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will assume the charcoal employed to be absolutely pure. We we should be if we were always puffing out charcoal dust with burn, then, an absolutely pure bit of charcoal in atmospheric air, every expiration! We do not expire a small quantity either, no and it totally disappears; nothing remains; not the smallest trace less than thirteen ounces of charcoal being evolved during of ashes; all is gone. What, then, has become of the charcoal ? twenty-four hours from each human individual.

Had not some This is not a chemical book, therefore we have not space to go provision been adopted for enabling carbon to be thus evolved into the matter in all its chemical relations. We must, there in a gaseous form, we should all have been blacker than fore, content ourselves by saying that the charcoal, by burning, chimney-sweeps. What a miserable state of things would this is converted into a gas termed the carbonic acid gas. This have been ! carbonic acid gas is quite invisible, therefore one might look for Respiration, then, is the chief function of leaves, but it is not it in vain ; but it has a smell and a taste, therefore we might be the only function; they also serve as evaporative organs, by conscious of its existence, even though we had no means of means of which the plant gets rid of excessive moisture; and in catching it. But we have such means. If this gas comes in this respect, again, they present a striking analogy to animal contact with lime, or potash, or soda, either of these substances lungs. Who amongst us is not aware that our breath contains lays hold of it, combines with it, or, if we may be pardoned the moisture ? expression, licks it up. Therefore, by setting a little quicklime

SECTION VII.-ON THE FORM AND MODIFICATIONS OF in places where carbonic acid gas exists, we may catch it just as readily as we can catch a mouse in a trap-ay, more readily,

LEAVES. because a mouse may at least choose whether he go into the Having described the general functions of leaves, we must now trap or stay out of it; but the carbonic acid gas has no such proceed to examine their forms, and to learn the terms by which choice; if it comes in contact with the trap of lime, in it must go those forms are designated, otherwise we should not be able to without fail. Now, what we want

describe a plant in such a manner to come at is this. Although a

that a person would understand a piece of charcoal when burnt goes

our description. As in many other away in an invisible form, it never

parts of Botany, the student will theless only makes a new acquaint

here encounter some long names; ance and puts on a mask. We can

they are very useful names, nevercatch it, can unmask it, and get the

theless, and require to be undercharcoal out of it once more.

stood. Carbonic acid gas is a poison, as,

In the first place, taking a general we dare say, most of our readers

review of the aspect of leaves, it know; hence the danger of sitting

will be evident to the reader that near a pan of burning charcoal.

their form is exceedingly varied, Proceeding with our chemical re

as is also their manner of attach. marks, we must now go on to say

ment to the stem, to say nothing of that combustion is far from being

such characteristics as softness, the only source of carbonic acid gas:

hardness, thickness, thinness, and thus it is given off during fermen.

so forth. As regards their attachtation, is given off from effervescent

ment to the vegetable, some leaves wines, such as champagne and

grow directly out of the stem, or, sparkling moselle, is given off from

in figurative language, may be said ginger beer and soda water, and,

to sit upon the stem. Such leaves what is far more to our purpose, is

are termed by botanists sessile, from given off from the lungs of animals

the Latin word sessum, a part of the by the act of respiration. Indeed,

verb sedeo, to sit. Others are at: the functions of animal digestion

tached to the parent stem by a little and respiration taken together may

stem of their own.

Now, this leaf. be considered as a sort of combus.

stem, or foot-stalk of a leaf, botation, and are actually termed com.

nists denominate a petiole, from the bustion by some authors. The simi.

Latin petiolus, a little foot, and larity is indeed striking, as a little

leaves thus supplied with a petiole contemplation will serve to demon.

are said to be petiolate.

Again, strate. Thus, if we throw a lump

some leaves are attached to the

THE ASH of coal into a fire-place, heat is

parent stem exactly opposite each given out, and gaseous matter

other, consequently they are said (chiefly carbonic acid) escapes. If we swallow a morsel of food, s from this circumstance to be opposite or opposed. Others are it is digested, heat is given out, and carbonic acid escapes. In alternately attached, from which circumstance the denomination the former case carbonic acid escapes by the chimney, in the alternate is given to them. All these characteristics are very latter case by the lungs. One chemical point yet remains to be important, not only in enabling a botanist to describe the conexplained before the student will be in a position to understand figuration of plants in the fewest possible words, but in the functions of a vegetable leaf. The carbonic acid, of which enabling him at the same time to separate plants into natural we have been speaking, is a gaseous compound of charcoal, groups and alliances. termed by chemists carbon and something; that something is Again, some leaves are single in themselves, as is the case oxygen, the vital principle of the air. Now, the bulk of with those of the apple-tree; whilst others are made up of vegetable bodies is made up of carbon, otherwise how could we several little leaflets, as we see, for example, in the ash. Hence get charcoal in the ordinary way? And this bulk, this carbon, arises the very natural distinction of leaves into simple and is got out of the air. Yes, the largest tree, whatever its size, is compound. for the most part formed of carbon, and all this carbon once The forms which leaves assume are so very numerous, that existed in the gaseous form. Philosophers have made calcu. botanists are accustomed to indicate them by the similarities lations, from which it appears that the total amount of carbonic which they manifest to natural objects. Some are like shields, acid thus floating about in the atmosphere amounts to the for which reason they are termed peltiform (Latin, pelta, & enormous quantity of many tons, and that tons of carbonic shield); others are like hearts, whence they are termed cordiform acid hover over each acre of ground, ready to give up its carbon or cordate (Latin, cor, cordis, a heart). Some resemble feathers, to vegetables which require this substance. Before quitting others are jagged like a saw, whence arise the denominations this subject, we must not forget to direct the reader's attention penniform (Latin, penna, a feather or wing), serrate or serra to the beautiful provision by means of which the amount of tiform (Latin, serra, a saw), and so forth; but we shall give in carbon necessary to be got rid

of from the animal economy is our next lesson dra ings of the chief varieties of leaves, from 20 evolved in the particular form of gas. Even supposing no inspection of which the various dames respectively applied to Positive injury to result, yet just think how dirty and begrimed them will be rendered more evident.

[graphic]

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY.-IV.

the cry of the partridge, and it be not repeated so often as to

let us try experiments on it, by turning the head this way and THE EAR.

that, it is very difficult to tell from whence the sound comes, A MAN who had been born blind, when asked what he supposed even to the extent of a whole quadrant of the horizon. Upon scarlet was like, replied, “Like the sound of a trumpet.” The this fact ventriloquism depends for its success. The idea of reply is startling, because it shows how dependent the mind is the direction of sound being inferential, and not much dependent upon the senses for its ideas. No one who could both see and upon the sense—being, in fact, owing to the operation of the hear would ever think of comparing sound with light, or tone mind, and not to that of the ear—the ventriloquist has only to with colour.

direct the mind where to expect the sound, and then to make a But though the sensations conveyed to the brain by the eye- sound of just such a pitch of intensity, and just such a tone, as nerve and the ear-nerve are so different as to be incomparable, the sound would have if it came from that quarter, to comthere is much resemblance between sound and light. They pletely impose on the ear of the listener as to the direction from obey the same laws. Sound can be absorbed, reflected, and which it comes. refracted at the surface of bodies, as we have seen light is ; But although the ear is at fault as regards direction, the and, moreover, it is probable that both consist of rapid vibra- accuracy of some of its other notifications is wonderful in the tions, or waves, succeeding one another at regular intervals, extreme. It can note not only the likeness and difference of like the enlarging circles which follow one another and break musical sounds, but of their harmonies when many are sounded upon the banks when a stone is thrown into the middle of a together, and a fine ear will detect an erring note when a still pond, and disturbs the glassy surface of the water.

thousand instruments are sounded. The recognition of slight

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed]

1. THE HUMAN EAR. II. SECTION SHOWING THE HOLLOW OF THE COCHLEA, III, MALLEUS. IV. INCUS. V. STAPES. Reference to Nos. in Fig. I.-1, pinda; 2, lobule; 3, tube ; 4, tympanic membrane ; 5, incus, or anvil ; 6, malleus, or hammer; 7, eustachiar

tube; 8, semi-circular canals ; 9, vestibule; 10, cochlea.-I., II., III., and IV. enlarged.

Though there are these points of similarity as to the essential | differences is truly wonderful when we consider that not only nature and qualities of light and sound, there are also great can the ear know when the same note is sounded by instruments differences. Light travels with a rapidity which, for all appre- of different kinds (though physicists are unable to tell us how ciable distances—that is, for all earthly objects—is instan. there can be any difference, the number of vibrations in a second taneous; while sound travels, relatively, very slowly, and, when being the same, and the medium identical), but very slight common air carries it, it goes only 1,093 feet during each second differences in the same kind of instruments, such as whether of time. Again, while the vibrations of light are so rapid that there is one per cent. more or less of a metal in an alloy of it is impossible to know them to be vibrations but by reasoningwhich an organ-pipe is made, or of which a bell is cast, are obupon its effects, the waves of sound may be often observed by served so shrewdly, that these matters have to be attended to the eye when they are propagated through, or originated from, with the nicest care. A violin must not only be of a certain a solid body, as when we see a cord or glass vessel respond to | shape, but the wood of which it is composed must be of a certain a musical note, or give out a sound when struck. Sound, too, age, to produce the best instrument; and these observed dif. is the vibration of the substances themselves—which substance ferences are carried to such a nicety that fiddles made in a Te can feel, or see, or know by means of other senses-while certain part of Germany, in a certain year, are considered the Sght is supposed to be the vibration of some fluid which is im. best, and will command almost fabulous sums. Yet all this ponderable, or, in other words, has no weight, and of which we depends upon what is called timbre, a word which gives a name mow nothing except by the eye.

to a something which is entirely dependent on the delicacy of The waves of sound, then, being coarser and more liable to our sense of hearing, but which has not received any other interference than the waves of light, it follows that the ear explanation. cannot be so good an indicator of the direction of sound as the Though we cannot directly connect these niceties of sense eye is of the direction of a luminous object. Indeed, the ear with the intricacies of complication in the organ of hearing, can of itself scarcely give us any idea of direction. If the sound these latter will be seen to be so numerous and peculiar when De short and sharp, like the piercing shrick of the bat, or even we describe the ear, that one is not surprised that much con:

on.

nected with sound is unexplained, because there are so many gullet behind the nose and mouth. Through this passage the structures connected with the organ which has been given us as cavity is kept supplied with renewed air at the same pressure the recipient and interpreter of sound, at the use of which we as the external air. The reader may be conscious of the existence can hardly guess.

of these passages to the ears from the throat by preventing the That which is usually called the ear is familiar to every one air from rushing out of the mouth and nose, while he forces it as the external semi-circular cartilage, closely invested with up from his lungs. The cavity of the drum will then be disskin, and ending below in a soft lobule, which is sometimes the tended with air; hearing will be less perfect, by the unnatural support of barbarous pendants. This structure, which, when tension of the membranes, and there is a slight singing in the well formed, has a beauty of its own that needs no supplement ear. With a little practice, air may be conveyed through the or advertisement, is but a remote appendage to the true ear. mouth to the drum, without entering the lungs, and thus gases Though it in some sort collects sound, and protects the orifice have been applied as remedies to diseases of the ear. But the which leads down towards, not to the true ear, it is non-essential, exclusion of these from the lungs is difficult, and cannot be relied and can be dispensed with without much inconvenience; so One of our greatest aurists, when pursuing his philan. that some of our poor ancestors, who found that they could not thropic and scientific investigations on the effect of chloroform retain both good external ears and good consciences, like and prussic acid applied thus, died, because he could not exclude William Prynne in the time of Charles I. and the Star Chamber, the lattor deadly poison from his lungs as he had supposed he suffered less real loss than might have been anticipated. could. The proper, or essential ear, consists of a chamber longer

The external gristly ear is called the pinna, and though flat than broad, communicating on its upper and outer side with tened as to its general surface, is somewhat folded into ridges three semi-circular canals, and at its front inner end with a and furrows, there being a rim round the outside and a channel cavity shaped like a snail-shell. within this, which deepens and widens as it runs first upward, The chamber is called the vestibule; this and the semi-cir. along the back part, then downward along the fore part to a chlar canals are called together the labyrinth; and the hollow, central crypt. From this crypt the passage becomes narrower like that of a snail-shell, the cochlea. They are all channelled as it runs forward and inward to the pit of the ear. Sound, no out of the substance of the skull-bone before named as the temn. doubt, is conveyed along this canal in the same direction as we poral. The part of this bone which lodges them juts inwards, have described its course. If the pinna were quite flat, sound so as to lie at the base of the brain, and is so strong and thick would rebound from it; but as it is so shaped, sound is caught as to be called the petrous or stony part of the bone. Accurately and reflected round the canal from point to point, as it is reflected resembling the bony labyrinth in shape, but a little smaller in round the Whispering Gallery of St. Paul's, and finally delivered its dimensions, so as to allow a little liquid to lie between it down the tube of the ear.

and the bone, is a membranous labyrinth. That part of the The tube is an inch and a half deep, and its innermost half membrane which is on the floor of the vestibule leaves its enters one of the bones of the head, called the temporal bone, proximity to the bone at the entrance of the cochlea, and forms and in this bone all the other parts of the ear are enclosed and a horizontal stage across the widest part of the spiral passage, protected. At the bottom of the tube is an oval membrane and so mounts round the three whorls of the spire, dividing it stretched across the passage, and barring the entrance to all into two parts ; so that, if we may imagine a small insect es. external objects. Behind this is a roundish, irregular cavity, ploring these regions, it could mount to the apex of the spire filled with air. This stretched fibrous membrane bounding the by either of two spiral staircases, the roof of the lower one being air cavity, naturally suggests the idea of a drum, shaped like a the floor of the upper. These circular staircases only commukettle-drum; and hence the cavity is called the tympanum, from nicate with one another at the point of the shell. The lower a Latin word meaning drum, and the parchment-like tissue the one at its foot communicates with the tympanum by the round membrane of the drum. It differs, however, from a kettle-drum hole, while the vestibule communicates with the chain of bones in that several orifices open into it, and it contains structures to by the oval hole. Hence, if our imaginary insect could gain be described presently.

access to the cochlea through the membrane of the round hole, On the further side of the drum is the true ear, completely it must first mount to the top of the lower staircase, and then encased in bone, except at two very small holes, which are closed descend all the way down the upper one, before it could explore with membrane. The larger and upper aperture is called the the labyrinth. oval hole, and the smaller and lower the round hole. From the All the cavities are filled with fluid, by whose agency the membrane of the tympanum to the membrane of the oval hole vibrations are conveyed along its walls; and in these walls

, stretches a chain of bones, whose shape is best seen in the en especially at certain parts, are distributed the nerve-fibres of graving. The outer one, next the parchment of the drum, is the nerve of hearing. It would seem, however, as though the called the hammer. It has three processes, or projections, two vibrations of the liquid are not enough to impress the nerve, of which are long; so that, rather than hammer, it might be and there are found small, hard structures wherever the nervecalled a woodcutter's beetle. One of these processes, called the threads are most thickly placed, and at two places in the floor handle, is attached to the centre of the membrane, which it of the vestibule are found collections of small, hard, marble makes tight when pulled inward by a small muscle, and lax stones, held in a mesh of fibres; so that, as the waves sweep when another muscle acts on it.

by in the liquid, these are made to strike and rebound against The former operation is probably the action which we uncon. the nerves. The spiral sheet of membrane which divides the sciously cause when we consciously listen. The head of the cochlea receives the nerves from a main nerve which runs up hammer is applied to another bone called the anvil (incus). It the central pillar, and it has in its substance fibrous bars, which has two processes, one for its suspension to the wall of the radiate outwards at regular intervals, like the key-notes of a tympanic cavity, and the other to connect it with the third or piano, and, like these, each is supposed to receive and transmit stirrup-bone (stapes). This bene is more like the article it is to the nerve at its root a separate note. Thus the spiral sheet named from than the others are, and the foot-part of the stirrup of the cochlea is supposed to be able to appreciate difference in is applied to the oval membrane, which it nearly covers. These tone, and the labyrinth differences in the amount of sound. bones can move a little in relation to one another, and their The nerves from all parts are collected into one bundle, but, as actions are limited by small muscles, but they usually act to is usual with nerves wherever they may be found, the strands gether as if in one piece, playing round an axis which runs remain distinct. through the heads of the hammer and anvil, so that when the To assist the reader in his conception of the ear, we may tympanic membrane is thrust in and out by vibration, the mem compare it to a house of business. The pinna is the house-front; brano of the oval hole is made to vibrate correspondingly. The the tube is the porch; the drum-membrane the front door round hole is open to the influence of sound conveyed through (closed); the drum is the hall; a few steps, the ossicles, lead the air of the tympanum; but whether this be its function, or to an office, round which are convenient counters, closets, and merely to allow the fluid of the internal ear to be more readily passages, at which clerks enter business transactions; while

, thrown into vibration

in the passage it fills—in other words, directly communicating with this large office, cognisant of all whether it be a hole for the entrance or exit

of vibrations-seems proceedings, but reserving to himself any special business, sita hard to tell.

the general manager, who has also a door direct to the hall; The foro-part of the drum cavity is connected with the throat whilst, at the back of the premises, telegraph wires run to the by a passage, which runs forward and downwards to open in the London agent.

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-IX.

Château, m., country house, villa. Paroisse, f., parish,
Chaumière, f., hut, cottage,

Pavé, m., pavement.
SECTION 1.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued).

Chaux, f., lime.

Pépinière, f., nursery of trecs. IV. NAME AND SOUND OF THE CONSONANTS.

Cheminée, f., chimney.

Persienne, f., blind, open shutters,

Cimetière, m., burying-ground, Plafond, m., ceiling, 50. F, f.- In the commencement and body of words, this letter

churchyard.

Planche, f., board. is usually pronounced as the letter f in the English word for. It Cloche, t., bell (large), church-bell, etc. Plancher, m., floor. is sometimes sounded also in the end of words. There are several Clocher, m., church-steeple. Poêle, m., stove. exceptions, however, which are best found in the French dic- Clochette, f., small bell.

Pompe, f., pump. tionary. In the French word neuf, which means nine, the f is cloitre, m., cloister.

Pont, m., bridge. silent when it precedes a word commencing with a consonant, Cour, f., yard, court.

Porte, f., door, gate. thus:-neuf lis, nine lilies, is pronounced as if printed neu lis.

Couvent, m., convent.

Poste, f., post, post-office. But the striking peculiarity of this letter consists in the fact Cuisine, f., kitchen.

Poutre, f., beam. that it receives the sound of the letter v, as in the English word Ecurie, t., stable.

Douane, f., custom-house.

Prairie, f., Pré, m., meadow. cov, before another word commencing with a vowel or h mute, Environs, m. pl., environs, neigh

[bourhood. Prison, f., prison.

Puits, m., well. and is joined with this word in pronunciation, as if it were its Escalier, m., stairs.

Quartier, m., quarter. first letter, namely:

Etage, m., story, floor,

Rampe (d'escalier), balustrade of a ai
FRENCH.
PRONUNCIATION,

ENGLISH.
Faubourg, m., suburb.

staircase. Neaf animaux Neuv animo

Nine animals.
Ferme, f., farm.

Rez-de-chaussée, m., ground floor,
Neuf enfans
Neuy enfan
Nino children.
Fontaine, f., fountain, well.

Sacristie, f., vestry.
Neuf hommes
Neuv omm
Nine mon.
Four, m., oven.

Salle, f., parlour, sitting-room.
Gouttière, f., gutter.

Salon, m., drawing-room, hall, 51. G, g.-Before the vowels a, 0, and u, and the conso- Grand chemin,

Serre, f., conservatory. Dants d, 1, 1, m, and rin the commencement of French words, g has Grand'route,

m., highway.

Serre-chaude, f., hot-house. the hard sound of the letter g in the English word got, namely:- Grange, f., barn,

Serrure, f., lock, FEXCH. PRONUN, ENGLISH. FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH,

Grenier, m., garret,

Sonnette, f., bell. Gåtaaa Gab-to A cake. Globe Glob Globe.

Haie, f., hedge.

Théâtre, m., theatre, Gosier Go-zeay Throat, Augment Og-manh Increase.

Hameau, m., hamlet.

Toit, m., roof. Aigu Ay-gu Acute. Grappo Grap Cluster.

Hôpital, m., hospital,

Tour, f., tower,
Magdeboarg Mag-d’boor Magdeburg.

Hôtel-de-ville, toron house, city house, Tuile, f., tile.
guildhall, city hali, town hall.

Verger, m.,

orchard, The g final of the word bourg, a small town, takes the sound of Meuble, m., piece of furniture. Verrou, m., bolt, the English k. This word is pronounced boork. Names of towns Meubles, m. pl., furniture,

Vestibule, m., hall, entry, ending in bourg drop the final g, that is, the g is silent, as :- Monnaie, f., mint,

Vigne, f., vignoble, m., vineyard. Augsbourg pronounced Ogz-boor.

Mortier, m., mortar.

Village, m., village.
Cobourg
Ko-boor, etc. etc.
Mur, m., muraille, f., wall,

Volet, m., windoro-shutter.
Palais, m., palace.

Voûte, f., vault,
In the following French words, the initial g has the sound of
the letter k in the English word keel, namely:-

7. MEUBLES. -FURNITURE.

Lit de plume, m., feather-bed.

Allumette, f., match.
Gangrène as if printed Kangrène.

Allumette chimique, f., friction- Lumière, f., light.
Gangrener
Kangrener.
match.

Lustre, m., sconce.
Gangrené
Kangrené.
Amadou, m., tinder.

Marchepied, m., footstool.
Gangreneu
Kangreneu.

Mouchettes, f. pl., srufers.

Armoire, f., cupboard.
Gangreneux
Kangreneux.
Baril, m., cask, barrel.

Mortier, m., mortar. No rule can be given for this peculiarity in pronunciation, Bassin, m., boul, wash-bori. Moutardier, m., mustard-pot. except the rule of custom. It is believed the above five words Bassinoire, f., warming-pan. Nappe, f., tablecloth are the only ones in the French language concerning which this Berceau, m., cradle.

Oreiller, m., pillou. peculiar pronunciation obtains.

Boite-à-fusil, f., tinder-box.

Panier, m., basket.

Paravent, m., screen. Before the vowels e, i, and w, the letter g has the soft sound Bougie, f., taper.

Bouilloire, f., kettle.

Peinture, f., painting, picture. of the letters zh, namely:

Briquet, m., fire-steel.

Pelle, f., shovel. FRENCH. PROXUX. ENGLISH FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. Cadre, m., frame.

Pierre à fusil, f., fint.
Ah-zhay Aged. Gigot Zhe-go Leg of mut. Candélabre, m., chandelier. Pincettes, f. pl., tongs.
Cuage Konh-zhay Holiday.

ton.
Casserole, f., saucepan.

Poêle, f., frying-pan.
Gilet Jeel-ay Waistcoat. Gymnase Zheem-nahiz Gymnasium. Cassette, f., box, casket.

Poivrière, f., pepper-box. G final, before a vowel or an h mute, takes the sound of the Chandelle, f., candle.

Pot, m., kettle.' English k, and is connected with the following word in pronun- Charbon de terre, m., pit-coal.

Charbon de bois, m.,

charcoal. Pupitre, m., desk.

Salière, f., salt-cellar. ciation, as if it belonged to that word, namely:

Chaudière, f., boiler.

Savon, m., soap.
Rang honorable as if printed Raunk onorabl.

Coffre, m., chest.

Seau, m., pail.
Sang et enu
Saunk et o.

Commode, f., chest of drawers. Serviette, f., napkin.
Sang humain
Sauk bumain.
Corbeille, f., basket,

Sofa, m., sofa.
Crible, m.,
sieve.

Souf
G final, before a word commencing with a consonant or an

Cruche, f., pitcher.

Soupière, f., soup-tureen. aspirated h, is in most French words silent, namely:

Cuvier, m., tub.

Sucrier, m., sugir-dish.
Rang noble is pronounced Ranh nobl'.

Drap, m.,
sheet.

Tableau, m., picture.
Double g has the sound of only a single g, except before the Entonnoir, m., funnel.

Ecumoire, f., skimmer.

Tablette, f., shelf.

Tapis, m., carpet. Towels e and i, in which case the first g is hard, like g in the Essuie-main, m., towel.

Théière, f., a tea-pot. English word go, and the second g has a soft sound represented Fer à repasser, m., iron.

Tire-bouchon, m., corkscrew, by the two letters ah, namely:

Fourgon, m., poker.

Tiroir, m., drawer.
Suggérer is pronounced Su-zhay-ray, etc. etc.

Foyer, m., hearth.

Traversin, m., bolster.
Lampe, f., lamp.

Ustensiles de cuisine, m. pl., kitchen

utensils, SECTION XIV.-LIST OF WORDS FOR EXERCISES IN

Lanterne, f., lantern.
COMPOSITION (continued).

bed.

Verre, m., glass. 6. LA VILLE, LA MAISON, ETC.- Town, HOUSE, ETC.

8. PLATS, ETC.-DISHES, ETC. Aatichanbre, f., antechamber. Brique, f., brick.

Bæuf, m., beef.

Mouton, m., mutton.
Ardoise, L., slate.
Capitale, f., capital city, metropolis. Bouilli, m., boiled beef, boiled meat.

Euf, m., eggs
Arsenal, m., arsenal.
Carillon, m., chime of bells.
Bouillor, m., broth.

Omelette m., omelet.
Eanc, m., bench, seat,
Caserne, f., barrack.
Confitures, f. pl., preserves.

Porc, m., pork.
Barnere, 1., gate.
Cave, f., cellar.
Côtelette, f., cutlet.

Rafraichissements, m. pl., refresh.
Eubbothéque, f., library.
Chambre, f., chamber, room.
Gâteau, mn., cake.

ments.
Bourg, m., borough, small town, Chambre à coucher, f., bedroom. Gigot de mouton, m., leg of mutton. Roti, m., roast meal
Bourse, L. exchange.
Chapelle, f., chapel.

Jambon, m.,
ham.

Saucisse, f., sausage.

m., bellous.

Lit, m.,

you have ?

Riz, m.,

Soupe, f., soup.
Veau, m., veal.

7. Before the word onze, the article le or la is not elided Soupe maigre, f., vegetable soup. Vermicelle, m., vermicelli,

[$ 146] :Tarte, f., tart. Volaille, f., fowl.

Nous avons le onze de Décembre, We have (it is) the eleventh of December. 9. LEGUMES, GRAIN, ETC.-VEGETABLES, GRAIN, ETC.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Ail, m. pl., aulx or aux, garlic. Millet, m., millet.
Asperge, f., asparagus.
Navet, m., turnip.

L'ouvrier a-t-il les outils que vous Has the workman the tools which
Avoine, f., oats.
Ognon, m., onion.

avez ? Betterave, beet. Orge, f., barley.

Les maisons que j'ai sont-elles aussi Are the housos which I have as good Blé, m., wheat. Oseille, f., sorrel.

bonnes que celles que vous avez ? as those which you have ! Carotte, f., carrot. Panais, m., parsnip.

Combien de francs avez-vous ? How many francs have you ? Céleri, m., celery. Persil, f., parsley.

Je n'ai que dix francs, mais mon I have only ten francs, but mu brother Champignon, m., mushroom. Plante, f., plant.

frère en a plus de vingt.

has more than twenty (of them). Chou, m., cabbage.

Poireau, m.,
loek,

Avons-nous le quinze du mois ? Is it (have we) the fifteenth day of
Choufleur, m., cauliflower,
Pois, m., pea.

the month : Concombre, m., cucumber. Racine, f., root.

Non, Monsieur, nous n'avons que No, Sir, it is (we have) only the Cresson, m., cress. Radis, m., turnip-radish.

le onze.

eleventh. Epinards, m. pl., spinage. Rave, f., radish,

Lequel de ces deux volumes avez- Which of those two volumes hare Fève, f., bean.

rice.
vous ?

you?
Grain, m.,
kernel.
Sange, f., sage.
J'ai l'un et l'autre.

I have both.
Herbe, f., herb.
Seigle, m., rye.

Avez-vous la première place ou la Have you the first or the second
Lentille, f., lentil.
Thym, m., thyme.

deuxième ?

place? Mais, m., maize. Truffe, f., truffle.

J'ai la première et mon frère a la I have the first, and my brother has deuxième,

the second, 10. FLEURS, ETC.-FLOWERS, ETC. Auricule, t., auricula. Ortie, f., nettle.

VOCABULARY. Chardon, m., thistle.

Pavot, m., poppy. Chèvre-feuille, m., honeysuckle. Pensée, f., forget-me-not.

Agjourd'hui, to-day. Février, m., February. Euvres, f., works. Pied d'alouette, m., larkspur. Giroflée, f., gillyflower.

Canelle, f., cinnamon. Franc, m., franc. Outil, m., lool. Jasmin, m., jessamine. Primevère, f., couslip.

Centime, m., centime, Histoire, l., history. Ouvrage, m., work, Lis, m., lily. Renoncule, f., ranunculus,

the hundredth part of Italien, m., Italian. Place, f., place.

Kilogramme, m., Marguerite, f., daisy.

a franc.

kilo. Quart, m., quarter. Rose, f., rose. Mauvaise herbe, f., weed. Tournesol, m., sunflower.

Combien, how much, grammo, about two Septembre, m., Sepe

how many. Myrte, m., myrtle.

tember, Tulipe, f., tulip.

pounds.

Mepuisier, m., joiner.
Cravate, f., cravat.

Volume, m., illet, m., pink.

volume, Violette, f., violet.

Demi, half.

Mousseline, l., muslin. SECTION XVIII.-THE RELATIVE PRONOUN,-CARDINAL

EXERCISE 31. AND ORDINAL NUMBERS, ETC. 1. The relative pronoun, que, whom, which, that, and the 1. Le cheval que vous avez est-il bon ? 2. Il est meillear conjunction que, that, are never omitted in French, and must que celui que vous avez et que celui de notre ami. 3. Combien be repeated before every verb depending on them ($ 109]. d'enfants avez-vous ? 4. Je n'en ai qu'un, mais l'Italien en a Les crayons que j'ai sont meilleurs The pencils (which) I have are better plus que moi. 5. Avons-nous le dix Septembre ? 6. Non, que ceux que vous avez,

than those (which) you have.

Monsieur, nous avons le neuf Février. 7. Avez-vous ma cravate 2. Ne before the verb, and que after it, are used in the sense

de soie ou ma cravate de mousseline? 8. J'ai l'uno et l'autre. of only, but.

9. Avez-vous huit kilogrammes de canelle ? 10. Non, Monsieur,

je n'en ai qu'un demi-kilogramme. 11. Combien de francs avezJe n'ai qu'un ami, I have but one friend,

vous, Monsieur ? 12. Je n'ai qu'un demi-franc, mais mon ami a 3. L'un et l'autre means both; les uns et les autres, these

un franc et demi. 13. Votre sæur a-t-ello vingt-cinq centimes ? and those, the latter and the former.

14. Oui, Monsieur, elle a un quart de franc. 15. N'avons-nous Vous avez l'un et l'autre,

You have both.

pas le premier Août? 16. Non, Monsieur, nous avons le six 4. CARDINAL AND ORDINAL NUMBERS ($ 22, 23].

Septembre. 17. Est-ce aujourd'hui le dix? 18. Non, Monsieur,

c'est le onze. 19. Votre frère a-t-il la première place ? 20. CARDINAL

ORDINAL.

Non, Monsieur, il a la dixième. 21. Votre menuisier a-t-il bean. Un, m., une, f., Omo, Premier, m, •e, f., First,

coup d'outils? 22. Oui, Monsieur, il en a beaucoup. 23. Cet Second, m., -e, f., Deux, Two.

} Second. Deuxième,

ouvrage a-t-il dix volumes ? 24. Non, Monsieur, il n'en a que Trois,

Three.
Troisième,

Third.

neuf. 25. J'ai le sixième volume des æuvres de Molière et le Quatre,

Four.
Quatrième,

Fourth. premier volume de “L'Histoire de France" de Michelet. Cing,

Five.
Cinquième,

Fifth.
Six,

Six.
Sixième,
Sixth,

EXERCISE 32.
Sept,

Seven,
Septième,

Seventh

1. Is that cinnamon good? 2. That cinnamon is better than Huit,

Eight.
Huitième,

Eighth.
Neuf,

yours and your brother's. (R. 1.) 3. What day of the month Nine. Neuvième,

Ninth, Dix,

twenty Dixième,

is it to-day? 4. It is the sixth. 5. Has your fathe Ten.

Tenth.
Onze,

Eleven.
Onzième,

Eleventh,

francs ? 6. No, Sir, he has only six francs fifty centimes. 7. Douze,

Twelve.
Douzième,

Twelfth.

How many volumes has your work? 8. It has many, it has Treize, Thirteon. Treizième,

Thirteenth. fifteen. 9. Has the joiner read (lu) the second volume of Miche"Quartorze, Fourteen, Quatorzième, Fourteenth. let's "History of France ?" 10. Yes, Sir, he has read the secord Quinze, Fifteen. Quinzième,

Fifteenth. volume (of it). 11. Has your friend Molière's works? 12. Ho Seize,

Sixteen.
Seizième,

Sixteenth.

has only two volumes of them. 13. Have you my cloth coat or Dix-sept, Seventeen, Dix-septième, Seventeenth.

my velvet coat? 14. We have both. 15. We have this and Dix-huit,

Eighteen. Dix-huitième, Eighteenth.
Diz-neuf,
Nineteen.

that. 16. How much cinnamon have you ? 17. We have two
Dix-neuvième, Nineteenth
Vingt,
Twenty. Vingtième,

Twentieth.

kiiogrammes. 18. How many centimes has the merchant? 19. 5. The cardinal numbers are used in French for the day of 21. I have neither the third nor the fourth, I have the tenth.

He has twenty-six. 20. Have you the third or the fourth place i the month, except the first, for which the ordinal number premier 22. Are you not ashamed to-day? 23. No, Sir, I am not is substituted :

ashamed, but I am afraid. 24. Have you a quarter of a frano? Le dix Août, le cinq Juillet, The tenth of August, the fifth of July. 25. No, Sir, but I have a half franc. 26. To it (have we) the Le premier du mois prochain, The first of next month.

sixth of July? 27. No, Sir, it is (we have) the fourth of March, 6. The verb avoir, to have, is used actively [8 26 (1)] for the 28. Has your uncle six children ? 29. No, Sir, he has only one. day of the month. The verb être may also be used :

30. Have you ten kilogrammes of meat ? 31. I have only five Quel jour du mois avons-nous ? What day of the month have we !

kilogrammes. 32. Is the butcher's meat good ? 33. It (elle) Nous avons lo vingt, We have the twentieth.

is not very good. 34. How many kilogrammes have you (of it) ? C'est aujourd'hui le dix, To-day is the tenth,

35. I have only two, but my brother has four.

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