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thing to live upon but the worst bread and water; and the tion in the modes of cruelty": “ Precisely," said L. day that he eats he shall not drink, nor the day that he “ The boy-child is taught to terrify any animal that comes drinks he shall not eat; and so shall continue till he dies."- within his reach, as soon as he is able to do so ; his parents, Reilly's Dublin News Letter, August 9, 1740.
sponsors, nurses, friends, are severally disposed to give him for his first present a toy whip, and he soon acquires dexterity in using it. Man, naturally overbearing and cruel, is
rendered infinitely more so by education. He first flogs his WHIPS FOR A PENNY.
wooden horse (the little boy pricked up his ears, and I hope
will retain the impression of what passed) and then his living BY MARTIN DOYLE.
pony or donkey, as the case may be ; he whips every thing “ Whips for a Penny!” This cry attracted my attention; that crosses his way; and even at the little birds, which are I looked about, and saw a stout young man with a bundle of happily beyond the reach of his lash, he flings stones, or he children's whips under his arm, standing on a flagway in Lud- robs them of their young, for the mere satisfaction of rendergate-street, in the centre of a group of little boys, who if not ing them miserable.” wealthy enough to buy from his stock, were at least unani- Ay, sir," said the gentleman," and he becomes a sportsmously disposed to do so. The whips, considering the price, man in course of time, and flogs his pointers, setters, and were very neatly made, and cracked melodiously, as the man hounds, for pursuing their instincts—he becomes their tyrant. took frequent opportunities of proving, for the cadences of He goes to one of our universities, perhaps, and drives gigs, his almost continuously repeated cry Whips for a penny, tandems, and even stage-coaches, without knowing how to whips for a penny!" were emphatically marked by a time handle the reins ; he blunders, turns corners too sharply, pulls keeping "crack, crack," to the delight of the juvenile audi- the wrong rein, diverts the well-trained horses from their tors.
proper course, which they would have critically pursued but Curious to ascertain if this person would meet such a de- for his interference, nearly oversets the vehicle by his awk. mand for these Lilliputian whips as would afford him the wardness, and then, as if to persuade the lookers on that the means of living with reasonable comfort, I watched his move- fault was not his, he belabours the poor brutes to the utmost ments for nearly an hour, during which period he disposed of of his power ; or it may be, lays on the thong merely for pracfive or six of them. One of the purchasers was a good-na- tice until he is proficient enough to apply it knowingly. Are tured looking woman, with a male child about two years old, the horses tired,” continued he, “worn out in service ?-he to whom she presented the admired object. The infant, with flogs to keep them alive, and makes a boast of his ingenuity in instinctive perception of its proper use, grasped the handle forcing a jaded set to their journey's end, by establishing a with his tiny fingers, and promptly commenced a smart but raw, and torturing them there." not very effective course of flagellation on the bosom from “Depend upon it,” said 1, "such a chap had ' whips for a which he had derived his earlier aliment, to the infinite de- penny' when he was a child." “Quite so," said my companion ; light of the doting mother. A fine boy, strutting about in 'you have put this matter before me in a new point of view.' frock and trousers, was next introduced by his nurse to the Here we were startled by the familiar sound of the coach whip, vender of thongs, and the first application of his lash was and saw a stage-driver flogging in the severest style four made to an unfortunate little dog which had been separated heated, panting, and overpowered horses, coming in with a from his owner, and was at this time roaming about in soli- heavily laden coach; the lash was perpetually laid on; even citude and terror, and probably with an empty stomach, when the keenest at the draught were flogged, that they might pull Master Jack added a fresh pang to his miseries.
on the rest, and the less powerful were flogged to keep up with A hardier customer came next, and flourished his whip the them. The coachman, no doubt, when a child, had his share moment he bought it, at some weary and frightened lambs of whips for a penny.” When he grew up and entered upon which a butcher's boy was urging forward through every his vocation, he perhaps at first compassionated the horses obstacle, with a bludgeon, towards their slaughter-house. Å which he was obliged to force to their stages in a given time; half-starved kitten, which had ventured within the threshold he might have had his favourites among them too, and yet of a shop, where in piteous posture it seemed to crave protec-often and severely tested their powers of speed or endurance; tion and a drop of milk, caught the quick eye of a fourth and at length, as they became diseased and stiff in the limbs, urchin, just as he had untwisted his lash, and was immediately and broken-winded from overwork, he may have satisfied himstarted from its momentary place of refuge by the pursuing self with the reflection, that the fault was not his, that his imp. A fifth came up, a big, knowing-looking chap, about employer ought to have given him a better team, and that it twelve years old, who, after a slight and contemptuous exa- was a shame for him to ask any coachman to drive such “rum mination of them, loudly remarked to their owner, “ Vy, these Habit renders him callous; he does not now feel for the ere vhips a'n't no good to urt no vun—I'm blowed hif they his." sufferings of the wretched animals he guides and punishes; You young tyrant I thought I to myself. I was moving off in nay, he often coolly takes from the boot-box the short handled disgust, when a benevolent-looking gentleman came up and Tommy, which is merely the well-grown and severer whip of was about to buy one for the happy, open-countenanced boy, the species which his employer and himself had used in childwho called him uncle, when I took the liberty of putting hood, when they both bougật “whips for a penny,” and lays it one of my forefingers to my nose, as the most ready but quiet as heavily as his vigorous arm empowers him, on one of the method of indicating my desire to prevent the completion worn-out wheelers, which unhappily for themselves are within of his purpose. The gentleman took my hint at once, sup- range of its infliction. The hackney-coachmen and cabmen, posing in all probability that there was some mystery in too, the matter-perhaps that I wished to save him from the awk.
“ Though oft I've heard good judges say. ward consequences of purchasing stolen goods, and walked
It costs them more for whips than hay,”. away. I followed him, and overtaking him, touched the rim are not much worse than their more consequential brethren of my beaver, as nearly as I could imitate the London mode, of the whip; all of them consider the noble creature, subjuand at once said, “ My dear sir, excuse me for obtruding my gated by their power, and abused most criminally through advice upon you, but as you have the organ of benevolence their cruelty, as a mere piece of machinery, to be flogged strongly developed, and your little nephew has already indica- along like a top as long as it can be kept going. tion of its future prominence, if duly exercised, I thought We reached the upper end of one of the numerous lanes it better that you should not put a whip into his hands, lest leading from the Thames ; five splendid horses were endeahis better feelings should be counter-influenced. Look there,' vouring to draw up a heavy waggon-load of coals; but as the continued I, as we reached the steep part of Holborn-hill
, two first turned into the street at right angles to the others, see that pair of miserable horses endeavouring to keep their they were not aiding those behind them. Being stopped in their footing on the steep and slippery pavement; hear the con progress for some time, by a crowd of coaches, chaises, cabs, stant reverberations of the driver's whip, which he applies so carts, and omnibuses, the labour of keeping the waggon on unmercifully to keep them from falling, by the most forced the spot it had already attained, and which was steep and and unnatural efforts ; see them straining every muscle to slippery, rested upon the three hinder horses. At length the drag along their burden, while they pant from pain, terror, team was put in motion, all the leading ones being useless in and exhaustion ; look at the frequent welts on their poor succession as they turned to the angle of the street; and just skins. Depend upon it, the fellow who drives had a penny at the critical point, when the whole enormous draught rested whip for his first plaything !" The gentleman looked rather on the shaft horse, the waggoner, taxing its strength beyond earnestly at me." You are right, sir,” said he ; " early initia- | its capability, struck it with the whip, The noble brute made
one desperate plunge to execute his tyrant's will, and fell
THE WORLD'S CHANGES. dead upon the pavement. “I think,” said my companion, “that we have had a good lesson upon whips to-day; I should
“ Contarini Fleming wrote merely, TIME."prefer any other gift for my little boy here; for though it may
D'Israeli the Younger. be urged that he, like the rest of his sex at the same age,
The Solemn Shadow that bears in his hands would merely make a noise with a whip, and would inflict no
The conquering Scythe and the Glass of Sands, serious pain, I am bound to bear in mind the actual fact, that
Paused once on his flight where the sunrise shone with the very sound of a whip is associated in the imagination On a warlike city's towers of stone; of all domesticated animals, the apprehension of pain; that And he asked of a panoplied soldier near, they are terrorized when they hear that sound, even through
“ How long has this fortressed city been here ?" a child's hand, and I must therefore conclude that this symbol
And the man looked up, Man's pride on his brow of cruelty should not be his plaything.", I agreed with him
“The city stands here from the ages of old • fully, and as our business lay in different directions, we parted
And as it was then, and as it is now, at Blackfriar's Bridge, not, however, until my companion of So will it endure till the funeral kne" the hour had handed me his card of address. This was an
Of the world be knolled, act of unexpected compliment which I could not return exactly
As Eternity's annals shall tell.” in the same way; I told him that I had never written my name on a visiting card in my life, but that I was Martin Doyle,
And after a thousand years were o'er, at his service, and a contributor to the new Irish Penny Jour.
The Shadow paused over the spot once more. nal, just started in Dublin. “ Is not Dublin,” said he, And vestige was none of a city there, “ in Ireland ?" I stared. “I believe,” added he, “ that Ire- But lakes lay blue, and plains lay bare, land is a pretty place." I wished the geographical gentleman And the marshalled corn stood high and pale, a rather hasty farewell.
And a Shepherd piped of love in a vale. As I walked on, I pondered on the many other instances in “ How !” spake the Shadow," can temple and tower which the whip is an instrument of terror or tyranny. First, Thus feet, like mist, from the morning hour ?" I thought of the Russian bride meekly offering a horsewhip But the Shepherd shook the long locks from his browto her lord, as the token of her submission to the infliction of " The world is filled with sheep and corn; his blows, whenever it might suit his temper to bestow such Thus was it of old, thus is it now, proofs of tenderness upon her, and of the perpetual system of Thus, too, will it be while moon and sun Hagellation, which, as we are told by travellers, is exercised
Rule night and morn, in the dominions of the great autocrat upon wives, children, For Nature and Life are one.' servants, and cattle. I thought of French postilions-flagellators of the first order, at least as far as cracking" without
And after a thousand years were o'er, intermission testifies; and, finally, of the British horse-racer.
The Shadow paused over the spot once more. Horses high in mettle, ardent in the course, without a sti- And lo! in the room of the meadow-lands mulus of any kind, struggle neck and neck for victory; they A sea foamed far over saffron sands, approach the winning post; one jockey flogs more power- And flashed in the noontide bright and dark, fully than his compeers; the agonized horse, in his fearful And a fisher was casting his nets from a bark ; efforts, is lifted as it were from the ground, by two or three How marvelled the Shadow!" Where then is the plain ? desperate twinings (the stabbing at the sides is but a variety And where be the acres of golden grain ?" of the torture) of the cutting whalebone round his flanks; and But the fisher dashed off the salt spray from his browat the critical instant, making a bound, as it were, to escape “ The waters begirdle the earth alway, from his half-flayed skin, throws his head forward in his The sea ever rolled as it rolleth now : effort, half a yard beyond that of his rival, who has had his What babblest thou about grain and fields ? share of torture too, and is declared the winner-of what?
By night and day a gold-handled prize-whip, which is borne away in triumph Man looks for what Ocean yields." by the owner of the winning horse! To be sure, he pockets some of that which is so truly designated “the root of all evil;"
And after a thousand years were o'er, but the acquisition of the whip is the distinguishing honour.
The Shadow paused over the spot once more. And how does this whip in reality differ from any of the And the ruddy rays of the eventide whips for a penny ?" It is of pure gold and whalebone ; the Were gilding the skirts of a forest wide; others are but of painted stick and the cheapest leather ; yet The moss of the trees looked old, so old ! they are both but playthings—the one in the hand of a man who And valley and hill, the ancient mould has spent, it may be, half his patrimony, and as much of his time Was robed in sward, an evergreen cloak ; in the endeavour to win it, while he attaches no real or intrin- And a woodman sang as he felled an oak. sic value to it afterwards; the other in the hand of the child, Him asked the Shadow "Rememberest thon to whom it appears a real and substantial prize. The jockey- Any trace of a Sea where wave those trees pas man is not a whit more rational in this respect than the boy But the woodman laughed : Said he, “ I trow, who bestrides his hobby-horse, and flourishes his penny whip. If oaks and pines do flourish and fall, Then succeeded to my imagination a far more brutal scene,
It is not amid seas ;the steeple-chase. A horse is overpowered in a deep and
The earth is one forest all." heavy fallow ; he is flogged to press him through it; he reaches a break-neck wall; a desperate cut of the whip sends him
And after a thousand years were o'er,
The Shadow paused over the spot once more. flying over it; again and again he puts forth his strength and speed, and falls, and rises again at the instigation of the
And what saw the Shadow ? A city agen, whip. He comes to a brook; it is too wide for his failing But peopled by pale mechanical men, powers, and there is a rotten and precipitous bank at the
With workhouses filled, and prisons, and marts, other side; he shudders, and recoils a moment, but a tremen- And faces that spake exanimate hearts. dous lash, worse than the dread of drowning, and the goad- Strange picture and sad! was the Shadow's thought; ing of the spur, force him in desperation to the leap; his hind And, turning to one of the Ghastly, he sought feet give way at the landing side; he falls backward; his spine For a clue in words to the When and the How is broken, and at length a pistol bullet ends his miseries.
Of the ominous Change he now beheld; In a word, the donation of " whips for a penny” to any But the man oplifted his care-worn browchild, fairly starts him on the first stage of cruelty; and if, from “Change? What was Life ever but Conflict and Change? peculiarity of temperament or the restraining influence of the
From the ages of eld beneficent Creator (who, though he has allowed man to have
Hath affliction been widening its range." dominion, and has put under his feet all sheep and oxen, yea, Enough! said the Shadow, and passed from the spot :and the beasts of the field, has withheld from him the autho- At last it is vanished, the beautiful youth rity to abuse his privilege), the child grows into the man who Of the earth, to return with no To-morrow; is merciful to his beast, the merit is not due to the injudi- All changes have checquered Mortality's lot; cious person who first presents him with his mimic whip in But this is the darkest-for Knowledge and Truth infancy.
M. Are but golden gates to the Temple of Sorrow!
ANCIENT MUSIC OF IRELAND.
TO OUR READERS. A GREAT and truly national work—the Ancient Music of Jre- TAE want of a cheap literary publication for the great body land-collected and arranged for the piano-forte by Edward of the people of this country, suited to their tastes and habits, Bunting, has just issued from the Dublin press ; and whe- combining instruction with amusement, avoiding the exciting and ther we consider its intrinsic merits, the beauty of its typo- profitless discussion of political or polemical questions, and graphy and binding, or the liberal and enterprising spirit of placed within the reach of their humble means, has long been its publishers, they are all equally deserving of the highest matter of regret to those reflecting and benevolent minds who
are anxious for the advancement and civilization of Ireland approbation. This is indeed a work of which Ireland may and the reflection has been rather a humiliating one, that while feel truly proud, for, though in every respect Irish, we be- England and Scotland abound with such cheap publications for lieve nothing equal to it in its way has hitherto appeared in in London alone there are upwards of twenty weekly periothe British empire, and we trust that all the parties con- dicals sold at one penny each–Ireland, with a population so excerned in its production will receive the rewards to which tensive, and so strongly characterised by a thirst for knowledge, they are so justly entitled. To all lovers of national melody has not even one work of this class. It is impossible to bethis work will give the most intense pleasure ; while by those lieve that such an anomaly can have originated in any other who think there is no melody so sweet and touching as that cause than the want of spirit and enterprise on the part of those of Ireland, it will be welcomed with feelings of delight which who ought to have the patriotism to endeavour to enlighten their no words could adequately express. It is a work which as
countrymen, and thereby elevate their condition, even although
the effort should be attended with risk, and trouble to themselves. suredly will never die. To its venerable Editor, Ireland owes a deep feeling of gratitude, as the zealous and enthusiastic
It may be objected that some of the cheap publications already collector and preserver of her music in all its characteristic and for some years in existence, though in all respects fitted for beauty ; for though our national poet, Moore, has contri- circulation in the Sister
Island as they justly deserve, have never
the instruction of the people, and enjoying such an extensive buted by the peculiar charm of his verses to extend the fame obtained that proportionate share of popularity here which of our music over the civilized world, it should never be for- would indicate a conviction of their usefulness or excellence gotten that it is to Bunting that is due the merit of having on the part of the Irish people. But the obvious reply to this originally rescued from obscurity those touching strains of objection is, that, undeniable as the merits of many of these pubmelody, the effect of which, even upon the hearts of those lications must be allowed to be, none of them were adapted to most indifferent to Irish interests geverally, Moore has so the intellectual wants of a people, distinguished, as the Irish are, feelingly depicted in his well-known lines :
by strong peculiarities of mind and temperament, as well as by “ The stranger'shall hear thy lament on his plains ;
marked national predilections—and who, being more circum
scribed in their means than the inhabitants of the Sister CounThe sigbs of thy harp shall be sent o'er the deep;
tries, necessarily required a stimulus more powerful to excite Till thy masters themselves, as they rivet thy chains, them. A work of a more amusing character, and more essen
Shall pause at the song of their captive, and weep." tially Irish, was therefore necessary; and such a work it is now
The merits of this work are, however, of a vastly higher intended to offer to the Public. order than those of either of the former collections which The Irisu PENNY JOURNAL will he in a great degree deMr Bunting gave to the world ; for, while the melodies are voted to subjects connected with the history, literature, antiqui. of equal beauty, they are arranged with such exquisite mu- ties, and general condition of Ireland, but it will not be devoted sical feeling and skill as to enhance that beauty greatly; and
to such subjects exclusively; it will contain, in a fair proportiou, we do not hesitate to express our conviction that there is not articles on home and foreign manufactures, information on the any musician living who could have harmonized them with
arts and sciences, and useful knowledge generally. greater judgment or feeling. This volume contains above All subjects tending in the remotest degree to irritate or offend one hundred and sixty melodies, and of these only a few political or religious feelings will be rigidly abstained from, and have been previously made known to the public. It also
every endeavour will be made to diffuse sentiments of benevocontains an interesting preface, and a most valuable disser- | lence and mutual good-will through all classes of the community. tation on the ancient music of Ireland, in which its charac
The matter will also be, to a considerable extent, original teristic peculiarities are admirably analysed ; and on the me
and to render it so, contributions will be obtained from a great thod of playing the
Harp; the Musical Vocabulary of the old number of the most eminent literary and scientific writers of Irish Harpers ; a Treatise on the Antiquity of the Harp and
whom Ireland can boast. Bagpipe in Ireland by Samuel Ferguson, Esq., M.R.L.A., cipated, displaying merits of a very superior order, while it will
A publication thus conducted, and, as may be confidently antifull of curious antiquarian lore, and in which is comprised an account of the various efforts made to revive the Irish Harp ; generally, will at the same time, it is hoped, be found not un,
effect its primary object of conveying instruction to the people a dissertation by Mr Petrie on the true age of the Harp, | deserving of the support of the higher and more educated popularly called the Harp of Brian Boru; and, lastly, anec
classes; while to the inhabitants of Great Britain it will be dotes of the most distinguished Irish Harpers of the last two found extremely interesting, as embodying a large amount of incenturies, collected by the Editor himself. To these are formation respecting Ireland, and the manners of her people as added, Remarks on the Antiquity and Authors of the Tunes they really exist, and not as they have been hitherto too frewhen ascertained, with copious indices, giving their original quently misrepresented and caricatured. Irish names, as well as the names and localities of the per- To give to such a work a reasonable prospect of success, it is sons from whom they were obtained. The work is illustrated indeed essential that it should be patronised by all classes; and with numerous wood-cuts, as well as with copperplate en
an appeal is therefore confidently made to the high-minded and gravings of the ancient Irish Harp above alluded to. This patriotic people of Ireland in its behalf, as without a very exslight notice will, it is hoped, give our readers for the pre- tensive circulation it could not be given at so low a price as sent some idea of the value and importance of this delightful would bring it within the reach of the poorer classes of the work; but we shall return to it again and again, for we con
country, whose limited means would preclude the possibility of sider it is no less than our duty to make its merits familiar
purchasing a dearer publication.
On their own parts, the Proprietors of the Irish PENNY to our readers, as our music is a treasure of which all classes Journal have only to observe, that no efforts shall be spared of our countrymen should feel equally proud, and in the ho- to render their work deserving of general support ; and that nour of extending the celebrity of which they should all feel as their expectations of immediate success are not extravagant, equally desirous to participate.
P. they will not be deterred, by temporary discouragements in the
commencement of their undertaking, from persevering in their exertions to establish, upon a firm basis of popularity, a publica
tion of such merit in itself, and so essential, as they conceive, to Dr Barrett having on a certain occasion detected a student the improvement and advantage of the people of Ireland. walking in the Fellows' Garden, Trinity College, Dublin,
The Irish PennY JOURNAL will be published every Saturday asked him how he had obtained admission. “ I jumped over morning at the Office of the GENERAL ADVERTISER, Church the library, sir," said the student. “ D'ye see me now, sir ?— lane, College-green. It will be printed upon fine paper, and you are telling me an infernal lie, sir !" exclaimed the Vice- each Number will be embellished with at least one Wood-cut Provost. “ Lie, sir !" echoed the student; “ I'll do it Illustration of high character as a work of art; and in point of again!" and forthwith proceeded to button his coat, in appa- quality, as well as quantity of letter-press, it will be inferior to
no Publication of the kind that has hitherto appeared. rent preparation for the feat; when the worthy doctor, seizing his arm, prevented him, exclaiming with horror, Stop, Printed and Published every Saturday by Gunn and Cameron, at the Office stop—you'll break your bones if you attempt it !"
of the General Advertiser, 6 Church Lane, College Green, Dublin.
SIMPLICITY OF CHARACTER,
SATURDAY, JULY 11, 1840.
ENTRANCE TO THE GREAT CAVE OF KISH-CORRAN, AS SEEN FROM THE INTERIOR.
THE CAVES OF KISH-CORRAN.
sents a green but boldly sloping grassy face, formed of the Among the many wonders of Ireland, as yet undescribed and debris of the rocks above, which rise perpendicularly, and look little known, even to Irishmen, beyond their immediate loca- more like a wall—lichen-stained and ivy-decked-formed by lities, the subject of our prefixed illustration has every claim the Cyclops or giants of old, than creations of nature's hand. to find a place, and to attract our attention as a subject And such impression is increased in no small degree by the equally interesting to the geologist, artist, and historian. lofty and magnificent caves, which present themselves like That it should have hitherto remained unnoticed, as we think doorways, and lead into the inmost recesses of the mountain. it has, while objects of the same description in other localities It is of one of these entrances, and the most remarkable for less remarkable and interesting have been repeatedly de grandeur, that our illustration attempts to give an idea. Its scribed, may be attributed chiefly to the circumstance of its height is no less than twenty feet. How far the caves extend, situation being remote from any leading road, and in a wild we are unable to speak with certainty; they are undoubtedly and rarely visited district of country, namely, the barony of of great extent, and, if the local accounts are to be trusted, Corran, in the county of Sligo. of this barony, the moun- reach even to the opposite or eastern side of the mountain, tain called Ceis or Kish-Corran, is the most striking geogra- and contain lakes of unfathomable depth, and spars of unimaphical feature. It is composed of tabular limestone; has a ginable beauty. fat outline at top, but is precipitous on its sides, and rises to A spot so striking to the imagination could not be, in Irean altitude of upwards of a thousand feet. To the traveller land, without its legends of a romantic and singular character; journeying from Boyle to Sligo it must be a familiar and and some of these are of a most remote antiquity, and conpleasing object, as, after passing the little town of Ballina- nected with the earliest legendary history of our country. In fad, it offers, for some miles of the road towards the west the ancient topographical tract called the
Dinnseanchus, which and south-west, the charms of a mountain boundary in con- gives the origin, according to the poets, of the names of the trast to the rich woods of Hollybrook, and the delightful most remarkable mountains, lakes, rivers, caves, forts, &c. in vistas of the water of Lough Arrow, or Arva, which skirt Ireland, we are told that Corran received its name from the the road along the east. But the most precipitous and noble harper of Diancecht, to whom that magical race, called the point of Kish-Corran is presented to the west, and is not Tuátha de Danann, gave the territory as a reward for his seen by the traveller on this road, which must for a time be musical skill; and popular tradition
still points to the cave of abandoned to enable him to see it, as well as the wonderful Kish-Corran as his residence, according to the ancient form caves which open on its face, and to which we have now to quoted in the Dinnseanchus : – call the attention of our readers. On this western side, the “Here used to dwell the gentle Corann, whose hand was mountain, to within a hundred feet or two of its summit, pre-skilled in playing on the harp; Corann was the only ollave of
BY MARTIN DOYLE.
Drancich (with whom he lived), in free and peaceable security, rience which many brutes have of man's caprice or tyranny,
To Corann of the soft music, the Tuatha De gave with great and this dread is transmissible (as may be justly inferred from honour a free territory for his skilful playing, his knowledge, cases which are perfectly analogous, such as the acquired haand his astrology: Here was he, this generous man, not with- bit of pointing at game) to their posterity. out literature or in a churlish fortress, but in a place where A benevolent man, living, as we read of Robinson Crusoe, the stranger was at liberty to a free sojournment with him, among his goats, ceases to be an object of apprehension to this liberal prosperous man.
the animals around him ; even birds, habituated to his kindThe same authority accounts for the prefix Ceis, or, as it is ness and protection, would become divested of the dread of pronounced, Kish, which is applied to the mountain by a very man; and each successive generation of those familiarized singular legend, according to which it would appear that it birds would probably become more and more disposed to assowas originally the name of a lady, who with five others were, ciate with him, if he were systematically kind and encouragby a charm compounded with the nut-fruit, metamorphosed ing in his manner. Such experiments with the brute kind, it into pigs, the unhappy Ceis herself being here subsequently is true, can be but extremely partial, and are unattended slain. However this may be, there is nothing improbable in with any very practically useful results in themselves ; but, the supposition that the caves of Kish-Corran were in former as respects the education of children, they are of extreme times the favourite dens of the wild boar, the wolf, and many utility in exciting tender and benevolent feelings, and awakenother animals now extinct; they furnish a secure retreat to ing the intellectual faculties from subjects merely sensual or the fox and many other wild animals at the present day, P. idly amusing ; they teach us “to look from Nature up to
There never was a better founded observation than that of ON BENEVOLENCE OF CHARACTER.
the late Mr Cobbett, that no one should be entrusted with
the care of the nobler animals who had not been habituated Ir it be afflictive, on one side, to reflect upon the deeds of to treat the lesser ones with kindness. cruelty and oppression which prevail upon earth, through the I love to see a child feeding his rabbits or pigeons, and famiinstrumentality of man, it is delightful, on the other, to per- liarly playing with them, consulting their tastes, and contriceive that human reason, instead of being abused and per- buting to their comforts by every means within his power. verted into a source of tyrannical oppression, is occasionally Surely such a pursuit should not be rudely discouraged ; exercised, as it ought to be, in promoting happiness and so- how much more humanizing than the desire to possess " whips cial harmony, even among brutes ; in producing that degree for a penny,” to which I have recently adverted! It tends of peaceful concord, which it has been proved may exist to render a child compassionate in his disposition to all God's among animals whose natural antipathies are the most vio- creatures, and unwilling to hurt, for the sake of inflicting lent imaginable—that feeling which disarms the strong among pain, or from thoughtless mischief. them of all desire to tyrannise over and destroy the weak, And I am just enough of phrenologist to be of opinion and is brought into exercise by a steady and persevering sys- that, if there be any remarkable developement of the organ tem of early training (and consequent acquirement of abiding of destructiveness, this may be sufficiently counteracted by habits), directly opposed to that which prompts us to place à the exercise of feelings which have connection with the faculty whip in the hand of a child.
of benevolence, and so modified, by avoiding all pursuits of a I have been led into this train of contemplation, from cruel nature, as to constitute, with God's blessing, a benevolent having recently witnessed a practical illustration of the won character, which, by the indulgence of the inherent inclinaderful effects producible by what may fairly be termed a tion to cruel sports, would become of the opposite nature; benevolent system, for there is no degree whatever of harsh for there is unquestionably an adaptation of the mind, as well discipline connected with it—no starvation, no blows, nothing as the body, to the circumstances under which individuals are of that “ reign of terror," under the influence of which Van placed. It is with the faculties of the human mind as with Amburgh has doubtless effected his dominion over the most the habits of brutes; when exercised, they acquire strength, ferocious of beasts; the exhibition of which power, while it and gradually become more developed and confirmed; ay, and surprises, does not please us; for, though, by an effort of the become hereditary too in proportion to their original or graimagination, the mind may be led for a moment to the anti- dually progressing degree of developement. How important, cipation of the scene in which “the wolf shall dwell with the then, that the higher faculties, on which depends the elevation lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid,” it quickly of the moral character, should be strengthened by use and considers this surprising display of human power with painful exercise! But I have digressed far from the illustration which sensations, from the conviction that extreme severity of dis- I was about to give at the beginning, of a practically benevocipline alone has enabled man in this instance to attain his lent system of brute education. despotic sovereignty, and that the unnatural results which he There stands on every fine day, near one of the great beholds are an evidence that the legitimate dominion granted London bridges, mild, cheerful looking man, who exhibits to man “over every thing that moveth upon the earth,” has to the passers by an assemblage of animals of the most dein this case, as in ten thousand others, been overstrained and cided antipathies by nature, who live together in the same abused,
large cage in perfect harmony. The notion of collecting into While animals of prey are in a state of nature, they either one family such apparently discordant members, originated, I avoid each other, or meet in deadly contest, according to the believe, with a gentleman who has long made the brute animal degree of their antipathies; and until He who has impressed economy the subject of his investigations, and who suggested their dispositions upon them shall bid them lie down together to John Austin the harmlessness, at least, of earning the in peace, no efforts of puny man can avail in changing their means of his support by the novel and interesting exhibition habits, except under such rare circumstances as confirm the of a cat, rats, mice, Guinea pigs, hawks, pigeons, owls, and general law of instinct which leads them to destroy each starlings, and, I believe, another bird, under the same limited other. But the dislike which many of the domesticated ani- roof, and with perfect freedom of access from one to another. mals entertain for each other, is greatly increased by the en. One of the pigeons is now hatching, without any cause of couragement which they receive from man. The dog, which alarm from the hawk for the safety of her anticipated offunder other treatment would be familiar with the cat or the spring; for that bird is so far from being of a destructive hog, is taught from his puppyhood to pursue and worry each. temper, that he frequently feeds a young starling with meat of them; the cat instinctively defends herself with those claws from his own bill, and apparently of his own impulse; nor which are her natural weapons, and she scratches her oppo- do any of the birds manifest apprehension from the cat, which nent's face, and through their after life they are never tho- has been almost born in their company, and although freroughly reconciled to each other, but live proverbially as quently permitted to go outside the cage and take the air “ cat and dog.' The hog cannot defend himself from the without restraint, returns soon again, without having had her teeth of the dog ; his ears are torn by them; he cannot reta- disposition corrupted by intercourse with bad company, takes liate, but he lives ever afterwards in dread of the whole ca- up her favourite position in a corner, where the rats most affecnine race. Dogs, which otherwise would live in harmony tionately run up to her for warmth and concealment from the together, are taught to fight; their natural jealousy is en public gaze, behind her furry and comfortable back. The couraged, and they are rendered bullies by profession. pigeons are also allowed their liberty occasionally, but they
That the dread of man is in a certain degree naturally upon soon return to their quarters, which habit has rendered pleaevery beast of the field and bird of the air, cannot be dis- sant to them. pated; but this feeling is increased considerably by the expe- Now, I by no means recommend to parents, for their chil