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ILLUSTRATED WITH MAPS AND ENGRAVINGS ;

AND ACCOMPANIED BY AN

ATLAS,
( EXHIBITING, IN CONNEXION WITH THE OUTLINES OF COLXTRIES-

THEIR CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS ;
THE PREVAILING RELIGIONS, FORMS OF GOVERNMENT, AND

DEGREES OF CIVILIZATION ;
AND THE COMPARATIVE SIZE OF TOWNS,

RIVERS, AND MOUNTAINS.)

5. The very essence of science consists in generalizing, and reducing to a few classes
or general principles, the multitude of, individual things which every branch of human
knowledge embraces.”

Jamieson's Logico

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PUBLISHED BY 'OLIVEK D. COCKE & CO.

J. & J. HARPER, PRINTERS.

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PUBLISHERS' NOTICE.

THIS sccond edition of the “Universal Geography'' now presented to the public, it will be discovered (from the annexed advertisement,) has been revised with great care by the author at Paris, under the most favourable opportunities possible, for the correction of error, and for the introduction of improvements. To obtain this revised copy of the modern part of this work from the author, the publication has been delayed longer than was originally intended. It is but justice to the publishers to state, that by an unusual comgression of matter, the page of this work contains more than is usual in the octavo form, and the whole, inclyding the letter press contained in the Modern Atlas, contains more than clouble the quantily of matter found in any of the school Geographies now in use. In connexion with this new edition a Neu Ancient Atlas has also been published, prepared by Mrs. Willard. In many respects this Atlas is unlike any similar work that has been published; these variations, it is believed, will be found to contain important advantages: The Atlases are sold either with or without the Geography, as is preferred.

DISTRICT OF CONNECTICUT, ss. BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the eleventh day of June, in the forty-eighth year of the independence of the United States of America, William C. Woodbridge, of the said district, and Emma Willard, of the district of New York, have deposited in this office the title of a Book, the right whereof they claim as authors and proprietors, in the words following, to wit

" A System of Universal Geography, on the principles of Comparison and Classification. 3y William Channing Woodbridge. Illustrated with maps and engravings; and accompranied by an Atlas."

In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, " An Act for thg encouragement of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned :" and also to an Act, entitled " An Act, supplementary to an Act, entitled An Act for the encouragement or Learning, by securing the copies of Mans, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints."

CHARLES A. INGERSOLL,

Clerk of the District of Connecticut. Alrus copy of Record, examined, and scaled by me,

CHARLES A. INGERSOLL,

Clark of the Distiiöt. Connecticut

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TO THE SECOND EDITION.

In presenting to the public a second edition of this work, the author cannot but express his gratitude to those who have honoured it with their patronage, and especially to those who have deemed it worthy of formal recommendation, or of notice in the periodical publications under their direction. The hope which has thus been afforded of its usefulness, is the most cheering reward of labours which have exhausted his strength.

He is gratified in finding a confirmation of their opinion in the approbation which the work has received, both for its plan and execution, from the Geographical Society of Paris, and from a number of gentlemen distinguished for their science, and their efforts in the cause of education, in various countries of Europe, among whom he cannot refrain from mentioning the names of Humboldt and Fellenberg.

To Baron Humboldt, and to other distinguished members of the Geographical Society of Paris, the Author takes pleasure in acknowledging his obligations for valuable corrections and remarks. He has also engaged an eminent Geographer to revise the whole with care, and to furnish him with notices of all recent discoveries. He is happy to find as the result of these examinations, and of his own observation and inquiries, comparatively few errors fo correction. In his efforts to improve the work, he has limited himself to those alterations whose importance seemed to overbalance the inconvenience of change to instruct

Few of any extent have been necessary, and he trusts that the advantage of these will be sufficiently obvious to render them satisfactory. For ather errors and imperfections which may

be discovered, or which may result from his absence, he must claim peculiar indulgence, on account of the ill health which detains him abroad, and which liigits extréniely, his opportunities both for inquiry and for exertion. His great desire is, diąt the painful efforts he has made may proye:{he means of promoting the cause of education and the improvemett: afyouth, in a country whose privileges and blessings the observation of the old world leads bim to estimate beyond all price:

ers.

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Paris, May, 1027.

PREFACE

BY THE AUTHOR.

The foundation of geographical knowledge must be laid in a familiar acquaintance with Topography, or the location of places on the globe. It is well observed by Watts in his treatise on the Improvement of the Mind, that

The situation of the several parts of the earth is better learned by one day's conversing with a map or sea-chart, than by merely reading the description of their situation a hundred times uver in books of Geography." Indeed the point is now fully admitted in the practice of geographical writers, and confirmed by the experience of teachers, that no method of study is so easy or effectual, as the examination of maps with the aid of questions ; and no explanation is necessary to justify its adoption as the basis of the present system.

Descriptive Geography has usually been left in the state which was common to every subject in the origin of knowledge--presenting a mass of insulated facts, scarcely connected by any association but that of locality. In other subjects, facts have been carefully compared, arranged in distinct classes, and traced to general principles ; and thus have been reduced to the beautiful order and simplicity of science. The Natural Philosopher, and the Political Economist, collect facts on each subject from every part of the world ; and deem it essential to present, at a single view, the similar characteristics of distant regions. Why should the Geographer be required to reverse this method, and scatter the dismembered portions of a subject to the four quarters of the globe ? Why especially, should those facts which have been traced with so much labour to the universal laws of nature, or the stable principles of intellectual and political philosophy, be severed from their connexions, and arranged according to the limits which power or caprice has assigned to the jurisdiction of kings-limits perpetually fluctuating with the waves of conquest, and the tides of revolution ? If we would save the student from confused, and even erroneous conceptions, we must describe the operations of nature according to the limits she has established ; and leave for separate consideration, those artificial boundaries which man has drawn, to divide regions of the same original character-influenced by the same climate-and furnished with similar productions.

Physical and Political Geography are out the Anatomy of the World-the one exhibiting the siructure and sarface of the globe-and the other, the state of its inbabitants. He that describes the human frame is expected to give a distinct account of the bonesottig arteries—the muscles-the nerves--the organs and the functionę of tậne •bgdy Why then should the Geographer mingle rivers and climates:mountains and productions-government and manners in the same page? It is true the datter are combined in nature ; but so are the former. It is afað trae chatait is desirable to have the complete picture of a country presented: but tfis would seem to be rather the province of poetry than of science ; and if we attempt to comprehend a landscape of new objects at a glance, we shall have but imperfect conceptions of its parts.

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