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Truth," "Temperance,'

” « Character," the immense bulk of that which was and is produced ; and the under such headings as thought is fascinated by the sense of that aggregate of human etc., to bring before our readers the united ideas of life and effort, and happiness, and suffering, which has lain striving and duty. sleeping beneath the broad heavens since the birth of time. “And what,” we ask ourselves, " is the motive, and what are

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-VII. the conditions of all this action and suffering ?” Men move under the influences of fitful gusts and gales of passion; but SECTION XV.-THE PLURAL NUMBER OF ARTICLES, also under the steady trade-winds of necessity, of self-interest,

NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, ETC. of ambition, of benevolence, of duty. Physical need is the most In the plural the adjective, when not preceded by a declinable universal and the most imperious claimant upon man's time word (the personal pronouns excepted), is inflected according to and sinew. It stares most of us in the face, and it stares

THE OLD DECLENSION. some of us with cruel pertinacity. There is nothing more apparent than that God intended that our existence should depend N. Gute, good; sdöne, fine; alte, old ; rothe, red; upon our exertions; and with this naked fact-however rough, G. Guter, of good; schöner, of fine; alter, of old; rother, of red; and hard, and humiliating it may seem-we must start in all D. Guten, to good; schönen, to fine; alten, to old; rotben, to red; our reasoning. The benefits of fortune make, indeed, an appa- 4. Gute, good; schöne, fine; alte, old; rothe, red. rent exception to this rule. There is a class of men who do

1. The definite article, the demonstrative and possessive pro. not find toil necessary to life, or even to its luxuries; but is it

nouns, have, in the plural, the same form for all genders, and not apparent to all that a life without exertion-exertion systematic, continued, and directed to an object-is a life without are declined like adjectives of the Old Declension.

Adjectives, when preceded by the definite article, a demonhappiness, and that idleness is not only useless, but practically strative, possessive

, or relative pronoun,

end in all cases of the evil:

But when we have got thus far, we have advanced but a small plural in en, and are of the New Declension. step, however necessary that step is. Man cannot live by bread DECLENSION OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, DEMONSTRATIVE alone. His first want is not his greatest; no, nor nearly so. What

AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS IN THE PLURAL. a different sight should we look upon as compared to that which N. Die, the;

diese, these;

meine, my; is now in sense and memory before us of the world and man's G. Der, of the ; tieicr, of these ; meiner, of my ; work upon it, if his sole necessity here had been the food and D. Den, to, or for the; diesen, to, or for these; meinen, to, or for my; clothes which keep life strong within him! We should not then 4. Die, the ;

tiese, these ;

meine, my. see, as we do now, cities, and temples, and ships: power, and beauty, and thought grown into shapes of wood and stone upon the earth, and into culture of tree and flower, bird and beast, N. Jene guten, those good ;

seine guten, his good ; colour and sound, heat and force. We must look to other cravings, Ø. Jener guten, of those good; seiner guten, of his good; besides that of hunger, in man, to find the secret of that eternal D. Jenen guten, to, or for those good; seinen guten, to, or for his good; twisting of the matter and spirit about him, the moulding of it A. Jene guten, those good;

seine guten, his good. into fresh forms, the digging, and the building, and the question

RULES FOR THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL OF NOUNS. ing. No hard necessity of food is laid upon him here, yet he toils

Old Declension. as if all eternity waited upon his success. What a bustling. suffering, hoping creature it is! Let us look at him more closely.

Rule 1. Masculine nouns ending in cl, en, er, have the same He is inquisitive—the pictures of his senses will not satisfy him. form in the plural, as :—Der Maler, the painter; tie Maler, the He is fond of power and possession—the dominion of his own body painters. Der Morgen, the morning; tie Morgen, the mornings. and birthplace will not satisfy him. He is fond of beauty and Der Strutel, the whirlpool ; tie Strudel

, the whirlpools. order—the flower and the wind will not satisfy him. He knows

The following masculine nouns take the Umlaut. (To take the of right and wrong-obedience to his passions will not satisfy Umlaut" means to change or modify the vowel ; i.e., to change a him. He knows of an unearthly power—and his own supremacy into å, o into è, u into ú; the diphthong au is modified into au.) will not satisfy him. Of all these dissatisfactions and needs, that Aviel, apple; Gammel, wether ; Gantel, trade; Mangel, want; which is attendant on the moral faculties—the sense of right Mantel, cloak: Nabel, navel ; Nagel, nail; Sattel, saddle; Sonatel, and wrong, and of responsibility—is the most curious and dis. beak; Vogel, bird; Faten, thread; Garten, garden ; Graben ditch; tinctive in man. Remove this, and it were better for him that he Haren, harbour; Oren, stove, oven; Scharen, injury; Nder, field; had but the hunger of the brute; the world is without form and Bruter, brother: Hammer, hammer; Schwager, brother-in-lav; void, and there is darkness upon the face of the deep.

Pater, father. As, also, the feminine nouns: Mutter, mother; Now, whatsoever different forms education may impose upon

Tochter, daughter. this sense of right and wrong in the minds of men; whatever they Singular. N. Der Mantel. Plural. die Mantel. may, by length of time, persuade themselves about it; however it

Der Vogel.

tie Vögel. may be disregarded, violated, attended to it is universal in all

Der Bruter.

tie Brüter. rational minds, and is as much a part of man's mental system as Rule 2. Masculine nouns of other terminations add e (in a hunger is of his physical system. The laws of God as revealed few words er), and assume the Umlaut, as :-Zahn, tooth; Zabue, to us in the Bible sanction, direct, and enforce it; the laws of teeth. Baum, tree; Bäume, trees. Roc, coat; Ride, coats. society are the partial expression of it. Moreover, mankind in jut, hat; Hüte, hats. Thus also are declined the feminine nouna general acquiesce in a judicial system which punishes the trans- Anast. Ari, etc. gressions of a man against his fellow, and most men fear a The following do not assume the Umlaut : Aal, eel ; Aar, eagle; judicial system which shall take a like cognizance of the faults' Ambok, anvil ; Anwait, attorney ; Arm, arm; Docht, wick; Dolct, which are secret to ourselves. We have, therefore, come to dagger; Derici, haddock; Gidam, son-in-law; Gemahl, husband ; another element in the great history of man's thought, and word, Balm, stalk (Halmen when used in a collective sense); lucis. and work ; or, rather, to two separate principles, closely akin, breath; Herzog, duke; Hui

, hoof; Hund, dog; Sobett, hobgoblin ; the 'oral faculty and the fear of God. Tis is not the place for any metaphysical discussion as to

Laut, sound; Leichnam, corpse ; Lucho, lynx ; Molch, lizard; Mont, the relations of these two; and we are concerned now with Scift

, shaft; Schuh, shoe; Staar, starling ; Stoff material : T..

moon; Monat, month; Morr, murder; Pir, path; Saim, salmon ; the former rather than the latter. That is, we wish to contine day ; Trunkenboid, drunkard; Unholt, monster ; Vieliraš, glutton ; ourselves to the view of man as under the influence of certain Wierehopr, hoopoo ; Zoll, inch (Zoll, pl. Zölle, custom, tas), as :principles which he finds to be part of his na: ure. Against these many things tempt him to rebel, but he fet is that there is Singular. Der Gemahl.

Plural. die Hemable. a warning voice which will not suffer him to do so in ignorance

Der Mond.

Die Mente. of coming retribution, and which tells him, without arguments,

Der Unhold.

die unbolte. without passion, without partiality, that every principle thus Rule 3. Neuter nouns ending in rl, on, er, ment, and leir, violated is sure to avenge itself with a merciless reaction. have the same form in the plural, as :-D 18 Mittci. the means ;

We hope in succeeding papers to point out the practical tie Mittel, the means. Das Wasser, the water ; sie Wasser, the bearing upon life of these great moral principles in man, and l waters. Das Gebäude, the building; die Gebiede, the buildings.




Das $?anoen, the girl; tie Märchen, the girls. Singular : Das gute, neue, schöne Güte. Sie haben die guten, neuen, schönen Hüte. (34, Rinnlan, the little man. Plural: Die Männlein, the little men. 2.) The pupil's attention is directed to the changes which the Exception. -Kloster, cloister, takes the Umlaut.

adjectives undergo according as the article is absent or present, Rule 4. Neuter nouns of other terminations add e (or er), of which more will be said hereafter. as :—jabr, year; Jahre years. Soiff, ship; Scisse, ships. Voot,

NEW DECLENSION OF NOUN6 PLURAL. bat; Boste (sometimes written Böte), boats. Singular: Das Hill, the image. Plural : Tie Bilter, the images.

N. Die Odhje-n, the oxen; rie Fürst-en, the princes ; sls, raft, and Rohr, pipe, take the Umlaut.

(. Ter Ochse-11, of the oxen; der First-en, of the princes ;

D. Den Odyse-n, to, for the oxen; den Fürst-en, to, for the princes; New Declension,

A. Die Ddysc-n, the oxen: tie Fürst-en, the princes. Rule 5. Masculine nouns of the New Declension which end in s or unaccented el, er, ar, add n in the oblique cases of the sin. CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT TENSE OF „haben" AND vsein" gular, and retain this form in all cases of the plural, as :- Der Knibe, the boy; tes Knaben, die Anaben. Der Ungar, the Hungarian; Wir haben, wo have;

wir sind, we are ; te lingurn, tie Ungarn. Der Baier, the Bavarian ; tes Baiern, tie Ihr ($ 57. 6) habt, you have; ihr seit, you are; Baiern. Herr has Herrn in the oblique cases of the singular, and Sie haben, they have; sie sind, they are. baren in all cases of the plural. There are some words ending

VOCABULARY. in ar which take en: e.g., N. Der Barbar, the barbarian ; V. Des Badaren; Plural, Tie Barbaren.

Aufgabe, f. exercise. Kanzler,m.chancellor. Pre'tiger, m. preacher. Rule 6. Masculine nouns of other terminations add en, as :

Baum, m. tree. Kirme, f. church. Ruite, f. rat. On Hraf, the count; to Grafen, die Grafen. Der Bär, the bear; Beite, both.

König, m. king. Ne'genschirm, m. um. te Bären, tie Bären. Der Ochs. the ox; tes Odysen, die Odysen.

Birne, f. pear.
Lang, adj. long.

brella. Rule 7. Feminine nouns ending in c, d, er, form the plural Blatt

, n. leaf. Lästig, adj. burden. Reichthum, m. wealth,

some. by adding n, as :-Narbe, scar ; Narben. Gabel, fork; Gabeln. Denn, for, because.

riches. heter, pen; Fetern.

Chrlich, adj. honest; Lieblich, adj. lovel 7. Reinlich, adj. neat, Rule 8. Feminine nouns of other terminations add en, as :

honestly, adv. Liebling, m. darling, cleanly.

favourite. štau, woman; Frauen. Uhr, watch; Uhren. Nouns terminating Fin'gerhut, m.thimble.

Reiterei', f. cavalry. , in" (which formerly used to be spelt , inn“) double the n in Freure f. joy, delight. Löffel, m. spoon. Schmadhaft, adj. pathe plural, before they take, en," as :

latable. - Die Freundin. Plural, Die Fußvolf, n. infantry. Louise, f. Louisa. greant innen. (See § XIV. 1.)

Gabel, f. fork. Maler, m. painter. Son'nenschirm, m. paRule 9. Nouns which in the nominative plural end in 11,

ast, m. guest. Malerei, f. (art of) rasol. have all cases alike; those of other terminations add n in the Gelb, adj. yellow. painting.

Stolz, adj. proud, dative, and have all other cases alike.

Gemål're, n. painting, Marftfrau, f. market- haughty. Note.-The masculine nouns Ahn, ancestor; Dorn, thorn;


Tochter, f. daughter. Kluter, spangle; Forit, forest; Wau, province; Gevatter, godfather; Bleich, like, equal. Messerschmied, m. cut- Unwohl, adj. and adv.


unwell. Kerber laurel; Mait, mast; Nachbar, neighbour; Pfau, peacock; Hochy

, adj. high (preSee, lake ; Srorn, spur; Staat, state ; Stachel, sting; Strahı, ray;

dicate form). Musīt'lehrer, Volf, n. people, Strauj. ostrich; Better, cousin ; Unterthan, subject; Zierator

Hoher, hobe, hobes, high teacher.

Zu (pr.), to. Zietatb, ornament; and the neuters, Auge, eyo; Bett, bed; Ente,

(attributive form). Nach'barin, f. neigh. Zu (adv.), too.

bour. end ; emb, shirt ; and Ohr, ear, form the singular according to Kanzel, f. pulpit. the Old, and the plural according to the New Declension. Hemd

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. and Bett have also the forms Heinber and Bette; the masculine

Mistakes are unavoidable. Domus geld, rock ; friere, peace ; Funfe, spark ; Gcranke, thought; Fehler sind unvermeitlich. Gaube, faith ; Hause

, heap; Name, name; Saame, seed; Share, Sie suchen auf ten Schiffen itre They seek upon the ships of u try; Wille, will; follow the New Declension, and also take s

Feint es Såt'tigung ihrer Rache their enemy gratification in the genitive singular, as :--Der Felb, des Felsene, dem Felien.

und ihres Hungere.

(satiation) of their rage and They, however, often end in the nominative singular in en, and

of their hunger. are regularly inflected according to the Old Declension, as :

Dieses schöne Geichent ist von mei. This beautiful present is from Ta gelient; ter Fricten, . A few examples will explain the former

ner Schwester. part of this note :

Dieses Şaus, tiele Wiesen, und jene This house, these meadows,

Wein'gărten sind tas Eigenthum and those vineyards are the Sing. N. Der Dorn. V. Des Dornes. Plur. Die Durnen (also

eines reiden Kaufmannes.

property of a rich merchant Dörner.) N. Der Stadhel. . Des Stachels. Die Stacheln.


1. Diese neuen Tische sind groß. 2. Die weißen Hüte sind schön. 3. Tee Schmerz the pain, forms the genitive, and tad Herz, the

4. Haben Sie silberne over goltene Meiler heart, the genitive and dative singular, in the same way, and Diese Gabeln sind von Silber.

und Löffel? 5. Wir haben silberne. 6. Die guten Knaben haben schöne both form the plural according to the New Declension.

Pirnen. 7. Fleißige Schüler haben lange Aufgaben. 8. Diese alten Sol OLD DECLENSION OF THE ADJECTIVE, PLURAL. (See Sect. XIV.) taten haben alte Bücher. ' 9. Der Messerschmied hat schöne neue Messer. N. Gut-c (Wein-e), good (wines).

10. Dic Freuten dieses Mannes find seine lieblichen Kinder. 11. Die 6. Jut-cr (Weine), of good (wines).

Kanzeln in ticsen Kirchen sind hoch. 12. Die Nichten der alten Dame find D. Buz-en (Wein-en), to good (wines).

fleißig. 13. Die Märchen tes Predigers sind gute Kinder. 14. Die Hola A. Gut-e (Wcin-e), good (wines).

lanter sind reinlich und chrlich. 15. Diese Marktfrau hat die großen, reifen

Birnen tes Bauers. 16. Die großen, reife! Birnen dieser Marttfrau sind DECLENSION OF THE ARTICLE AND ADJECTIVE IN THE PLURAL.

fatmadbaft. 17. Hat diese Dame den Fingerhut Ihrer guten Freundin ? N. Tie guten (gut-e), the good (hats).

18. Nein, fie hat den Fingerhut Ihres guten Freundes. 19. Hat Fräulein G. Der guten (Hüt-e), of the good (hats).

Louise den neuen Sonnenshirm Ihrer guten Mutter? 20. Nein, sie hat D. Den guten (Hut-en), to the good (hats).

ten Regenschirm Ihres guten Bruders. 21. Şat die fleine Tochter dieser a. Die guten (Hüt-e), the good (hats).

Dame einen Musiflehrer? 22. Nein, denn sie ist noch zu jung; aber ihre DECLENSION OF A POSSESSIVE PRONOUN AND AN ADJECTIVE

Schwester hat nicht nur einen Musiklehrer, sontern auch einen Lehrer der
Malerei. 23. Wer bat tie Bücher Ihres Bruters ? 24. Dic Sdwester

seiner Freundin bat tie Wucher. 25. Gat tie Tochter Ihres alten Nach. N. Meine guten (Nigel), my good (nails).

bars tie geltene Uhr meiner jungen Freunrin? 26. Nein, sic hat die fil. V. Meiner guten (Nägel), of my good (nails).

rerne Uhr ihrer Nachbarin. 27. Die Blätter dieser Bäume sind gelb, aber Meinen guten (Nigel-1), to my good (nails).

ihr Obst ist reif und gut. 28. Die Ratten sind lästige Gäste. 29. Dieser 1. Meine guten (Nigel), my good (nails).

alte Kaufmann hat große Reichthümer. 30. Diese Reiterei und jenes When several consecutive adjectives precede and qualify the Jujvelt sind beite gleich gut. 31. Der ficine Sohn des Kanzlers ist der same donn, they must, in termination, be all alike, as :--Gr hat Liebling des Königs. 32. Diese Freundin des Malers hat sehr schöne gutes, jeines, blaues Tuch. Er hat das gute, feine, blaue Tuch.

Sie haben | Gemilte.

my sister.



cision which were fatal to success in his career as a tyrant.

There were also stronger men opposed to him than resisted CHARLES 1. WHEN THE COMMONS CRIED “PRIVILEGE."

Henry VIII. The luckless king had come in evil times for THE 4th of January, 1641-2, was one of the most momentous him; but the people of England reaped the benefit of his misdays for England that ever dawned. Westminster Hall, which fortunes, and won many a fair privilege, which they left “ as a had been the scene of. so many an important national drama, rich legacy unto their issue.” and which was yet to be the scene of many more, was the

Before Charles had been three years upon the throne, the place in which the events that made this day momentous Commons, who had during that time suffered very_greatly in were enacted. The coronation and the fall of kings, the trial several particulars, presented for his signature the Petition of and condemnation of great subjects, the meeting of the first Right, a statute which was not intended to declare, as it did not Parliament, the concession of great national boons, those walls declare, any new privilege, but merely set forth—for the purpose had witnessed. The occasion about to be mentioned was, if of having them confirmed—some rights which had been invaded inferior to these in point of pomp and circumstance, second to but of which the origin was as old as Magna Charta. The none of them in importance. The 4th of January, 1641, was petition contained but four demands, which the king was the day on which the great question was practically tried, required to grant, viz. :whether the King of England should or should not rule without 1. That no money should be levied in future, under any prethe aid of his Parliament. In various forms, more or less out tence whatever, by virtue of the king's prerogative. rageous, the question had been submitted before. Henry VIII. 2. That the committal to prison of Mr. Hampden and four tried it, and so, with less pertinacity, did Elizabeth, and the others for refusing to pay an unlawful impost, should be Parliament had withstood them. It was hardly likely that recognised as illegal. what the men of 1530 and the men of 1601 had resisted,

That soldiers should not be billeted on private persons. against the influence and power of the great Tudors, their 4. That no man should henceforth be tried by martial law. descendants would accept in 1641 from the hands of Charles The petition was presented in 1628. Charles tried every expeStuart.

dient, every shift and turn, in the hope of avoiding the necessity During the reign of James 1.—1603 to 1625—the House of of complying with it. When at length compelled to give some Commons had successfully striven to curb the royal power. answer, he gave a most unusual and evasive one, which clearly Popular rights which had long lain dormant, and were likely to showed his intention to ride rough-shod over the Act at the rust for want of use, had been revived, not without opposition. first opportunity. It was only on the peremptory refusal of James I., the “ British Solomon," or, as he was called by a wise the Commons to accept his qualified assent, and after much man of his own day, “ the wisest fool in Europe," clung with pressure had been brought to bear, that he agreed to give the the tenacity of a leech to those attributes of royalty which a royal assent in the usual way: "Soit droit faist comme est small-hearted man would most value, and which were not the désiré." (Let right be done as prayed.) less annoying because they were so petty. Not all petty,

Scarcely was the ink of his signature dry ere the king set though ; some of the claims which the Commons disallowed about to evade the petition. He levied fresh taxes under new were important enough. They re-established on the firmest names; he imprisoned six members of Parliament for their possible basis the principle, that the king has no right to levy, conduct in the House; with the help of the Earl of Strafford, under any pretence whatever, a tax upon his subjects, without he attempted to govern the kingdom without a Parliament, and the consent of Parliament; they procured the abolition of an with the help of Archbishop Laud, to govern despotically the enormous abuse of the power to grant monopolies or patents ; Church. Sentences the most severe and cruel were procured in they asserted, in the most solemn manner, the inviolability of the Star Chamber against those who resisted the Government, the persons of members of Parliament, unless in cases of felony; and in the High Commission Court against those who offended and they revived the power which, Hallam says, “had lain like in matters ecclesiastical. So great was the oppression, both a sword in the scabbard,” unused since the reign of Henry VI., | in Church and State, that many, unable any longer to endure a period of 175 years, tó impeach the king's ministers for bad it, sailed across the Atlantic, to seek in the New World & conduct. They had impeached Lord Bacon and Lord Middlesex home and a soil in which freedom might Aourish. Then came for their misdemeanours in office, and these noblemen, as in all honourless wars, undertaken against the wish, and in favour of cases where the House of Commons is the accuser, were tried the enemies, of the nation; then came the troubles in Scotland, by the House of Lords. They were heavily punished; but the which quickly threw off the yoke Charles tried to lay upon effect of their punishment was salutary beyond the cases imme- it; there were the disputes respecting the king's favourite, diately concerned. Ministers feared the new edge of the old Buckingham ; there were the trials and executions of Strafford weapon of the Commons, and were cautious beyond what they and Archbishop Laud; the Irish rebellion; the angry reception had been; and so the arm of the king was paralysed down quite of the Grand Remonstrance ; and finally, there was the attempt half its length. Some ministers there were in the next reign, to arrest the five members of the House of Commons. that of Charles I., who neglected the warning, or thought them. This last was the drop that filled the bucket, and made it selves able to despise it, and they fell like the Earl of Strafford overflow. Charios, indignant at the speech and behaviour of and like Laud, whose fall brought the king's head also to the Lord Kimbolton (son of the Earl of Manchester), and five block.

members of the Lower House (Sir Arthur Hazelrig, Messrs. Having done so much, the Parliament-many of the leading Hollis, Hampden, Pym, and Strode), during the recent differspirits in James's Parliaments sat in the Parliaments of Charles I. ences between the king and the Parliament, in an evil hour -was not disposed, certainly, to recede. On the contrary, it listened to the advice of Henrietta, his queen, and to the advice was bent on yet further restraining the royal power, by putting of Lord Digby and the courtiers. They urged him to show checks on the Court of Star Chamber (än irregular tribunal, himself a king, advised him that no private gentleman would acting above and without the law of the land, and of late ycars suffer himself to be addressed as he had been by the accused, much abused) and High Commission (an equally irregular and and recommended the arrest of the members on a charge of illegal tribunal for ecclesiastical causes), by all the constitutional high treason. means in their power. Unfortunately, the king was as much Orders were accordingly given, on 3rd of January, 1641, for the resolved to win conquests for the royal prerogative as the arrest of the persons named. Their houses were occupied, their Commons were to win them from it. Without the ability, with studies sealed up, and their papers seized. A pursuivant went out the brutality of Henry VIII., before which many obstacles down to the House of Commons, and, in the king's name, dowent down, Charles I. had all that monarch's greed of power, manded the surrender of the accused. He was, however, sent and even more exalted notions of the nature of the royal back without any definite answer; the House voted that what dignity. He rested his claims on the so-called “right divine had been done by the royal officers was a breach of the privilege of kings,” to govern rightly or wrongly, according to their of Parliament; and the king, angry at the non-compliance with conscience, which had to give account to the King of kings, his demand, resolved to go next day in person to the House, and but under no circumstances to the people committed to its himself arrest the accused men. rare. He lacked the ferocity which was half the battle to Mr. Isaac D'Israeli says, “ When Charles went down to the "bluff King Hal,” and, linked with a certain amount of cruelty House to seize on the five leading members of the Opposition, which he had in common with him, wore a timidity and inde. the queen could not restrain her lively temper, and impatiently

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babbled the plot, so that one of the ladies in attendance dis- The Speaker of the House, Lenthal, had been instructed to patched a hasty note to the parties, who, as the king entered sit still, with the mace before him; but when the king entered the House, had just time to leave it. The lady in question and the whole House rose and uncovered their heads, Lenthal Fas the Countess of Carlisle, who was on intimate terms with also rose and stood in front of the chair. Charles removed his several of the accused. On receipt of her note, which was com. hat, and bowed to either side of the House as he came up. manicated to the House, a brief but excited debate took place. Mr. Speaker, I must for a time make bold with your chair," Some were for directing the accused to absent themselves, hoping he said, as he approached Lenthal, who made way for him, thereby to avoid an unseemly quarrel; others were inclined to though the king did not sit down in the chair, but stood on have them remain, and to make common cause with them in the step of it. cade of any violence being offered. While the debate was yet A deep silence reigned in the House, till the king, who had going on, the gentlemen most concerned being themselves un. been occupied in looking round for the five members, said, decided as to the best course to adopt, a friend of Mr. Fiennes, breaking in upon the silence, “ Gentlemen, I am sorry for this

member, came hurriedly, and told him that the king had occasion of coming unto you. Yesterday I sent a sergeant-atalready left Whitehall, at the head of 200 armed men, and was arms upon a very important occasion, to apprehend some that, coming in the direction of the House. There was no time for by my command, were accused of high treason; whereunto I further talk. Action must be taken forth with. A motion was did expect obedience, and not a message. And I must declare harriedly passed, giving leave to the five members to absent unto you here, that albeit no king that ever was in England themselves, and they quitted the House a few seconds only shall be more careful of your privileges, to maintain them to before the King entered it.

the uttermost of his power, than I shall be, yet you must know Up Westminster Hall—the place which was in a few years that in cases of treason no person hath a privilege. And thereto witness his trial and condemnation-King Charles walked, fore I am come to know if any of these persons that were followed by his ordinary retinue, and a force of soldiers variously accused are here.” estimated at two, three, and even five hundred men. “It struck No one answered. Charles, after a pause, made a few more euch a fear and terrour into all those that kept shops in the remarks, and then asked specifically for each of the accused. said Hall, or near the gate thereof, as they instantly shut up No one informing him, he turned to Speaker Lenthal, requiring their shops, looking for nothing but bloodshed and desolation" to be told; but Lenthal, kneeling, humbly desired to be excused, O wrote an eye-witness of the affair. Arrived in the Hall, saying: “I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this the armed men formed a lane, stretching down the whole length place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I of it; the king passed along, and going up the staircase out of am kero; and I humbly beg ynur Majesty's pardon that I cannot the Hall went into the Commons House, “ where never king give any other answer than this to what your Majesty is pleased Fas (as they say) but once King Henry the Eighth.”

to demand of me." Attended only by his nephew Rupert, the son of the Elector Baffled by the silence, and by the extreme courtesy evinced Palatine of the Rhine, the king entered the House, the door of by the attitude of the House, the king went on to make some which, however, was kept open ; and throngh the open door were further remarks, with difficulty concealing, in the midst of his to be seen officers and soldiers armed with swords and pistols, excitement, the natural infirmity of his speech. Not seeing shile the Earl of Rosborough and a Captain Hide stood within those for whom he sought, he said, “Well, since I see all my the door, and leaned upon it.

| birds are flown, I do expect from you that you will send them

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unto me as soon as they return hither.

I will trouble READING AND ELOCUTION.-IV. you no more, but tell you I do expect, as soon as they come to the House, you will send them to me; otherwise, I must take

PUNCTUATION (continued). my own course to find them."

V. THE SEMICOLON. With the same show of respect they had shown him when he came in, the assembled members waited on him as he again

; passed down their ranks. Bareheaded and in silence, they 33. The Semicolon is formed by a period placed above a comma. allowed him to get as far as the door ; but ere that had closed

34. When you come to a semicolon in reading, you must in upon him low mutterings of anger were raised, and the cry of general make a pause twice as long as you wouid make at a “ Privilege! Privilege!” mingled ominously with the conversa

comma. tion in which the king told his friends in the Hall of the result

35. Sometimes you must use the falling inflection of the voice of his errand.

when you come to a semicolon, and sometimes you must keep The five members were not arrested, though the king spared your voice suspended, as directed in the case of the comma. no pains to take them. By all means in his power he tried to Whatever may be the length of the pause, let it be a total cesget hold of them-by warrants, by proclamations, by personal sation of the voice. application. No one would betray them; and it having been

Examples. resolved to restore them to their seats in the Commons' House,

That God whom you see me daily worship ; whom I daily call upon the king feared the temper of which this resolution was the sign, and within a week of his foolish visit to Westminster to

to bless both you and me, and all mankind; whose wondrous acts

are recorded in those Scriptures which you constantly read; that arrest the members he was a fugitive from London, deeming God who created the heaven and the earth is your Father and himself not safe from the violence his actions had aroused.

Friend. By his recent conduct, no more than consistent with his My son, as you have been used to look to me in all your actions, former conduct, he had thrown down a challenge to the nation. and have been afraid to do anything unless you first knew my will; The House of Commons took it up. Mr. Forster well

says: so let it now be a rule of your life to look up to God in all your “It had become clear that the attempt upon the members could actions. not be defeated, without a complete overthrow of the power of

If I have seen any perish for want of clothing, or any poor without the king. He could not remain at Whitehall if they returned coveriug; if his loins have not blessed me, and if he were not warmed to Westminster. Charles raised the issue, the Commons accepted the fatherless, when I saw my help in the gate ; then let mins

with the fleece of my sheep; if I have lifted up my hand against it, and so began our Great Civil War.”

arm fall from my shoulder-blade, and mine arm be broken from the


The stranger did not lodge in the street; but I opened my doors to

the traveller. Charles I. was the second son of James I., by his Queen, Anne If my land cry against me, or the furrows thereof complain; if I of Denmark. He was the twenty-fifth sovereign of England have eaten the fruits thereof without money, or have caused the after the Norman Conquest, and the second of the Stuart owners thereof to lose their life; let thistles grow instead of wheat, dynasty.

and cockles instead of barley.

When the fair moon, refulgent lamp of night, o'er heaven's clear Born at Dunfermline Nov. 19, 1600 | Bat, of Newbury (1) Sept. 30, 1643 Began to Reign .

azure spreads her sacred light; wheu not a breath disturbs the deep . Mar, 27, 1625 Bat. of Cropredy Br. June 6, 1644

serene, and not a cloud o'ercasts the solemn scene; around her throna Petition of Right presented . 1628 Bat. of Marston Moor July 2, 1644 Persecution of the Puritans. 1633 Bat. of Newbury (2) Oct. 27, 164

the vivid planets roll, and stars uonumbered gild the glowing pole; Refusal of Hampden to pay

o'er the dark trees a yellower verdure shed, and tip with silver Montrose raises forces for ship-money

every mountain's head; then shine the vales, the rocks in prospect 1634 the King in Scotland Hampden prosecuted

rise, a flood of glory bursts from all the skies; the conscious 1636 Execution of Archbishop Scotch Covenant against Epis

Jan. 10, 1645 swains, rejoicing in the sight, eye the blue vault, and bless the useful

light. 1638 Conference at Uxbridge copacy

16 15

When the battle was ended, the stranger disappeared ; and no per. The “Long Parliament" sum- Battle of Naseby . June 14, 1615

son knew whence he had come, nor whither he had gone. moned

1610 Charles I. retires to Scot. Impeachment of Laud and

The relief was so timely, so sudden, so unexpected, and so provi. land


dential; the appearance and the retreat of him who furnished it were Strafford

1640 Betrayed to the Parliament Execution of Strafford .

so unaccountable; his person was so dignified and commanding; 1611 by the Scotch , Jan. 30, 1647

his resolution so superior, and his interference so decisive, that Impeachment of the Five Imprisoned at Carisbrook Members demanded by

the inhabitants believed him to be an angel, sent by Heaven for their Castle

167 Charles. 1642 Cromwell, by the aid of the

preservation. The " Troubles" commence 1612 army,


36. Sometimes you must use the falling inflection of the voice Royal Standard raised at Not

power, and controls the when you come to a semicolon, in reading. tingham. Aug. 25, 1612 Parliament.

1648 Battle of Worcester Sept. 23, 1042 The King brought to White

Examples. Battle of Edge Hill Oct. 23, 1642 hall


Let your dress be sober, clean, and modest; not to set off the beauty Bat. of Stratton Hts. May 16, 1643 His Trial for Treason com- of your person, but to declare the sobriety of your mind; that your Death of Hampden June 19, 1613

Jan, 20, 1619 outward garb may resemble the inward plainness and simplicity of Battle of Lansdown July 5, 1643 Beheaded at Whitehall Jan. 30, 1619


In meat and drink, observe the rules of Christian temperance and

sobriety; consider your body only as the servant aud minister of your Denmark, Kings of. John II. (some.

[This prince assumed soul; and only so nourish it, as it may best perform an humble and Christian IV. 1583 times styled the leadership of the obedient service.

[This prince was for Casimir V.) 1649 Protestant League in Condescend to all the weaknesses and infirmities of your fellow. many years the head of Portugal, Kings of. 1630, and fell at Lutzen. creatures; cover their frailties; love their excellences ; encouraga the Protestant League John IV.

1610 Interregnum . 1632-3 their virtues; relieve their wants; rejoice in their prosperity; comagainst Ferdinand II. (Portugal was Christina III. 1633 / passionate their distress ; receive their friendship; overlook their of Germany.]

nessed to Spain from Turkey, Sultans of. unkindness; forgive their malice; be a servant of servants; and Frederick III. 1580 to 1610.]

Mustapha I. (re- condescend to do the lowest offices for the lowest of mankind.
France, Kings of.
Rome, Popes of. stored)

1622 Struck with the sight of so fine a tree, he nastened to his own,
Louis XIII. 1610 Urban VIII. . 1623 Amurath IV. 1623 hoping to find as large a crop upon it; but, to his great surprise, he
Louis XIV.
Innocent X. . 164 Ibrahim

1610 saw scarcely anything, except branches, covered with moss, and a few Germany, Emperors of. Russia, Czars of. Mahomet IV. 1619 yellow leaves. Ferdinand II. Michael Feodoro

United Provinces In sleep's serene oblivion laid, I've safely passed the silent night; Battle of Lutzen 1632 vitch

1613 of the Netherlands, again I see the breaking shade, again behold the morning light. Ferdinand III. 1637 Alexis

16 15 Stadtholders of. New-born, I bless the waking hour; once more, with awe, rejoice Close of the Thirty

Spain, Kings of. Frederick Henry 1625 to be; my conscious soul resumes her power, and soars, my guardian Years War 1618 Philip IV.. 1621 William II. 1667 God, to thee.

Poland, Kings of. Sueden, Sovereigr.s of. [This prince married That deeper shade shall break away; that deeper sleep shall leava Sigismund III. 1587 Gustavus Adol. Mary, eldest daughter of mine eyes; thy light shall give eternal day; thy love, the rapture of Ladislas IV.

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