to do this ; and under this guise you can say the most cutting things to him without affording him the slightest ground for complaint. Under this guise you can address the most insulting language to him, and defy him to take it amiss. If he should, however, you can without any difficulty prove him to be one of the most ungrateful monsters that ever lived. You were doing all you could for him, and when you ventured to advise him—having nothing but his own good at heart—he chose to take offence at you, and to resent the friendly advice you gave him. Such an ungrateful dog!

As few men can stand such treatment as that above alluded to long, we can venture to promise you that by a steady course of proceeding in the way we have pointed out, you will soon clear your hands of your old friends.



And sternly he states the Law's command
That again she return to her kindred and land,
Free once more to dispose of her hand.
The mother's heart felt breaking, for now
All hope was buried ;—she could not speak-
She kissed her two little boys on the brow,
And her two little girls she kissed on the cheek,
While the babe in the cradle-unconscious child ! -
Held out its diminutive arms, and smiled!
The iron Djaffar would wait no more-
His barb was pawing the earth at the door :
“Up, woman!” he cried—and they galloped away,
And reached their home by the close of day.
But there not long she pined alone,
For, barely a week was over and gone
When many a suitor came to sue ;
Kapitans, Beys, and Agas too,
Came to see her and staid to woo.
And Djaffar saw that the richest of all
Was the noble Khadi of Nourjahaul.
Afresh for sorrow were hourly shed
The bitter tears of the mourner then :
"I pray thee, brother,” she sadly said,
“ Give me not in marriage agen!
My broken heart would cease to beat
Should I and the children chance to meet."
But Djaffar was ever the Man of Steel
The morrow, he vowed, should see her a wife!
“ Then, hear me, brother !-thy sister's life
Hangs upon this her last appeal !
Write to the Khadi thus, I entreat-
• Health from Ayoob to her lordly lover !
Send, she prays thee, a veil to cover

Her sorrowful figure from head to feet,
'Lest, while passing the Aga's door,
* Her children greet her as heretofore."
The letter was sent, and the veil came home ;
And by noon on the morrow the bride was arrayed;
And a gorgeous train and cavalcade
Set out for the Khadi's palace-dome.
They journeyed till sunset purpled the sky,
And now, alas ! her trial is nigh-
Her trial is nigh, her bosom is swelling;
They come within sight of Ibrahim's dwelling-
They near the gates—ah, well-a-day!
Her children cannot mistake their mother-
“ Mamma! Mamma! ah, don't go away !".
They cry, and their voices drown one another.
That mother groaned in her wretchedness!
“Live long !” she said, “my Lord and Master !
Mayest thou ever defy Disaster!
May thy shadow never be less !
Bid, I implore thee, the cavalcade wait
A moment in front of the Aga's gate,
While I go into the house, and leave
Some gifts with my little ones, lest they grieve.”
Silently then, like a ghost from the tombs,
She enters once more the remembered rooms,
Gives to her sons little gold-laced boots,
Gives to her daughters little kapoots,*
And leaves with the babe in the cradle-bed
Some toys and a basket of sugar-bread.
Now, the desolate father was standing apart,
And be marked that she neither spake nor sighed,
And Agony wrung his manly heart-
“Come, come to me, hither, my children!" he cried,
For I see that your mother's bosom is grown
Colder and harder than marble stone.'
But, as soon as Ayoob heard Ibrahim speak,
And saw her children turning away,
She fell on the floor without a shriek,
And without a stir on the floor she lay;
And the funeral-wailers of Islambol
Were chanting ere night the hymn for her soul.

THE DIVORCED,* A TRANSLATION FROM THE MOLDAVIAN, "Ah! what a fatal gift from Heaven is a too sensitive heart !"-ROUSSEAU.

What is that yonder shimmering so?
Can it be swans? Can it be snow?
If it were swans they would move, I trow,
If it were snow it had melted ere now.
No: it is Ibrahim Aga's tent-
There lies the warrior, wounded and spent.
Mother and sisters tend him there
Night and morn with busiest care;
His wife alone_through shame or grief-
Stays away from the suffering Chief.
Wherefore, as soon as his illness was gone,
Wrote he thus to the Sensitive One_
“Go thy way from my house and hearth,
And bide with the mother that gave thee birth.”
Sad was Ayoob at the sudden word!
It pierced her tender heart like a sword.

Hark! the sound of a charger's tramp-
Ibrahim, then, is come from the camp !
So she fancies, and, in her despair,
Thinks she will scale the turret-stair,
And dash herself down from the castle-wall,
When, lo! her two little daughters call-
“ It isn't our father, mother dear !
This is our uncle, Djaffar-al-Meer."
Turning around, the weeping mother
Flings her arms about her brother-
“Oh, brother ! that this black day should arrive!
Oh, how can I leave these helpless five?"
But, cold and wordless, as one who has yet
To study Compassion, or feel Remorse,
The brother draws forth, all shiningly set
In silk and gold, the Brief of Divorce,

• The incidents of this narrative are founded on fact.


• Cloaks.

+ The popular notion that the Mohammedans deny immortality to the souls of women is altogether a mistake, as will be apparent to any one who takes the trouble of looking through the Koran.

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may the answer was responded, “I'm making a wife for Jack

Mókinstrey." · Faith,” said Jack, "you'll make no wife for A REMINISCENCE OF CONNAUGHT.

me, my man—I'll do very well with the one I have;" and giving WERE we to believe the chronicles of our grandmothers, Ire- his good beast the spur, regardless of the neck, bones, or outcry land at one period was held in fee-simple by witches, warlocks, of his freight, he never drew rein until he had his better half white ladies, fairies, and leprahauns ; the earth, the air, and the crisis was over, and thus baulked the fairies.

clasped in his arms, where he held her in a death's-grip until the sky, were peopled by them; every crumbling and desolate Thus was the whole system of society pervaded by the idea cabin on the sterile moor or common was tenanted by a witch; of supernatural influence; and the consequence was an undewhile the margins of our beautiful loughs, the bosoms of our

finable dread and fear, hanging like the sword of Damocles silent and sequestered glens, the recesses of our romantic the evil was only imaginary, but not on that account the less

over the heads of all, and embittering existence. 'Tis true mountain valleys, the echoing walls of every mouldering edi- hurtful; for, being a mental malady, it was the more difficult fice, and the mystic circle of each rude hill-forth, were the cho- to be counteracted or eradicated, and often led to real anxiety sen habitations of unearthly beings.

and distress, as in the case of M.Kinstrey, whose ideas being Nor was this belief held by the uneducated alone; many noise and voices he had heard might be a practical joke of

full of witchcraft and fairy freaks, never reflected that the who moved in respectable situations in society were infected some of his neighbours, and in consequence suffered all the by it; and otherwise sensible and well-informed people on this suspense and trouble incident to real danger. head were deaf to the voice of reason and the dictates of com- of sound education among all classes, has latterly effected a

But the diffusion of useful knowledge and the dissemination mon sense, and would as soon doubt the truth of Holy Writ mighty change in the intellectual powers of the people. Such as the existence of supernatural agency; and so interwoven reveries as those referred to, though sometimes used to “adorn was the superstition in the social system, that no event could would' harbour for a moment in sincerity the absurd idea of

a tale," are now unheeded; and there are few indeed who happen poor mortality from the cradle to the grave, in which evil agency. There may be, 'tis true, some exceptions-a the good people were not implicated for good or evil. Did the few old women may be still haunted by the sprites of other head or a member of a leading family die, the wail of the ban- days, and in some remote districts a belief in witchcraft cershee was sure to be heard in the twilight. Was a favourite tainly prevails, ingrafted by early prejudices, and fostered

and kept alive by the practices of knaves, who profess to avert child smitten with disease, the beautiful, the beloved one was the effects by counter-charms, and live, like many others, on believed to be changed for a squalling, ravenous, and decrepid the credulity of the public ; but, generally speaking, the starveling. Did your cattle pine, or was your dairy not pro- thing is defunct gone to the moles and the bats. ductive, your cows were either elf-shot or bewitched. Was in Connaught especially, an idea is very prevalent that it

But there is an exception. In several districts in Ireland, the wife of your bosom snatched away in her bloom, in the is in the power of evil-disposed persons to deprive their most interesting thongh dangerous moment of her existence, neighbours of their milk or butter. This is said to be done the fairies were whispered to be the authors of your misfor- in various ways, the most usual being the use of a corpse tune-to have spirited her off, and to have left in her stead a

hand, which is kept shrivelled and dried to stir the milk and

gather the butter. Another plan is to follow the cows on a wooden substitute.

May morning, and gather the soil which drops from between Well do I remember the thrill of fear, mingled with a degree their cloots. Another, by collecting the froth which forms of pleasurable awe, with which I listened some forty years on a stream running through their pasture, and milking your since to the narratives of a venerable aunt, who was lingering own cow on it. Indeed, the means used are represented to be out the evening of her existence at my father's fireside –her so simple, that the very absurdity of the matter is its own

refutation. only occupation being, rocking the cradle and keeping the

Yet it is believed in, and that firmly; and in order to prove youngsters from mottling their shins. She was an experienced that such is the case, and also expose the trickery and legerdame, and withal pious, but would as soon doubt her own demain by which some knaves succeed in throwing dust in identity as that of witches and fairies, and her memory was the eyes of the natives, I will relate an occurrence in which I well stored with instances of their interference. These I then

was concerned ; and to open the matter fully in all its ramifi

cations, windings, and train of circumstantials, I trust I will believed most implicitly, particularly as in many of them “the be pardoned if I enter into a rather minute detail

, the rather as family” was concerned. She could relate how her grandfather I confess I was for a short time myself almost inclined to cre one morning detected a hare in the act of milking one of his dit its existence-in short, believed myself the dupe of a fairy cows, which he fired at and wounded, and on tracking the man. blood, discovered it to flow from the thigh of an old crone who

Some time since I resided in the neighbourhood of the inhabited neighbouring hovel. She also could tell how an

“plains of Boyle," a celebrated pasture country, and was the elder brother had surprised a leprahaun in the act of making quantity and excellent in quality, and materially contributed

possessor of a cow whose milk and butter were plentiful in shoes for the gentle people--could describe his dress minutely, to the comforts of my family. She was a beautiful and a and how he had escaped captivity by making a feint with his gentle creature ; and I flattered myself that in her I possessed awl at my uncle's eye, and causing him to wink when in the the foundress of a numerous herd, and the germ of a profitable very act of seizing him, and thereby marred his fortune. She and extensive dairy. also knew a child which was taken from its mother's arms at As before observed, the idea was very prevalent there that night, but luckily was missed before he could be conveyed it was in the power of evil-disposed persons to deprive you of through the key-hole, and on the outcry of the bereaved your milk and butter, and I heard many complaints of the kind ; parent, was dropped with a whack” on the floor uninjured. the general voice fastened the imputation on a woman who It never occurred to her that probably the child had rolled out lived in the vicinity, who was locally termed “the Hawk," and of the bed accidentally. There was another tale often related certainly the fire of her eye and the sharpness of her beak by her, which it would be worse than heresy to doubt, as she justified the appellation : she was a comely middle-aged person, knew the parties intimately.

in rather easy circumstances, her husband being a small farmer; An bonest man named John M‘Kinstrey, who resided near but he lay under the suspicion of being concerned in a murder Maheraveely, in the county Monaghan, was once compelled some time before. She was a reputed witch, and the entire to leave his warm bed in "the witching time of night," on a family were disliked and avoided. certain pressing occasion, and ride post-haste for a worthy One morning in the month of January, I was informed that dame whose assistance was indispensable. While returning a woman had come into my kitchen, who occupied herself in with the "howdy” safely stowed on an ample pillion behind, watching the motions of the family, without stating her busihe heard the strokes of an axe reverberating through a neighness. On going down, I found her well dressed and well bouring wood, and voices in conversation. Curiosity prompted looking, but with a very sinister cast of countenance. On him to draw up and listen, when he distinctly heard the ques- asking if she wanted me, she said she had heard I was in want tion asked, “ What are you doing to-night?" and to his dis- 1 of some geese, and that she had a few to dispose of.

“ How



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